Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.869
Filtrar
1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 684670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239816

RESUMO

Bovine neosporosis is currently considered one of the main causes of abortion in cattle worldwide and the outcome of the infection is, in part, determined by Neospora caninum isolate virulence. However, the dam and foetal immune responses associated with this factor are largely unknown. We used a model of bovine infection at day 110 of gestation to study the early infection dynamics (10- and 20-days post-infection, dpi) after experimental challenge with high- and low-virulence isolates of N. caninum (Nc-Spain7 and Nc-Spain1H, respectively). In the present work, dam peripheral cellular immune responses were monitored twice a week from -1 to 20 dpi. At different time points, IFN-γ and IL-4 production was investigated in stimulated dam blood and the percentage of monocytes, NK cells, B cells and T cells (CD4+, CD8+ and γδ) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined by flow cytometry. In addition, maternal iliofemoral lymph nodes and foetal spleen and thymus were collected at 10 and 20 dpi for the study of the same cell subpopulations. Peripheral immune response dynamics were similar after the infection with both isolates, with a significant increase in the percentage of CD4+ T cells at 6 and 9 dpi in PBMC, coincident with the higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 release. However, the levels of IFN-γ were significantly higher and an increase in CD8+ T cells at 9, 13 and 20 dpi was observed in the dams infected with Nc-Spain7. Nc-Spain1H infection induced higher IL4 levels in stimulated blood and a higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio in PBMC. The analysis of the maternal iliofemoral lymph node showed a significant enhancement in the percentage of NK, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells for the animals infected with the highly virulent isolate and euthanized at 20 dpi. Regarding the foetal responses, the most remarkable result was an increase in the percentage of monocytes at 20 dpi in the spleen of foetuses from both infected groups, which suggests that foetuses were able to respond to N. caninum infection at mid gestation. This work provides insights into how isolate virulence affects the maternal and foetal immune responses generated against N. caninum, which may influence the course of infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Bovinos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Feminino , Feto , Imunidade Celular , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Gravidez , Virulência
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 391, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224021

RESUMO

Neosporosis is a parasitic disease that causes abortions and economic losses in bovine production systems, but no studies have been found concerning its effect on the Creole cattle breed, Blanco Orejinegro (BON). The aim of this research was to establish the serological status of Colombian BON cattle against Neospora caninum and to determine the factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples were taken from 363 animals from 13 herds in six states of Colombia, and analyzed by indirect ELISA using a commercial test. Information on sex, herd, generation group, and state was recorded. A survey was carried out with 26 questions related to productive, reproductive, and health factors per herd. A logistic regression analysis was performed and the ORs for significantly associated variables were estimated using the R software. General seropositivity of 73.5% (95% CI 68.6-77.9%) was obtained, and sex, age group, and herd were the variables significantly associated with seropositivity (p < 0.05). For the sex variable, seroprevalence levels of 79.6% (95% CI 74.3-84.1%) were recorded for females and 54.5% (95% CI 43.6-65.1%) for males. Herd seroprevalence varied between 58.3 and 95.8%, and the last generation showed the lowest positivity (51.2%, 95% CI 42.1-60.2%). The inadequate disposal of fetuses was a risk factor, while carrying out serological tests to new animals that enter the herd, the use of new gloves and palpation utensils for each animal, supplementation, and stabling were stated as protective factors. No effect of positivity was found in the last calving interval. The implementation of bovine neosporosis control programs to support breeding and conservation programs of the BON breed in Colombia is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 363, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146168

