Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.666
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764795

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with 100ppm sodium monensin or 0.15% of a blend of functional oils (cashew nut oil + castor oil) on the intestinal microbiota of broilers challenged with three different Eimeria spp. The challenge was accomplished by inoculating broiler chicks with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, and Eimeria maxima via oral gavage. A total of 864, day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly assigned to six treatments (eight pens/treatment; 18 broilers/pen) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of three additives (control, monensin or blend), with or without Eimeria challenge. Intestinal contents was collected at 28 days of age for microbiota analysis by sequencing 16s rRNA in V3 and V4 regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Taxonomy was assigned through the SILVA database version 132, using the QIIME 2 software version 2019.1. No treatment effects (p > 0.05) were observed in the microbial richness at the family level estimated by Chao1 and the biodiversity assessed by Simpson's index, except for Shannon's index (p < 0.05). The intestinal microbiota was dominated by members of the order Clostridiales and Lactobacillales, followed by the families Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, regardless of treatment. When the controls were compared, in the challenged control group there was an increase in Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae, and a decrease in Ruminococcaceae. Similar results were found for a challenged group that received monensin, while the blend partially mitigated this variation. Therefore, the blend alleviated the impact of coccidiosis challenge on the microbiome of broilers compared to monensin.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/dietoterapia , Anacardium/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/dietoterapia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ricinus/química
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3315-3326, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699938

RESUMO

Haemogregarina species are apicomplexan blood parasites infecting vertebrates such as fish, lizards, and turtles. Due to the high morphological similarity of the erythrocytic stages infecting host species, it has always been a challenge to identify the true diversity of these parasites. Therefore, taxonomic studies are presently based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. In Tunisia, two species of Haemogregarina have been reported within the freshwater turtle Mauremys leprosa (Geoemydidae) for more than 40 years. Since M. leprosa occurs in the same aquatic environments as Emys orbicularis (Emydidae) in Tunisia, our objectives were to assess parasite diversity and specificity on the basis of both morphological and molecular approaches. The turtles were surveyed and sampled across six aquatic areas of Tunisia. Among the 39 specimens of M. leprosa and seven of E. orbicularis that were trapped and investigated, the presence of haemogregarines was detected in the blood of turtles only at sites where leeches were observed. Three 18S variants were identified, which corresponded to three distinct Haemogregarina species, among which one was identified as Haemogregarina stepanowi. The two other species that were detected are likely new to science. Because we show the occurrence of more than one blood parasite species within a single host specimen, our study provides the first report of coinfection with molecularly distinct Haemogregarina spp.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coinfecção/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Água Doce/parasitologia , Tartarugas/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Sanguessugas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Tunísia/epidemiologia , Tartarugas/classificação
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2885-2895, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715344

RESUMO

Chicken coccidiosis is a protozoan parasitic disease that leads to considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, we used invasive Lactobacillus plantarum (L.P) expressing the FnBPA protein as a novel bacterial carrier for DNA delivery into epithelial cells to develop a live oral DNA vaccine. A fusion DNA vaccine co-expressing EtMIC2 and chicken IL-18 (chIL-18) was constructed and then delivered to the host by invasive L.P. Its efficacy against Eimeria tenella challenge was evaluated in chickens by examining the relative weight gain rate; caecal lesion score; OPG; anti-coccidial index (ACI); levels of EtMIC2 antibody, FnBPA, IL-4, IL-18, IFN-γ and SIgA; and proliferation ability and percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ splenocytes. The experimental results showed that chickens immunized with invasive L.P carrying the eukaryotic expression vector pValac-EtMIC2 (pValac-EtMIC2/pSIP409-FnBPA) had markedly improved immune protection against challenge compared with that of chickens immunized with non-invasive L.P (pValac-EtMIC2/pSIP409). However, invasive L.P co-expressing EtMIC2 with the chIL-18 vector exhibited the highest protection efficiency against E. tenella. These results indicate that invasive Lactobacillus-expressing FnBPA improved humoural and cellular immunity and enhanced resistance to E. tenella. The DNA vaccine delivered by invasive Lactobacillus provides a new concept and method for the prevention of E. tenella.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/metabolismo , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/genética , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Ganho de Peso
4.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 428-437, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603417

