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1.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 267-273, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599543

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains a serious concern of great economic impact on domestic animals including rabbits. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, species diversity, and associated risk factors of rabbit coccidiosis in Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined using the floatation technique (positive samples were sporulated for identification of the different Eimeria species). 169 out of 215 (78.6%,) rabbits were found to be infected with Eimeria species. A total of seven Eimeria species (Eimeria coecicola, Eimeria irresidua, Eimeria perforans, Eimeria magna, Eimeria intestinalis, Eimeria stiedai and Eimeria flavescens) were identified. Of these, Eimeria coecicola was the most prevalent (48/215; 22.3%), while E. flavescens (8/215; 3.7%) was the least prevalent. Weaners (80.0%) were more infected than bunnies (79.1%) and adult (77.5%). Females had a higher infection rate (79.4%) than males (77.4%). Californian breed were more infected (84.9%) compared to Chinchila (83.7%), Dutch breed (80.9%), and New Zealand White (63.6%). Rabbits kept in the deep litter housing system had higher prevalence rate (95.2%) compared to those raised in the battery cage system (71.9%). Coccidiosis was more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season. This study concludes that Eimeria infections of rabbit is endemic in Ilorin, Kwara State with breeds and housing type been significant risk factors associated with the infection. This study provides the baseline information as the first report on the different Eimeria species affecting rabbits in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Coelhos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 105-111, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473449

RESUMO

Diclazuril, which is widely used for the prevention of coccidiosis in chickens, has a lethal effect on asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria spp. However, little is known about its effect on the exogenous stages of Eimeria spp. In this study, we evaluated the effect of in vitro treatment with 0.2% diclazuril on unsporulated and sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. For this purpose, a total of 180 male layer chicks aged one day were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups. Each group was divided into 3 replicates of 12 chicks each. Group 1 (G1) and Group 2 (G2) were negative (non-immunized and non-challenged) and positive (non-immunized and challenged) controls, respectively. Group 3 (G3) was immunized per os with 1.0 × 104 non-diclazuril treated-sporulated oocysts. Groups 4 (G4) was immunized per os with 0.2% diclazuril treated-unsporulated oocysts (1.0 × 104) in which diclazzuril didn't affect sporulation. Group 5 (G5) was immunized per os with 0.2% diclazuril treated-sporulated oocysts (1.0 × 104). Chicks of G2, G3, G4, and G5 were challenged with 7.5 × 104 untreated sporulated oocysts at the age of 21 days, while the group 1 chicks remained unchallenged. G4 and G5 animals immunized with 0.2% diclazuril-treated oocysts showed a significant decrease in bloody diarrhea severity, lesion scores, and oocyst counts in comparison to those immunized with untreated oocysts. Furthermore, histopathologic findings showed a low number of parasitic stages in cecal tissues in G4 and G5. A significant increased body weight gain was observed in Gs 4 and 5 in comparison to G2. In addition, expression levels of IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in G4 and G5. In conclusion, diclazuril is effective in attenuating Eimeria oocysts and thus provides an alternative approach for using diclazuril-treated oocysts to protect chicks against Eimeria challenge.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Triazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Distribuição Aleatória , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107736, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442455

RESUMO

Goats are frequently described as an intermediate host for the protozoan Neospora caninum, manifesting the disease mainly by recurrent abortions with placentitis and encephalitis in fetuses. Several reports of natural and experimental infections in cattle and mice show differences in the immune response, and the outcome of the infection can be variable depending on the species affected and by the behavior of the infective strain. This study describes for the first time two Neospora caninum strains isolated from naturally infected goats from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. One placenta and one brain from different goats were processed for a first bioassay in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Subsequently, a second bioassay was performed by inoculating the processed brain samples from gerbils into Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) knockout mice (KO mice). Tachyzoites collected from the peritoneal fluid of the KO mice were inoculated into VERO cell monolayers, where they presented a very slow growth rate. The tachyzoites were also inoculated into BALB/c mice with a dose of 106 tachyzoites per animal. After a 5-week follow up, the animals infected with both of the strains developed a strong polarized Th1 response with increased serum and spleen gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (mainly IFN-γ and TNF-α) in the first week. Tissue lesions were mild in the animals infected with both strains. Despite the strong immune response preventing an infection in the visceral organs, the parasite was able to reach the brain, causing progressive brain lesions from the second to fifth week post infection. The NC-goat1-infected mice presented with severe meningoencephalitis, but the NC-goat2-infected animals had considerable histological brain lesions only at week 5. Immunohistochemical analysis of the mouse brains revealed a different pattern of inflammatory cells compared to the naturally infected goats. A severe inflammatory infiltrate of CD3+ T lymphocytes was found in the NC-goat1-infected mice. A more discrete infiltrate of CD3+ T cells was found in the NC-goat2-infected animals. Additionally, IBA1 IHC revealed an intense microglial reaction and monocyte perivascular cuffs in the NC-goat1-infected animals and lower microglia/monocyte infiltrates in the NC-goat2-infected mice. This work contributes knowledge on the pathogenicity of new Neospora caninum strains in mice, comparable with other well-established mouse models of the disease, and demonstrates the importance of studying goats as an intermediate host of this parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Neospora/patogenicidade , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gerbillinae , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Pâncreas/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células Vero
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 383-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390432