RESUMO

This study evaluated the growth, physiology, and coccidiosis infestation of suckling beef calves provided monensin and grazing limpograss (Exp. 1) or bahiagrass (Exp. 2) pastures. Treatments were randomly assigned to pastures (4 pastures/treatment; 3 cow-calf pairs/pasture in Exp. 1; 4 pastures/treatment; 10 cow-calf pairs/pair of pastures in Exp. 2) and comprised of supplementation of 0.40 kg/d of soybean meal added or not with monensin (20 mg/kg of total DM intake) for 112 and 78 days before weaning in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. In Exp. 1, supplement DM disappearance tended (P = 0.10) to be less for calves supplemented with vs. without monensin, but treatment × day and treatment effects were not observed (P ≥ 0.18) for herbage mass (HM), herbage allowance (HA), cow body condition score (BCS), calf average daily gain (ADG), calf plasma data, and fecal coccidia egg count. In Exp. 2, forage nutritive value, HM and HA, and cow BCS did not differ (P ≥ 0.43) between treatments. Supplemental monensin did not impact (P ≥ 0.78) plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 but increased (P ≤ 0.05) calf overall ADG and plasma concentrations on day 78 and reduced plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen (PUN) on day 78 and fecal coccidia egg count on day 78 compared to calves provided no monensin supplementation. Hence, monensin supplementation successfully improved growth performance of creep-fed suckling beef calves, when herbage mass was not a limiting factor and coccidiosis infestation occurred.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Monensin/farmacologia , Poaceae , Estações do Ano
4.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(2): 108-112, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103286

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti in cattle in the Oguzlar district of Çorum province. Methods: Venous blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis of 100 cattle in the Oguzlar region and stored into anticoagulant-free tubes. Serum samples were examined with commercial c-ELISA kits for N. caninum (IDEXX, Switzerland) and B. besnoiti (ID.vet, France). Results: Two of serum samples were found to be N. caninum (2%) and five were B. besnoiti (5%) seropositive. No mixed infection was detected in any of serum samples. Conclusion: In this study, the presence of N. caninum and B. besnoiti was serologically determined in animals that are not imported in the Oguzlar region. This is the first study in the region to identify B. besnoiti in the seropositive cattle and is the third study in Turkey.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocystidae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bovinos , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystidae/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Turquia/epidemiologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2689-2693, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146126

RESUMO

Poultry coccidiosis causes considerable economical losses to the livestock industry. Eimeria parasites are responsible for this disease. On a global scale, E. acervulina and E. tenella are amongst the most common Eimeria spp. infecting broilers. E. tenella is commonly used as infection model in in vivo and in vitro studies. On the other hand, E. acervulina has barely been studied under in vitro conditions. A well established and widely used in vitro model for E. tenella infection is the Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell line (MDBK); however, little is known regarding suitability of MDBK cells as host cells for E. acervulina. We infected MDBK monolayers with two different doses, 5 × 104 and 2 × 105, of E. acervulina sporozoites and evaluated cultures at 24 and 96 h post infection (hpi). For comparison, we ran an identical infection assay using E. tenella sporozoites. To assess parasite reproduction, the number of DNA copies of E. acervulina SCAR marker and E. tenella ITS-1 gene was quantified using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that the number of E. acervulina copies increased significantly at 24 hpi in comparison to E. tenella (p < 0.05). After 96 hpi, E. acervulina gene copies were considerably reduced while E. tenella continued to multiply (p < 0.05). Our results show that MDBK monolayers could be used for in vitro research aimed to study E. acervulina sporozoite cell invasion. Nevertheless, modifications of in vitro cultivation appear necessary to allow qualitative and quantitative studies over longer periods of parasite reproduction.


Assuntos
Eimeria/fisiologia , Rim/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais , Rim/citologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Esporozoítos/classificação , Esporozoítos/genética , Esporozoítos/fisiologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e001821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076048

RESUMO

Between December 2016 and April 2017, a spate of abortions occurred in a closed dairy herd from the central eastern region of Paraná, Brazil, in which 75 cows aborted. To identify its cause, organ fragments were collected from an aborted fetus for histopathology, and the blood samples from a stillborn, 4 aborted fetuses, and 9 farm dogs for indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT). These tests found multifocal non-suppurative encephalitis, periportal hepatitis, and multifocal lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis, and detected anti-Neospora antibodies in all aborted fetuses, and in 5 of the 9 dogs. DNA of Neospora caninum was detected in the brain tissue of an aborted fetus. Blood samples of 340 cows and 146 heifers showed 33.5% and 30.8% seropositivity, respectively. In this closed herd, the parasite was probably introduced by infected domesticated or wild carnivores inhabiting the farm, through the infective oocysts present in their stool.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Aborto Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Gravidez
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e026920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076057