RESUMO

Commonly found in backyard and commercial poultry production, coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, presents a self-limiting intestinal infection based on the number of ingested oocysts. Heat stress (HS) is one of the major environmental stressors in poultry, predisposing broiler chickens to immunosuppression and rendering them susceptible to diseases. There are suggestions that HS reduces Eimeria oocyst shedding in chickens; however, the relationship between HS and coccidiosis is not well elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on viability, morphology, infectivity, and development of Eimeria tenella in vitro, and merozoite production and oocyst shedding in vivo. In vitro exposure of sporozoites to 55 C for at least 60 min reduced sporozoites viability as shown by morphological changes and rendering them unable to invade Mardin-Darbi bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Intracellular development of merozoites was significantly reduced by an increase in 2 C in the optimal temperature of incubation in vitro. Most importantly, the induction of HS in the live chickens caused significantly lower lesion scores, reduced merozoite production, and oocyst shedding, resulting in a much less severe disease outcome.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ceco/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria tenella/patogenicidade , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/complicações , Temperatura Alta , Merozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/fisiologia , Esporozoítos/fisiologia
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107945, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615133

RESUMO

Despite decades of investigation to clarify protective mechanisms of anticoccidial responses, one crucial field is neglected, that is, protective memory responses in primed birds. Protective memory immunity is critical for host resistance to reinfection and is the basis of modern vaccinology, especially in developing successful subunit vaccines. There are important differences between the immune responses induced by infections and antigens delivered either as killed, recombinant proteins or as live, replicating vector vaccines or as DNA vaccines. Animals immunized with these vaccines may fail to develop protective memory immunity, and is still naïve to Eimeria infection. This may explain why limited success is achieved in developing next-generation anticoccidial vaccines. In this review, we try to decipher the protective memory responses against Eimeria infection, assess immune responses elicited by various anticoccidial vaccine candidates, and propose possible approaches to develop rational vaccines that can induce a protective memory response to chicken coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Recidiva , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3023-3031, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725320

RESUMO

Hepatozoon canis is a hemoprotozoan organism that infects domestic and wild carnivores throughout much of Europe. The parasite is mainly transmitted through the ingestion of infected ticks containing mature oocysts. The aims of the present survey were to determine the prevalence of H. canis in hunting dogs living in Southern Italy and to assess potential infection risk factors. DNA extracted from whole blood samples, collected from 1433 apparently healthy dogs living in the Napoli, Avellino, and Salerno provinces of Campania region (Southern Italy), was tested by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to amplify H. canis. Furthermore, the investigated dog population was also screened by qPCR for the presence of Ehrlichia canis, a major tick-borne pathogen in Southern Italy, in order to assess possible co-infections. Two hundred dogs were H. canis PCR-positive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 14.0% (CI 12.2-15.9). Breed category (P < 0.0001), hair coat length (P = 0.015), and province of residence (P < 0.0001) represented significant risk factors for H. canis infection. The presence of H. canis DNA was also significantly associated with E. canis PCR positivity (P < 0.0001). Hunting dogs in Campania region (Southern Italy) are frequently exposed to H. canis, and the infection is potentially associated with close contact with wildlife. Further studies are needed to assess the pathogenic potential of H. canis, as well as the epidemiological relationships between hunting dogs and wild animal populations sharing the same habitats in Southern Italy.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/fisiologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520089

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 379 horses to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora spp. in Jordan using the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Five variables, namely locality (n=10), climatic zone (n=4), age group (n=3), gender, and breed were tested as risk factors for Neospora-immunoglobulin (Ig)G seropositivity at four cutoff titers (1:50, 1:200, 1:400, and 1:800) using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 122 (32%; 95% CI: 28, 37) sera samples had anti-Neospora-IgG at a cutoff titer of 1:50. Increased Neospora-IgG seropositivity was found in horses in three localities (Madaba, Zarka, and Petra) and was associated with the following variables: cool temperate climate; age >14 years; and female gender. Seropositivity was found among horses from Madaba at all cutoff titers, Zarka at titers >1:200, and Petra at titers <1:200. Cool temperate climate was associated with titers <1:400. Horses aged >14 years were found to be associated with seropositivity at titers ≥1:200. Female gender was associated with high seropositivity at >1:800.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107901, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525007