RESUMO

This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 403-409, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390435

RESUMO

To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 347, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Live anticoccidial vaccines have been a tremendous success for disease prevention. The establishment of the reverse genetic manipulation platform has enabled the development of Eimeria parasites, the live anticoccidial vaccine strains, as vaccine vectors. In our previous study, recombinant E. tenella expressing a single immunodominant antigen of E. maxima (Et-EmIMP1) was able to protect chickens against challenge infection with E. maxima. This promising result encouraged us to further explore strategies to improve the protection efficacy of recombinant Eimeria and develop it as a vaccine vector. RESULTS: We constructed a novel recombinant Eimeria line expressing apical membrane antigen 1 of E. maxima (Et-EmAMA1) and then immunized chickens with Et-EmAMA1 and/or Et-EmIMP1. We found that the E. maxima soluble antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity was much stronger in the birds that were co-immunized with Et-EmAMA1 and Et-EmIMP1 than in those that were immunized with Et-EmAMA1 or Et-EmIMP1 alone. The oocyst production after E. maxima infection was significantly reduced in the recombinant Eimeria-immunized birds compared with the wild-type-immunized and naïve birds. The oocyst production in the birds co-immunized with Et-EmAMA1 and Et-EmIMP1 was consistently the lowest among the treatment groups after E. maxima infection. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that Eimeria is an effective vaccine vector that can carry and deliver heterologous Eimeria antigens to the host immune system and trigger specific immune responses. Our results also suggested that increasing the number of recombinant Eimeria lines is an effective approach to enhance protective immunity against infections with heterologous pathogens.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria/genética , Imunidade Celular , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Galinhas , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinas Atenuadas , Vacinas Sintéticas
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 343, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coccidiosis represents a serious threat to the poultry industry, affecting production and causing high morbidity, mortality and significant costs resulting from treatment and prophylaxis. In-feed anticoccidials have been used for decades for managing avian coccidiosis and were very effective until drug resistance emerged. The use of natural remedies has become a promising alternative in combating coccidiosis in chickens. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the efficiency of a commercial herbal formula (H), as oral liquid preparations, in experimental chicken coccidiosis. METHODS: Two independent controlled battery experiments (BE1 and BE2) were designed and the product was tested in 3 different formulas (H1, H2 and H3): H1 contained a propylene glycol extract of Allium sativum and Thymus serpyllum; H2 contained Origanum vulgare, Satureja hortensis and Chelidonium majus; and H3 contained Allium sativum, Urtica dioica, Inula helenium, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rosmarinus officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Thymus serpyllum, Tanacetum vulgare and Coriandrum sativum. Chickens were divided into five groups for each BE as follows: (i) uninfected untreated control (UU1, UU2); (ii) infected untreated control (IU1, IU2); (iii) infected treated with amprolium (ITA1, ITA2); and (iv, v) two experimental groups infected treated with H1 (ITH1) and H2 (ITH2) formulas in the BE1 and with H3 (ITH3-5 and ITH3-10) formula in the BE2. The chickens from infected groups were challenged with 5000 (BE1) and 50,000 (BE2) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. (E. acervulina, E. tenella and E. maxima), respectively. The anticoccidial efficacy was assessed by recording the following: oocysts output (OPG), lesion score (LS), weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and anticoccidial index (ACI). Additionally, polyphenolics and flavonoids (caffeic-chlorogenic acid, apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercitin, quercitrin) from herb extracts found in H3 formula were determined by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. RESULTS: H1 and H2 reduced the WG, and increased the FCR and OPG compared with controls. H1 reduced the duodenal lesions, whilst H2 reduced the caecal lesions, compared with control. H3 decreased the OPG of Eimeria spp., reduced the total lesion score and improved the zootechnical performance (weight gain and feed conversion ratio). According to ACI value, H1 and H2 had no efficacy on Eimeria spp. infection, but H3 had good to marked anticoccidial effect, the ACI being slightly greater in the group ITH3-5. According to the results of LC-MS/MS, the concentration of polyphenols in H3 formula was the highest, the sum of chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid being 914.9 µg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: H3 formula is a promising natural anticoccidial and field trials are recommended in order to validate the obtained data.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiostáticos/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2257-2262, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177405