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate the control of coccidiosis in the litter of commercial poultry housing in the Western region of Paraná, Brazil, which adopts sanitary management to control Salmonellosis. Three litter treatments were selected, proposed by an integrating company in the region: fermentation associated with liming (FL); liming (L) and fermentation (F). Stool samples were collected from 18 poultry housing, in a completely randomized experimental design, testing different collection areas in the sheds, from the 5th day of the birds' housing, repeated weekly until the 40th day, during five successive flocks. The incidence of coccidiosis was determined by oocysts count in feces (OoPG), testing the interactions between treatment, age of birds and the number of flocks housed. Samples were selected to identify, through the Multiplex PCR, species of the genus Eimeria. circulating in the shed. The results showed that in litter where fermentation was adopted, the efficiency to control the sporulation of Eimeria spp. was significantly (p <0.05) higher than in the other treatments. The use of the Multiplex PCR technique requires improvements in the preparation of samples for the extraction of genetic material.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Coccidiostáticos , Eimeria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Brasil , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Habitação , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
8.
Parasite ; 28: 48, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076575

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract in poultry harbours a diverse microbial community that serves a crucial role in digestion and protection. Disruption of the gut environment due to Eimeria spp. parasite infection causes an imbalance in intestinal homeostasis, driving the increment of pathogens such as Clostridium species. Coccidiosis infection affects the composition and integrity of gut microbiota, resulting in elevated susceptibility to diseases that pose a serious threat to the overall health and productivity of chickens. Anticoccidial drugs have proven effective in curbing coccidiosis but with concerning drawbacks like drug resistance and drug residues in meat. The exploration of natural alternative strategies such as probiotics and phytochemicals is significant in controlling coccidiosis through modification and restoration of gut microbiota, without inducing drug resistance. Understanding the interaction between Eimeria parasites and gut microbiota is crucial for the control and prevention of coccidiosis, and the development of novel alternative treatments.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(6): 101162, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975034

RESUMO

Poultry production faces several threats and challenges, one of the most important of which is avian coccidiosis which causes annual losses exceeding US$ 3 billion. Discovering new drugs or combinations of existing anticoccidials has become inevitable to overcome the emergence of coccidiosis resistance. This study evaluated a new combination of maduramicin and diclazuril in comparison to the well-known product Maxiban72 which consisted of narasin and nicarbazin, and the single effect of monensin as treatments for avian coccidiosis. A total of 750 1-day-old Indian River broiler chicks were allocated equally into 5 experimental groups with 6 replicates each as follows: 1) negative unchallenged control group (NC) fed the basal diet; 2) positive control group (PC) received the basal diet and inoculated with Eimeria; 3) PC + 100 mg monensin sodium (Atomonsin)/kg diet (MS); 4) PC + 5 mg maduramicin ammonium (Madramycin) + 2.5 mg diclazuril (Atozuril)/kg diet (MMD); and 5) PC + 40 mg narasin + 40 mg nicarbazin (MaxibanT72)/kg diet (NN). Anticoccidials improved (P < 0.01) growth performance, dressing (%) and carcass yield of inoculated birds compared to untreated-inoculated ones. Erythrogram and leukogram parameters were affected by Eimeria challenge. Total protein, globulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in PC birds' serum were reduced (P < 0.05) while their values of liver enzymes, malondialdehyde and catalase were elevated (P < 0.01) when compared to NC ones. Serum immunoglobulin A, and jejunal gene expressions of interleukin-6 and interferon gamma were increased (P < 0.05) in PC group compared to NC group. Anticoccidial drugs restored values of the aforementioned biomarkers near to those of NC. Jejunal architecture in inoculated birds was improved by the anticoccidial treatments in MS, MMD, and NN. Fecal oocyst counts were significantly reduced in MMD, NN, and MS groups compared to PC group. Conclusively, although all examined anticoccidial drugs were effective in treating Eimeriosis, the anticoccidial combinations in MMD and NN groups were more effective than the single administration of MS in treating avian coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Coccidiostáticos , Eimeria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Imunidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 329, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002297