RESUMO

Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) has caused severe economic loss in chicken production, especially after the forbidden use of antibiotics in feed. Considering the drug resistant problem caused by misuse of chemoprophylaxis and live oocyst vaccines can affect the productivity of chickens, also it has the risk to reversion of virulence, the development of efficacious, convenient and safe vaccines is still deeply needed. In this study, the EtMic2 protein of E. tenella was anchored on the surface of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) NC8 strain. The newly constructed strain was then used to immunize chickens, followed by E. tenella challenge. The results demonstrated that the recombinant strain could provide efficient protection against E. tenella, shown by increased relative body weight gains, percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, humoral immune response and inflammatory cytokines. In addition, decreased cecum lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding were also observed during the experiment. In conclusion, this study proves the possibility to use L. plantarum as a vessel to deliver protective antigen to protect chickens against coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/imunologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Coccidiose/economia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Eimeria tenella/química , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-2/sangue , Intestinos/imunologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Vacinas Sintéticas
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2139-2147, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476061

RESUMO

Coccidian parasites of fish have received considerably less attention than their terrestrial counterparts, and within piscine hosts, most studies have focused on freshwater fish. The present study aimed to describe oocyst morphology, phylogenetic affinities, and the impacts of coccidian parasites infecting the internal organs of a commercially valuable marine fish, the blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), captured off the Portuguese coast. As part of the phylogenetic analysis, sequences from coccidians infecting the pout (Trisopterus luscus) and the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias) were included, and the oocyst morphology of the coccidians infecting the former was also reported. Results showed that the prevalence of coccidiosis in the blue whiting was very high (> 82%), occurring in all analyzed organs, despite being more abundant in the liver. A significant negative correlation was found between the abundance of the parasites in the liver and host condition index (p < 0.05), which indicates a negative effect on the fitness of this host. Phylogenetic analyses of the parasites found in all three species examined identified three different species of Goussia, closely related to Goussia clupearum. Adding to previous research, we propose the existence of a fourth group of Goussia, the clupearum type, able to infect multiple organs and phylogenetic related with G. clupearum.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeriidae/classificação , Eimeriidae/patogenicidade , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Gadiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeriidae/citologia , Eimeriidae/genética , Fígado/parasitologia , Oocistos/classificação , Oocistos/citologia , Oocistos/genética , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Portugal , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2563-2577, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548739

RESUMO

Besnoitia besnoiti is an important obligate intracellular parasite of cattle which primarily infects host endothelial cells of blood vessels during the acute phase of infection. Similar to the closely related parasite Toxoplasma gondii, B. besnoiti has fast proliferating properties leading to rapid host cell lysis within 24-30 h p.i. in vitro. Some apicomplexan parasites were demonstrated to modulate the host cellular cell cycle to successfully perform their intracellular development. As such, we recently demonstrated that T. gondii tachyzoites induce G2/M arrest accompanied by chromosome missegregation, cell spindle alteration, formation of supernumerary centrosomes, and cytokinesis impairment when infecting primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC). Here, we follow a comparative approach by using the same host endothelial cell system for B. besnoiti infections. The current data showed that-in terms of host cell cycle modulation-infections of BUVEC by B. besnoiti tachyzoites indeed differ significantly from those by T. gondii. As such, cyclin expression patterns demonstrated a significant upregulation of cyclin E1 in B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC, thereby indicating parasite-driven host cell stasis at G1-to-S phase transition. In line, the mitotic phase of host cell cycle was not influenced since alterations of chromosome segregation, mitotic spindle formation, and cytokinesis were not observed. In contrast to respective T. gondii-related data, we furthermore found a significant upregulation of histone H3 (S10) phosphorylation in B. besnoiti-infected BUVEC, thereby indicating enhanced chromosome condensation to occur in these cells. In line to altered G1/S-transition, we here additionally showed that subcellular abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a marker for G1 and S phase sub-stages, was affected by B. besnoiti since infected cells showed increased nuclear PCNA levels when compared with that of control cells.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular , Sarcocystidae/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/parasitologia
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2549-2561, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562065