RESUMO

The New England cottontail rabbit (NEC, Sylvilagus transitionalis) population has decreased dramatically in New York, USA, and the role of parasites in limiting the population has never been examined. The closely related and sympatric eastern cottontail rabbit (EC, Sylvilagus floridanus) was introduced into the range of NEC by humans and is currently thriving. This study aimed to investigate gastrointestinal parasites of the NEC and the EC and compare their parasite communities. Fecal pellets from 195 NEC and 125 EC were collected from the Hudson Valley, New York, in the winter of 2013-2014. Centrifugal fecal floats were performed in Sheather's sugar solution, and parasite ova and cysts were examined microscopically to identify gastrointestinal parasites present. For all pellets combined (n = 320), 91% were found to harbor at least 1 parasite species, with Eimeria species being the most common. Genetic analysis of pellets using microsatellite DNA identified 248 individual rabbits, with parasite prevalence (94%) similar to the prevalence estimate based on all pellets (91%). EC samples had a significantly higher (p < 0.05) parasite species richness (1.73, range 0-4) than NEC (1.20, range 0-3). EC and NEC shared 3 moderate to high (9-89%) prevalence parasites, in which EC prevalence was consistently higher. One parasite species was only found in NEC, and two were only found in EC, but the majority of these were of low abundance, precluding further statistical analyses.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Parasitos/classificação , Coelhos/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Meio Ambiente , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , New York/epidemiologia , Óvulo , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Dinâmica Populacional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Simpatria
9.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2009-2026, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152233

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease of a wide variety of animals caused by coccidian protozoa. The coccidia are responsible for major economic losses of the livestock industry. For example, the annual cost due to coccidiosis to the global poultry industry has been estimated to exceed US$ 3 billion annually. Currently available drugs for the control of this disease are either polyether ionophorous antibiotics that are derived from fermentation products, or synthetic compounds, produced by chemical synthesis. Unfortunately, no new drugs in either category have been approved for use for decades. Resistance has been documented for all those of the drugs currently employed and therefore the discovery of novel drugs with unique modes of action is imperative if chemotherapy is to remain the principal means to control this disease. This chapter aims to give an overview of the efficacy and mode of action of the current compounds used to control coccidiosis in livestock and provides a brief outlook of research needs for the future.


Assuntos
Coccídios/efeitos dos fármacos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Gado/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 215-220, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215607

RESUMO

Our objective was to identify the direct and indirect presence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle and their aborted fetuses from Lima, Peru. A total 219 blood samples obtained from dairy cattle with records of spontaneous abortion were collected to detect antibodies against N. caninum in serum with indirect ELISA and search for risk-factor associations. 68 fetal aborted tissue samples of these cows were analyzed by PCR, indirect ELISA and histopathology assay to detect N. caninum presence. The prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Univariate analysis was performed using the chi-squared test. Among the 68 aborted fetuses collected, 10 (15%) were positive in at least two diagnostic tests. Among 219 serum samples, 46.6% (95% CI: 40.0%-53.3%) were positive. Cows with 4 years or older (PR: 7.10; 95% CI: 4.89-10.67) and multiparous (PR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.11-2.80) were found to be more likely to possess N. caninum antibodies. This study detects presence of N. caninum in dairy cattle and their aborted fetus from Lima valley, suggesting biosecurity management improve to neosporosis control.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Neospora/genética , Neospora/imunologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 245-257, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215610