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. infection is one of the main diseases that affect young cattle in beef and dairy herds, leading to economic losses and compromising the performance and growth of animals. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different protocols of metaphylactic treatment with 5% toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) in naturally infected, extensively reared beef calves from birth to 1 year of age. We used 92 calves aged up to 2 weeks of life, initially divided into two experimental groups: treated and control. The animals were evaluated fortnightly with individual count of oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) tests until weaning; thereafter, they were again divided into four subgroups: I-treated at both birth and weaning; II-treated at birth but not treated at weaning; III-not treated at birth but treated at weaning; and IV-neither treated at birth nor at weaning (control). During the experimental period, the animals were evaluated for weight gain, excretion of oocysts, and presence of pathogenic species of Eimeria spp. In the first stage of the study, less oocysts were excreted in the treated group for up to 75 days and at 150 days of age (p < 0.05). In the final stage of the study, significant differences occur between groups I and II, I and IV, II and III, and III and IV (p = 0.3512), in the collection 20 days after treatment. Eimeria bovis was the most frequently identified species during the experimental period. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the presence of diarrhea in the calves and the number of oocysts excreted, treated group (p = 0.0092) and untreated group (p = 0.2). There was no significant difference in weight gain of animals in any of the study periods (p > 0.05).


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Coccidiostáticos , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes , Triazinas
11.
Acta Trop ; 220: 105970, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033805

RESUMO

Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are related protozoa that can cause equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The present study aimed to determine the frequency of antibodies to these parasites in 649 equids (351 horses, 267 donkeys, and 31 mules) from six departments in the North and Northwest of Colombia. For this purpose, the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used for detecting antibodies against S. neurona and Neospora spp. with a cut-off point of 1:20 and 1:50, respectively. A binomial logistic regression model was selected to predict variables associated with exposure. The frequency of anti-S. neurona antibodies was 14.24% (95% CI: 10.84-18.44) for horses, 2.99% (95% CI: 1.39-6.04) for donkeys, and 16.13% (95% CI: 6.09-34.47) for mules. The risk for S. neurona infection was significantly lower in donkeys (OR: 0.18 [0.08-0.38]; p<0.001) than horses and mules, and higher in animals with a poor body condition (OR: 2.82 [1.45-6.05]; p<0.05). Additionally, older animals (>12y) had a higher risk of seropositivity (OR: 5.26 [1.88-19.1]; p<0.05), as well as animals that inhabit climatic conditions associated with tropical very dry forest (OR: 1.85 [1.01-3.51]; p<0.05). Córdoba and Antioquia departments presented the highest seropositivity to S. neurona with 13.01 and 8.3%, respectively. The frequency of anti-Neospora spp. antibodies was 1.42% (95% CI: 0.52-3.48) for horses, 1.12% (95% CI:0.29-3.52) for donkeys and 0% (95%, CI: 0-0) for mules. Atlántico was the state with the highest seropositivity to Neospora spp. (10%). No risks associated with Neospora spp. infection were found. These findings allow us to conclude that equids from these regions of Colombia are exposed to S. neurona, but antibodies to Neospora spp. are uncommon. Further studies are necessary to explore the presence of these two agents in other areas of the country. In addition, we need to prove the importance of the above-mentioned risk factors over the susceptibility of horses to these protozoal agents and the epidemiological impact of these underdiagnosed coccidia.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Neospora/fisiologia , Sarcocystis/fisiologia , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Colômbia , Equidae , Feminino , Cavalos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101161, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058567