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on host cell apoptosis in the early infection of Eimeria tenella. Chicken cecal epithelial cells were treated with apoptosis-inducer Actinomycin D (Act D) or PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002 and then infected with E. tenella. Results demonstrated that the E. tenella-infected group had less apoptosis 4-8 h after the infection and more apoptosis 12-20 h after the infection than the control group. At 4-20 h after the infection, the apoptotic/necrotic rate and the Caspase-3 activity in the Act D + E. tenella group were lower (P < 0.01) than those in the Act D-treated group. The p-Akt and NF-κB contents in the E. tenella-infected group were higher (P < 0.01) than those in the control group 4-12 h after the infection. However, the bad content and the Caspase-9/3 activity were lower (P < 0.05) in the E. tenella-infected group than in the control group. Compared with the E. tenella-infected group, the LY294002 + E. tenella group showed decreased p-Akt content and increased apoptotic/necrotic rate, bad content, NF-κB expression, membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP) openness, and Caspase-9/3 activity. Thus, the early development of E. tenella could inhibit host cell apoptosis by downregulating the Caspase-3 activity. Upregulating this activity promoted apoptosis. In addition, activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibited the apoptosis of E. tenella host cells in the early infection by reducing the expression of the bad content, limiting the MPTP opening, and decreasing the Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 activities.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/parasitologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 406-410, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579665

RESUMO

New World flying squirrels, Glaucomys spp., are nocturnal arboreal sciurid rodents that have been previously surveyed for coccidial parasites. To date, 4 species of Eimeria have been reported from 2 species of Glaucomys. Here we report 2 species of eimerians from southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) and the endemic Prince of Wales flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons). Oocysts of Eimeria dorneyi Levine and Ivens were found to be passing in the feces of 4 G. s. griseifrons from Alaska and a new species of Eimeria was present in feces from 6 G. volans from Arkansas. Oocysts of Eimeria hnidai n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall, measure 23.7 × 13.7 µm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.7; a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent but polar granule(s) are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal-elongate and measure 11.8 × 4.9 µm, L/W 2.2; Stieda body is present but sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of small indistinct granules along the edge or in the center of the sporocyst. This is the first coccidian reported from G. volans from Arkansas as well as the initial coccidian (E. dorneyi) reported from G. s. griseifrons from Alaska. We also provide a summation of the coccidia known from North American flying squirrels.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Sciuridae/parasitologia , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Arkansas/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2659-2666, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529297

RESUMO

Blood samples from 72 Ameiva ameiva lizards from Central Amazonian upland forests were collected, and thin smears of 40 (55.5%) animals were positive for gamonts of Hepatozoon with a mean level of intensity of infection of 14 parasites/2000 blood erythrocytes (0.73%). The gametocytes were found attached with host cells' nuclei, and their dimensions were 14.28 ± 1.05 µm in length and 4.50 ± 0.80 µm in width. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rRNA gene showed that the new sequences obtained from A. ameiva constitute a monophyletic sister clade to the Hepatozoon spp. from Brazilian snakes. Based on morphological features and new molecular data, we redescribe this hemogregarine as Hepatozoon ameivae. This study also provides the first molecular characterization of a Hepatozoon species from a Brazilian lizard.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Lagartos/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eritrócitos/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/citologia , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Carga Parasitária , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
14.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2679-2686, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588173

RESUMO

Rodents and other micromammals constitute important reservoirs of infectious diseases; their role in the life cycle of apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. still needs clarification. In the present study, we analyzed by PCR and Sanger sequencing methods the presence of specific parasite DNA within brain and heart tissues of 313 individuals of five synanthropic small mammal species (Apodemus sylvaticus, Mus spretus, M. musculus, Rattus rattus, and Crocidura russula) collected in Barcelona metropolitan area (NE Spain). In addition, PCR-RFLP and microsatellites were also used as tools for genotypic characterization of T. gondii and N. caninum, respectively. Specific DNA of T. gondii, N. caninum, and Sarcocystis spp. was detected in 0.3% (n = 1), 1.3% (n = 4), and 3.8% (n = 12) of the animals, respectively. No mixed infections were observed. Crocidura russula stood out as the main host for Sarcocystis spp. Toxoplasma gondii-specific DNA detected in a house rat was genetically characterized by PCR-RFLP, presenting type II and III alleles (SAG1 [II], SAG3 [II], GRA6 [II], c22-8 [III], Apico [III]). Also, unsuccessful DNA sequencing and microsatellite typing were attempted in N. caninum-positive samples, which suggested a lack of PCR specificity and open avenues to speculate the host competence of rodents for N. caninum. Likewise, Sarcocystis spp. identity was studied by alignment and phylogenetic analyses of cox1 and 28S rRNA sequences from the 14 positive samples. It resulted in at least three unknown organisms closely similar (95.7-100% cox1-sequence homology) to Sarcocystis pantherophisi from the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) (KU891603), suggesting together with 28S rRNA sequences analyses, three Sarcocystis sp. with a life cycle conformed by rodents as intermediate host (IH) and snakes as definitive hosts (DH) infecting the periurban micromammals surveyed. Prevalence figures found in this first survey carried out in Spain agree with other international studies focused on periurban areas. Further surveys should be conducted in farms and their surroundings in order to unravel the role of wild micromammals in the epidemiology of such protozoan parasites affecting our livestock, and therefore human population.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Sarcocystidae/genética , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Mamíferos/classificação , Encistamento de Parasitas , Filogenia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Sarcocystidae/classificação , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109120, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361525