RESUMO

This is a cross-sectional study to assess the presence of antibodies in ruminants against selected pathogens associated with reproductive disorders in cattle in four Brazilian states, including the zoonotic agent Coxiella burnetii. The used tests were Virus Neutralization Assay for IBR and BVD, Microscopic Agglutination Test for Leptospira spp., Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) for C. burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma vivax. Seropositivity for C. burnetii was 13.7% with titers from 128 to 131,072; 57.8% for BoHV-1, with titers between 2 and 1,024; 47.1% for BVDV-1a, with titers from 10 to 5,120; 89.2% for N. caninum; 50% for T. vivax; and 52.0% for Leptospira spp., with titers between 100 to 800 (the following serovars were found: Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Copenhageni, Wolffi, Hardjo, Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae); 19.6% for T. gondii with titer of 40. This is the first study that has identified C. burnetii in cattle associated with BoHV and BVDV, N. caninum, Leptospira spp., T. gondii and T. vivax. Thus, future studies should be conducted to investigate how widespread this pathogen is in Brazilian cattle herds.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/complicações , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Leptospirose/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Aborto Animal , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/diagnóstico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Endometrite/etiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Febre Q/complicações , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Trypanosoma vivax/imunologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia
12.
Poult Sci ; 98(8): 3181-3193, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220319

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of inorganic and proteinate Zn in chickens challenged with coccidia and Clostridium perfringens. A 3 × 2 factorial design was used, with 3 dietary formulations (0 or 90 mg/kg supplemental Zn from ZnSO4 or Zn proteinate, with or without challenge). On day 14, challenged birds were orally gavaged with approx. 5,000 Eimeria maxima sporulated oocysts, and on day 19 to 21 with C. perfringens (108 CFU/D). Productive performance was assessed at day 21 and 28. At 21 D, necrotic enteritis (NE) lesion severity, intestinal permeability, gene expression, and ileal and cecal microbiota were evaluated. An interaction of Zn source by challenge was observed for lesion score and mortality, wherein Zn supplementation decreased the degree of NE lesions (P = 0.02) and mortality due to NE (P = 0.008). In the jejunum, an interaction of Zn source by challenge was observed for the expression of IL-8 (P = 0.001) and INF-γ (P = 0.03), wherein the NE challenge upregulated their expression, but not in the Zn proteinate supplemented birds. Zn proteinate supplementation downregulated iNOS vs. ZnSO4 supplemented birds (P = 0.0003), and supplemental Zn downregulated TLR-2 (P = 0.05) and ZnT5 (P = 0.04), regardless of the source. In the ileal microbiota, Zn proteinate supplementation decreased the frequency of Lactobacillus (P = 0.01), and the challenge increased Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.01). Dietary Zn decreased NE lesion severity and mortality due to NE; Zn proteinate led to lower expression of IL-8 and INF-γ in challenged birds which may be an indicative of a lessened inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Eimeria/fisiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Intestinos/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Zinco/administração & dosagem
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 270: 20-24, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213237

RESUMO

Neosporosis is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide but is rare in horses. Here, the first case of histologically, ultrastructurally, immunohistochemically, and molecularly confirmed equine abortion caused by neosporosis is reported. Samples of lung, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, tongue, brain, and the placenta from a female fetus aborted at 280 days of gestation were fixed in formalin and submitted for diagnosis. Histologically, there was disseminated neosporosis with severe lesions in lungs, liver and the heart. Protozoal tachyzoites in all tissues reacted with polyclonal anti-Neospora caninum rabbit antibodies. Transmission electron microscopic observation on lung tissue revealed tachyzoites consistent with Neospora, including many rhoptries. Polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed to amplify the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) of the Sarcocystidae was performed on DNA extracted from fetal tissues. Comparison of the ITS1 amplified from the foal tissue to sequences available in GenBank revealed 100% sequence identity to the ITS1 from three isolates of Neospora hughesi.