RESUMO

The T cell-mediated immune response plays an important role in coccidiosis. To reveal the host T cell immune response following Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) infection in chickens, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to analyze the dynamic expression of the Th1-related cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12; the Th17-related cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22; and the Treg-related cytokines IL-10, TGF-ß, and CTLA-4 in the cecum and spleen at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 d postinfection (dpi). In the cecal tissue, the expression of the Th1-related cytokine IFN-γ was significantly higher at 6 and 8 dpi than at other time points (11.97-fold and 39.78-fold, respectively, compared with 0 dpi, P < 0.05). IL-2 and IL-12 expression was significantly higher at 6 and 8 dpi than at 0, 2 and 10 dpi (P < 0.05). The expression of the Th17-related cytokines IL-17A and IL-17F at 2 and 4 dpi and IL-22 expression at 4 dpi were significantly higher than those at 0, 6, 8 and 10 dpi (P < 0.05). The expression of the Treg-related cytokines IL-10, TGF-ß and CTLA-4 was significantly higher at 6 and 8 dpi than at 0, 2 and 4 dpi (P < 0.05). In the spleen, IFN-γ and IL-12 expression peaked at 4 dpi, while IL-2 expression peaked at 10 dpi. IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22 expression was significantly higher at 2 and 4 dpi than at 0, 6, 8 and 10 dpi (P < 0.05). Treg-related cytokine TGF-ß expression was almost unchanged and significantly decreased at only 4 dpi (P < 0.05), while CTLA-4 expression showed an overall decreasing trend from 0 to 8 dpi but increased significantly at 10 dpi (P < 0.05). The expression patterns of three T cell subset-related cytokines were different in the cecum and spleen. Furthermore, Th1 and Treg cells participate in the immune response mainly in the latter stage of coccidia infection (6 and 8 dpi), while Th17 cells play a role mainly in the early stages of infection (2 and 4 dpi). Our data will help to deepen the understanding of the complex T cell immune response after coccidia infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Ceco , Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Citocinas , Baço
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(5): 101083, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799117

RESUMO

Eimeria tenella is a protozoan parasite endemic in chickens and is one of the causative agents of avian coccidiosis. The aim of this research was to determine if poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles carrying recombinant TA4 protein of E. tenella (rEtTA4) could improve the level of protective immunity against E. tenella challenge. Recombinant TA4 protein was expressed and purified. Poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) loaded with rEtTA4 (PLGA-rEtTA4) nanoparticles was prepared and was delivered to 2-week-old layer chickens via intramuscular inoculation. Chickens injected with PBS and PLGA nanoparticles were served as control groups. The rEtTA4 and PLGA-rEtTA4 nanoparticles induced changes of serum cytokines, IgY levels, and T lymphocytes subpopulation, and the protective efficacy against E. tenella challenge was evaluated. Results showed that both rEtTA4 and PLGA-rEtTA4 vaccination groups induced significantly higher levels of specific EtTA4 IgY antibody and IL-17 and higher proportion of CD8+ T lymphocytes. However, no significant differences were observed in the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocytes compared with the PBS control. Chickens immunized with rEtTA4 and PLGA-rEtTA4 prominently increased the BW gains and decreased oocyst output compared with chickens immunized with PBS and PLGA after oral challenge with E. tenella. Poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) encapsulated rEtTA4 nanoparticles-immunized chickens significantly induced higher levels of interferon gamma, IL-6, and IL-17 and a little bit higher proportion of CD8+ T lymphocytes compared with rEtTA4 subunit vaccine-immunized chickens. Thus, PLGA encapsulated rEtTA4 nanoparticles appeared to have great potential to enhance the immune response and improved the protective efficacy against E. tenella infection. Our results provided available protective subunit vaccine rEtTA4 and PLGA loaded with rEtTA4 nanoparticles against coccidiosis and suggested that PLGA nanoparticles could be an effective adjuvant to enhance the protective efficacy of rEtTA4 subunit vaccine.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dioxanos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e026120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852702

RESUMO

Calyptospora species are coccids that commonly cause liver infections in fish all around the world. This paper describes the morphology and histopathological characteristics of liver infection caused by Calyptospora sp. in black piranha Serrasalmus rhombeus, from the Capim River, in the municipality of Ipixuna do Pará, state of Pará (Brazil). Specimens were collected, analyzed and necropsied and tissue fragments containing parasites were prepared for histology and scanning electron microscopy. Parasitism was detected in 33.0% of the analyzed specimens, which had spherical oocysts in the liver, with four pyriform sporocysts presenting sporozoites internally. A histological examination revealed oocysts positioned close to blood vessels, causing necrosis and degeneration of hepatic parenchyma, while the presence of mononuclear cell infiltrate and melanomacrophages indicated the onset of an inflammatory process. This is the first record of the genus Calyptospora in fish from the Capim River.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Coccidiose , Eucoccidiida , Doenças dos Peixes , Animais , Brasil , Coccidiose/veterinária
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e023220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909837

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence and factors associated with the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in sheep from Paraná state. The detection of antibodies for T. gondii and N. caninum was performed by homemade and commercial indirect ELISA, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to verify the factors associated with the seroprevalence. Antibodies anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum were observed in 42.7% and in 17.6% of the animals, respectively. The protective factors associated to seropositive were "some level of confinement" (full or semi-extensive confinement) (OR=0.53) for T. gondii and "use of skilled labor" (OR=0.64) for N. caninum. The risk factors were "presence of cats" (OR=1.75) for T. gondii and "feeding of dogs with sheep placental remains" (OR=1.79) for N. caninum. In addition, to presenting a significant and simultaneous seroprevalence for both agents (9.9% of the animals), the results also indicate that deficiencies in management and environmental sanitation, the presence of reservoirs, and types of exploitation enhance the seropositivity. Thus, studies like this might support sanitary programs and public policies for the prevention of T. gondii and N. caninum in the sheep herds of Paraná state.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Doenças dos Ovinos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gatos , Coccidiose/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
16.
Parasite ; 28: 32, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812464

RESUMO

The sporulation of oocysts of Eimeria that infect poultry is known to be under the influence of environmental conditions, including temperature, oxygen supply, and moisture. However, even when these conditions are optimal, the level of sporulation can remain low. The effect of oocyst maturity on their ability to sporulate was investigated for two species of Eimeria: E. acervulina of chickens, and E. meleagrimitis of turkeys. After oral infection of birds, oocysts were collected at their production site in the intestine at different times around the prepatent period. The percentage of sporulation was determined by observation of 100 oocysts for each sample. With E. acervulina, it was observed that sporulation depended on the time of collection of the oocysts in the intestine, and that it increased with aging oocysts (from 5% to 40% globally in 8 h). With E. meleagrimitis, sporulation remained low with oocysts collected in the duodenum (below 20%), but oocysts collected in the midgut and in the lower intestine sporulated more efficiently (around 80%) than oocysts collected in the duodenum at the same time. One explanation for these results is the assumption that oocysts may be produced before fertilization, and that microgametes have not yet fertilized the newly produced oocysts. As time goes on, more oocysts would be fertilized, locally in the duodenum for E. acervulina, and descending along the gut for E. meleagrimitis. This hypothesis needs to be investigated further, but it could lead to new approaches to control these parasites by targeting the microgametes.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Oocistos
17.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2031-2035, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884491

RESUMO

Intestinal protozoa Eimeria and Entamoeba can infect many animal species including alpacas. However, data on the prevalence and pathogenicity of species of the two genera Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in China is scarce. The current study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas in two cities (Taiyuan and Xinzhou) in Shanxi Province, northern China, using PCR-based approaches. Eimeria spp. were only found in Taiyuan city, and the overall prevalence was 1.64%. All samples collected from male alpacas were PCR-negative for Eimeria. Four Eimeria-positive samples were tested positive as Eimeria lamae. The molecular prevalence of Entamoeba in alpacas was 18.03% (66/366), including 16.39% (50/305) in alpacas from Taiyuan city and 26.23% (16/61) from Xinzhou city, respectively. The Entamoeba prevalence in male alpacas (25.00%) was significantly higher than that in female alpacas (15.69%). Entamoeba bovis was the predominant species, and no Entamoeba histolytica infection was detected. Nine unique SSU rRNA gene sequences of Entamoeba were obtained which formed a new cluster. The results showed that sex and location might be the risk factors associated with prevalence of Eimeria spp., and sex might be the risk factor associated with prevalence of Entamoeba spp.. This is the first report of Entamoeba in alpacas worldwide. These findings expand our understanding of the prevalence and genetic diversity of Eimeria and Entamoeba in alpacas.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Entamebíase/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Entamebíase/complicações , Entamebíase/epidemiologia , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238673, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729384