RESUMO

The histological findings associated to Besnoitia besnoiti infection were exhaustively studied in target tissues from experimentally and chronically infected calves. Calves were inoculated with 106 bradyzoites via intravenous, subcutaneous and intradermal route. Visible pathognomonic sclera cysts were observed in all infected animals. Tissue cysts were more abundant and lesions were more frequent in calves inoculated via intradermal. The most parasitized tissues were skin, including scrotum (40.81% of positive samples), nostril and nasal turbinate. Tissue cysts were already fully developed as the average tissue cyst diameter was 181.20 µm. Microscopic lesions were mainly detected in skin samples, followed by reproductive and upper respiratory tracts. Mild lesions compatible with both acute (thrombus, oedema and inflammation) and chronic besnoitiosis (skin lesions, hyperkeratosis and dilated sweat glands) coexisted. Vascular damage and inflammation were more frequently observed in skin (including scrotum) followed by testicular parenchyma, epididymis and pampiniform plexus. Histological findings evidenced a subclinical chronic besnoitiosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doença Crônica , Coccidiose/patologia , Masculino
16.
Aust Vet J ; 98(8): 380-387, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to utilise wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a sentinel species to study levels of environmental contamination with N. caninum and T. gondii in South Australia, and to examine associations with rainfall, climate and land use. DESIGN: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an apicomplexan parasite, causes the clinical disease toxoplasmosis, which can affect sheep as well as humans and many other animals. Neosporosis, the clinical disease caused by closely related Neospora caninum (N. caninum), causes abortions in cattle, with large economic impacts to cattle industries. METHODS: Aliquots of wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) serum were obtained from twelve sites across South Australia over a period of eighteen years, with a total of 2114 samples. An in-house Modified Agglutination Test (MAT) was developed, and samples were screened for the specific antibodies against both T.gondii and N. caninum. RESULTS: Overall, 9.9% of samples screened for T. gondii tested positive and 6.1% of samples screened for N. caninum tested positive. There was no difference observed in seroprevalence of T.gondii specific antibodies between samples collected throughout summer, autumn, winter or spring. By contrast, a significantly higher (p=0.030) seroprevalence of N. caninum specific antibodies was observed in spring than any other season. T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies were discovered at sites across a broad area of South Australia, indicating these environments maybe infected with both parasites. CONCLUSION: Results provide evidence that suggests N. caninum oocysts may have different survival characteristics, such as varying tolerances to low relative humidity, than T. gondii oocysts.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal , Aborto Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Coelhos , Espécies Sentinelas , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Austrália do Sul
17.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1955-1968, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399722

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is a crucial parasitic disease of the poultry industry. As a result of the enormous global economic losses and the increased resistance to the conventional anticoccidial agents, there is a continuous need to find new anticoccidials. Here, the anticoccidial effect of the fluoroquinolone lomefloxacin versus diclazuril in experimentally infected broilers was tested for the treatment of Eimeria tenella infection. Ninety 14-day-old Cobb strain broiler chickens were allocated into five groups, each with 18 chicks. Group 1 (G1) was separated as an uninfected negative control and received no treatment; group 2 (G2), infected untreated (positive control); group 3 (G3), infected and treated with lomefloxacin at a dose rate of 100 ppm in drinking water; group 4 (G4), infected and treated with diclazuril at a dose rate of 2.5 ppm in drinking water; group 5 (G5), infected and treated with lomefloxacin at a dose rate of 100 ppm plus diclazuril at dose rate of 2.5 ppm in drinking water. Clinical signs, mortality rates, number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG), growth performance parameters (weight gain: WG and feed conversion ratio: FCR), lesion scoring, haematological and serum biochemical analyses, antioxidant biomarkers and histopathologic inspection of the caeca were used as evaluation criteria for the anticoccidial efficacy of both lomefloxacin and diclazuril. The findings herein showed that administration of lomefloxacin and/or diclazuril improved growth performance parameters (WG, FCR) and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced OPG, and diminished the severity of bloody diarrhoea and mortalities. Additionally, haematological indices and serum biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, uric acid, total proteins, albumin and globulin were improved. Finally, a significant elevation in the levels of the antioxidant biomarkers was observed in the chicks of G3, G4 and G5 as compared with those of G2.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria tenella , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ceco/patologia , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Fezes/parasitologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2257-2262, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458115