Assuntos
Feto Abortado/parasitologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Feto Abortado/ultraestrutura , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Cavalos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Neospora/genética , Neospora/ultraestrutura
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 194, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Determining the infectious cause of abortion in cattle is difficult. This case-control study was set up to investigate the infectious causes of abortion by determining the seroprevalence of three reproductive pathogens in dairy cattle in Ecuador and their association with abortion: Brucella abortus, Neospora caninum and Coxiella burnetii. RESULTS: Ninety-five blood samples were obtained from cows that had experienced a mid- or late gestation abortion of their first calf and seventy-seven samples from a control group of cows with the same age that did not experience abortion problems. No antibodies were detected for B. abortus in any of the serum samples, but a high seroprevalence for both C. burnetii (52.9%) and N. caninum infection (21.5%) was found in group of cows. The seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in cattle that had experienced abortions was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the seroprevalence in the control cows on one of the cattle farms, but no association between abortion and seropositivity for C. burnetii was found. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Neosporosis plays an important role in the epidemiology of abortion on one cattle farm, but that Q fever is apparently not an important cause for abortion in this setting.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brucella abortus/imunologia , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 285, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apicomplexan protozoans of the genus Eimeria cause coccidiosis, one of the most economically relevant parasitic diseases in chickens. The lack of a complete understanding of molecular mechanisms in the host-parasite interaction limits the development of effective control measures. In the present study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was applied to investigate the host mRNA profiles of the cecal mucosa collected at day 5 post-infection with Eimeria maxima (EM). RESULTS: Total RNA from cecal samples of the uninfected naïve control and the EM groups was used to make libraries, generating 354,924,372 and 356,229,250 usable reads, respectively, which were assembled into a total of 386,088 high-quality unigenes (transcripts) in Trinity software. RNA-Seq analysis of cecal samples in the two groups revealed 332 upregulated and 363 downregulated genes with significant differences (P ≤ 0.05), including several significant immune-related gene families, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alpha chain, granzyme A and immunoglobulin subtype genes among upregulated differentially expressed genes. In addition, a total of 60 clusters of differentiation (CD) molecular genes and 570 novel genes were found. The completeness of the assembled transcriptome was further assessed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, Gene ontology (GO), eggNOG and CAZy for gene annotation. The broad gene categories represented by the highly differentiated host genes suggested enrichment in immune responses, and downregulation in the metabolic pathway, MARK signaling pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction, and proteins processing in endoplasmic reticulum after EM infection. CONCLUSIONS: Eimeria maxima induced statistically significant differences in the cecal mucosal gene expression of infected chickens. These findings provide new insights into the host-parasite interaction and enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of avian coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Membrana Mucosa/parasitologia , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Mensageiro
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 294, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases are emerging worldwide and have an important zoonotic relevance. In the last few years, the interest in vector-borne pathogens in cats has increased. However, studies on feline vector-borne pathogens on tropical islands are lacking. Islands differ from continental countries because they have an enclosed population of animals, with all year presence of the vectors and, most often, without vector control measures. This study focused on the molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of vector-borne pathogens in autochthonous cats with a mixed indoor-outdoor lifestyle from Maio Island, Cape Verde archipelago. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 80 asymptomatic cats, representing almost a quarter of the total cat population of the island. The presence of DNA of protozoa of the genus Hepatozoon and bacteria belonging to family Anaplasmataceae and to genus Bartonella was assessed by PCR and phylogenetic analysis was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with infection. For feline hepatozoonosis, a worldwide dataset of Hepatozoon felis sequences retrieved from mammal species and vectors along with Hepatozoon spp. sequences retrieved from felids was generated, phylogenetically analyzed and the geographical and host distribution was assessed. RESULTS: Hepatozoon felis genotype I was identified in 12 (15%) cats from Maio Island whereas none of the cats were PCR positive for the other pathogens tested. No significant association of H. felis infection with age, sex, location or presence of vectors was observed by statistical analysis in Cape Verde's cats. Phylogenetic analysis on the worldwide dataset of feline Hepatozoon sequences showed two significant distinct clades for H. felis genotype I and II. Different geographical distributions were assessed: H. felis genotype I was the only genotype found in Africa and has been reported worldwide, with the exception of Japan and Brazil where only H. felis genotype II has been reported. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of H. felis genotype I in cats in Maio Island highlights the need to further investigate the significance of H. felis genotypes and to clarify the epidemiological aspects of this infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/genética , Genótipo , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Bartonella/genética , Cabo Verde/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Eucoccidiida/patogenicidade , Ilhas , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Clima Tropical
17.
Parasite ; 26: 36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198175

RESUMO

Currently, information on the occurrence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in tissues of rabbits in China is lacking. In this study, brain and heart samples from 470 slaughtered domestic rabbits were collected in Henan Province, Central China. The occurrence rate of T. gondii and N. caninum DNA detected by nested PCR was 2.8% and 2.1%, respectively. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the frequency of the two parasite infections in relation to sex, breed, and region. Three out of 13 T. gondii-positive samples were completely or partially genotyped at 11 genetic markers using PCR-RFLP, and one was identified as ToxoDB genotype #9. For N. caninum, three different sequences at the ITS1 region and two genotypes at the MS5 microsatellite locus were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic characterization of N. caninum isolates from rabbits.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Carne/parasitologia , Neospora/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Coração/parasitologia , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Coelhos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
18.
Parasitol Int ; 72: 101945, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228586

RESUMO

Three different Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) species have been described infecting domestic cats in Europe (i.e. H. felis, H. canis and H. silvestris), however, reports on clinical hepatozoonosis are uncommon and treatment protocols are not clearly defined. A six-year-old male European short-hair cat from Austria presented poor general condition, lethargy, anorexia, icterus, a painful abdomen, fever, ruffled hair and a tick infestation, and it had never left Austria. Laboratory tests revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and increased serum levels of symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and bilirubin. In May Grünwald-Giemsa-stained blood smears, structures resembling Hepatozoon gamonts were observed inside neutrophil granulocytes. A PCR targeting a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and DNA sequencing allowed the diagnosis of H. felis-DNA in blood samples. The cat was treated with imidocarb dipropionate (6 mg/kg body weight, repeated after 14 days) and doxycycline monohydrate (5 mg/kg body weight twice a day, p.o., for four weeks) and recovered completely. A broad haematological and biochemical laboratory control after six months showed all evaluated parameters under normal ranges. Coinfection with other feline pathogens (i.e. feline leukaemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline Coronavirus, Leishmania and Dirofilaria immitis) could not be detected. This study reveals the presence of H. felis in Austria and provides more evidence on the geographical distribution and pathogenicity of this parasite for domestic cats. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first autochthonous case of feline hepatozoonosis in Central Europe.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Áustria , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Eucoccidiida/genética , Imidocarbo/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2311-2315, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093752

RESUMO

The role of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana as transport host for Eimeria tenella was evaluated. Twenty-four cockroaches were orally fed with sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Their feces and digestive tract were examined for oocysts by sugar centrifugal flotation technique and PCR. Infectivity of the oocysts recovered from the digestive tract of infected cockroaches as well as from their feces was evaluated by orally inoculating them into Boris Brown chickens. E. tenella oocysts were found in the digestive tract and feces of infected cockroaches up to day 4 after ingestion of oocysts. Furthermore, oocysts that were recovered from the digestive tract and feces of cockroaches remained infective for 4 and 3 days after ingestion of oocysts, respectively. Presence of oocysts in the feces of chicken that had been inoculated with either digestive tract or feces of P. americana demonstrated the infectivity of E. tenella oocysts from digestive tract or feces, suggesting that P. americana may play a role in the transmission of E. tenella among chicken and between chicken flocks.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/isolamento & purificação , Periplaneta/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/transmissão , Eimeria tenella/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Oocistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
20.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2121-2127, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073829

RESUMO

The genus Eimeria comprises obligate intracellular protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Members of this genus cause enteric disease in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals. A total of 157 species of Eimeria that parasitize fish have been described; however, molecular information regarding these piscine parasites is scarce. In the present study, Eimeria oocysts were detected in 189 of 613 (30.8%) gastrointestinal tracts of brown trout (Salmo trutta) captured in several rivers in Galicia (NW Spain). Measurements of the sporulated oocysts, sporocysts, and other morphological characteristics enabled identification of the oocysts as Eimeria truttae. By molecular analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene, a single sequence of ~ 420 bp was obtained in 100 fish samples. After amplification of a ~ 1300-bp fragment of the same locus, two representative sequences that exhibited five nucleotide differences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the samples within the piscine clade closest to Eimeria nemethi as they exhibited 96.7% similarity with this species. This study is the first to characterize E. truttae at the molecular level, thus helping to clarify the phylogenetic relationships between this and other Eimeria species isolated from fish and contributing further to the knowledge about this protozoan parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Truta/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Oocistos , Filogenia , Espanha
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