RESUMO

Coccidiosis remains one of the major problems in poultry all over the world. Very limited data on anticoccidial drugs in wild pigeons is available. The current study was aimed to understand the comparative efficacy of sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen in wild pigeons of Dir district, Pakistan suffering from coccidiosis. The faecal matter of wild pigeons were purchased from the local market for coccidian infection. Results revealed that 88.8% (16/18) were found infected with Eimeria spp. Three positive groups were treated with sulfadimidine (0.2mg/L), amprolium (25mg/L) and triquen. Sulfadimidine was most effective (45%) followed by amprolium (44.6%) while triquen (24.0%) showed less effectiveness against coccidiosis in pigeons. Number of oocysts were 79, 81 and 80 before treatment and 60, 44 and 44 after treatment with sulfadimidine, amprolium and triquen respectively. This study showed that sulphadimidine, amprolium and triquen could not significantly reduce the coccidiosis in pigeons. Further studies are required to clear the mechanism of anti-coccidial drugs in wild pigeons.


Assuntos
Amprólio , Coccidiose , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae , Paquistão , Sulfametazina
19.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1799-1809, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649963

RESUMO

Present-day diagnostic tools and technologies for canine diseases and other vector-borne parasitic diseases hardly meet the requirements of an efficient and rapid diagnostic tool, which can be suitable for use at the point-of-care in resource-limited settings. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been always a method of choice in the development and validation of quick, precise, and sensitive diagnostic assays for pathogen detection and to reorganize point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnostics. In this study, we have demonstrated an efficient detection system for parasitic vector-borne pathogens like Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis by linking the LAMP assay to a smartphone via a simple, inexpensive, and a portable "LAMP box," All the components of the LAMP box were connected to each other wirelessly. This LAMP box was made up of an isothermal heating pad mounted below an aluminum base which served as a platform for the reaction tubes and LAMP assay. The entire setup could be connected to a smartphone via an inbuilt Wi-Fi that allowed the user to establish the connection to control the LAMP box. A 5 V USB power source was used as a power supply. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was estimated to be up to 10-6 dilution limit using the amplified, purified, and quantified specific DNA templates. It can also serve as an efficient diagnostic platform for many other veterinary infectious or parasitic diseases of zoonotic origin majorly towards field-based diagnostics.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Smartphone , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/diagnóstico , Animais , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichiose/diagnóstico , Eucoccidiida , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Testes Imediatos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 100984, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652244

RESUMO

Butyrate is a feed additive that has been shown to have antibacterial properties and improve gut health in broilers. Here, we examined the performance and gene expression changes in the ileum of tributyrin-supplemented broilers infected with coccidia. Ninety-six, Ross 708 broilers were fed either a control corn-soybean-based diet (-BE) or a diet supplemented with 0.25% (w/w) tributyrin (+BE). Birds were further divided into groups that were inoculated with Eimeria maxima oocysts (EM) or sham-inoculated (C) on day 21 posthatch. At 7 d postinfection (7 d PI), the peak of pathology in E. maxima infection, tributyrin-supplemented birds had significantly improved feed conversion ratios (FCR, P < 0.05) and body weight gain (BWG, P < 0.05) compared with -BE-infected birds, despite both groups having similar feed intake (FI, P > 0.05). However, at 10 d post-infection (10 d PI) no significant effects of feed type or infection were observed. Gene expression in the ileum was examined for insights into possible effects of infection and tributyrin supplementation on genes encoding proteins related to immunity, digestion, and gut barrier integrity. Among immune-related genes examined, IL-1B and LEAP2 were only significantly affected at 7 d PI. Transcription of genes related to digestion (APN, MCT1, FABP2, and MUC2) were primarily influenced by infection at 7 d PI and tributyrin supplementation (FABP2 and MUC2) at 10 d PI. With exception of ZO1, tight junction genes were affected by either infection or feed type at 7 d PI. At 10 d PI, only CLDN1 was not affected by either infection or feed type. Overall tributyrin shows promise as a supplement to improve performance during coccidiosis in broiler chickens; however, its effect on gene expression and mode of action requires further research.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Triglicerídeos , Ganho de Peso
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...