RESUMO

Bulls chronically affected by bovine besnoitiosis can suffer from sterility. There is limited information about the distribution of Besnoitia cysts and their associated lesions within the male genital organs. This work describes the gross and histological abnormalities in the genital organs of 6 bulls chronically infected with Besnoitia besnoiti, including both clinically (n = 4) and subclinically (n = 2) affected cases. Parasitic cysts were observed in the genital organs of all the clinically affected bulls. The tissue cysts were most commonly found within the pampiniform plexus (4/4), where they were often seen within venous vascular walls and associated with vasculitis, followed by epididymis (3/4), tunica albuginea (2/4), and penis (1/4). In decreasing order of their frequency, observed abnormalities included seminiferous tubule degeneration, testicular fibrosis, testicular necrosis, lack of/or diminished numbers of spermatozoa, testicular atrophy, and Leydig cell hyperplasia. Only one of the subclinically infected bulls had few Besnoitia cysts within the pampinoform plexus, which was associated to small areas of necrosis and mineralization in the ipsilateral testicle. Results indicate that Besnoitia cysts and genital abnormalities are frequent in bulls chronically affected by bovine besnoitiosis, while they are mild and scarce in subclinically affected ones. Moreover, present data show that Besnotia-associated testicular lesions can occur without the presence of cysts within the testicular parenchyma. B. besnoiti cysts seem to have a tropism for the vascular structures of the spermatic chord, which may cause testicular abnormalities via vascular damage, reduced blood flow, and/or impaired thermoregulation and subsequently lead to the observed testicular lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Genitália Masculina/patologia , Sarcocystidae/patogenicidade , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doença Crônica , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Genitália Masculina/parasitologia , Masculino , Encistamento de Parasitas
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e019119, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236334

RESUMO

Serological screening of 199 serum samples from Dromedary camels-from different cities in Saudi Arabia-was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting antibodies against two cyst-forming coccidian parasites, namely Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 68 (34.2%) samples, while those against N. caninum were present in 33 (16.6%) samples. The highest seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was reported in samples from Taif (51.2%), while the lowest seroprevalence was reported in samples from Riyadh and Hofuf (15.1%). The highest seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies was reported in samples from Jizan (35.9%) while the lowest was reported in samples from Taif (2.4%). A total of 47 male and 21 female camels exhibited antibodies against T. gondii , while 19 male and 14 female camels showed antibodies against N. caninum . Concurrent detection of both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies was observed in 18 camels. It has been demonstrated that T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies are prevalent in camels from different cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Camelus/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
20.
J Parasitol ; 106(2): 312-315, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330280

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and incidence of Neospora caninum infection in dogs that are in close contact with dairy cattle and to identify possible risk factors associated with the infection in this population. Twenty-four dogs located in 8 different dairy farms of Aguascalientes, Mexico, were evaluated for a 6-mo period. Once a month a sample of serum and a sample of peripheral blood was collected. The serum was used to detect antibodies against N. caninum by means of the indirect immunofluorescence technique, and the blood was used to detect parasite's DNA. The association between seroprevalence and possible risk factors was estimated using logistic regression. The prevalence of anti-N. caninum antibodies was 54% in the first month, 62% in the last month, and the incidence was 8.69%. One farm had no positive cases. Antibody titers ranged from 1:50 to 1:800. Parasite DNA was not detected in any of the samples. Only the age (>6 yr) of the dogs was identified as a risk factor for infection by N. caninum (P ≤ 0.05).


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Neospora , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Neospora/genética , Neospora/imunologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA