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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4121-4124, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872687

RESUMO

Due to the large amount of Codonopsis pilosula planted in Weiyuan county,and the arable land area,the local medicinal materials office uses a large amount of manpower,financial resources and material resources to estimate its area every year. In order to extract the information of local Chinese medicinal materials more quickly and simply,we try to apply remote sensing technology to the extraction of Chinese medicinal materials. This paper will use Weiyuan county of Gansu province as the research area,and use the domestic ZY-3 Satellite multi-spectral remote sensing image as the data source to find out the spectral characteristics of the party's participation in other remote sensing images. The visual interpretation method was used to extract the planting area of the C. pilosula in Weiyuan county. The estimated value of the planting area of C. pilosula using satellite remote sensing technology was 75 965 mu( 1 mu≈667 m2),which was basically consistent with the field survey data of the local medicinal materials office. After the accuracy verification,it was found that the precision of C. pilosula planted by visual interpretation was more than 70%. It is concluded that the satellite remote sensing technology can be used to extract the information of C. pilosula and it can provide the relevant information of the planting area of Chinese medicinal materials quickly and accurately.


Assuntos
Codonopsis , Plantas Medicinais , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , China
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4241-4248, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872705

RESUMO

Based on1 H-NMR metabonomics,the effects of Codonopsis pilosula,rice-fried C. pilosula and honey-fried C. pilosula on spleen-asthenia rats were compared,and the mechanism was discussed in this study. The rat model of spleen deficiency was established by weight-bearing swimming and fasting every other day. The effects of different processed products of C. pilosula on the body weight and swimming time of rats were observed. At the end of administration,the gastrocnemius muscle of the right leg of rats was collected and detected by1 H-NMR,and the mechanism of different processed products of C. pilosula in improving spleen deficiency was preliminarily investigated by multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that C. pilosula,honey-fried C. pilosula and rice-fried C. pilosula could significantly prolong the swimming time( P<0. 05). There was no significant difference in the body weight of rats with spleen deficiency. The results of metabonomics showed that honey-processed C. pilosula could significantly decrease levels of leucine,isoleucine,alanine,acetate,glutamate,succinate,anserine,dimethylamine,dimethylglycine,creatine,phosphorylcholine,glycerophosphorylcholine,taurine,inosine,fumate,hypoxanthine and lactate,but increase levels of glucose,glycine,compared with model group. Therefore,honey-fried C. pilosula has the best efficacy on spleen deficiency syndrome in rats by regulating glycometabolism,amino acid metabolism,lipid metabolism and nucleotide metabolism.


Assuntos
Codonopsis , Animais , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos , Baço
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3224-3232, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529898

RESUMO

To solve the problem of soil acidification in the cultivation of Codonopsis tangshen, laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate C. tangshen seed germination, seedling growth and soil exchangeable acid, microbial community structure after applying quicklime (QL) and calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (CMP). The results showed that QL and CMP treatments significantly improved the survival rate of C. tangshen seedlings from 147.7% to 326.7% and from 270.1% to 311.2%, respectively. The maximum increase rates of the height of C. tangshen seedlings were 516.7% and 546.3%, and that of root length were 798.0% and 679.2% in the treatments of QL and CMP, respectively. 1‰-4‰ QL or CMP treatments increased the relative chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity and the content of soluble protein of C. tangshen seedlings, decreased the content of malondialdehyde and superoxide anion radical of seedlings, increased soil pH by 0.88-2.02 units and 0.23-1.19 units, and decreased the exchangeable aluminum content in soil by 53.0%-95.3% and 17.6%-81.3%, respectively. Soil bacterial and actinomycetic abundances were significantly higher in 2‰-4‰ QL or CMP treatments than that in the control. Soil fungal abundance was significantly lower in the QL treatment of 2‰ and CMP treatment of 4‰. 1‰-4‰ QL or CMP treatments significantly increased fresh weight of C. tangshen tubers by 40.5%-78.5% and 28.4%-78.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the suitable quantity of QL and CMP for acidified soil (pH=4.12, ρb=1.15 g·cm-3, tillage layer=15 cm) amendment were 1.73-3.45 t·hm-2 and 3.45-6.90 t·hm-2, and QL and CMP amendment could fit the optimum soil pH (5.5-6.5) for the growth of C. tangshen seedlings.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Fosfatos , Compostos de Cálcio , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Óxidos , Solo
4.
Food Chem ; 293: 120-126, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151591

RESUMO

The effects of the natural ingredients Angelica sinensis (AS) and Codonopsis pilosula (CP) on the shelf life of chicken seasoning were investigated. Color differences and sensory evaluation were used to indicate sensory differences. Changes in volatiles were monitored. The rate of increase in the color value a* of the AS and CP samples was lower than that in the control. Rancid flavor appeared later in the AS and CP samples than in the control. The levels of aldehydes, ketones, and alkenes increased during storage. A kinetic model was built based on the proportion of aldehydes (main marker), to predict shelf life. The predicted shelf life at room temperature was 60 days for the control, 114 days for AS, and 89 days for CP. The shelf life of chicken seasoning could be prolonged with AS and CP. This kinetic model can be used to predict the shelf life of chicken seasoning.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Alcenos/química , Alcenos/metabolismo , Angelica sinensis/química , Angelica sinensis/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Codonopsis/química , Codonopsis/metabolismo , Cor , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Cetonas/química , Cetonas/metabolismo , Cinética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 279-290, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202192

RESUMO

Codonopsis tangshen Oliv. (C. tangshen Oliv.), a famous medicinal herb in China, is seriously affected by continuous cropping (C-cro). The physiological and biochemical results indicated that C-cro significantly affected the malonaldehyde (MDA) and chlorophyll content, as well as activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) when compared with the non-continuous cropping (NC-cro) group. Transcriptome profiling found 762 differentially expressed genes, including 430 up-regulated and 332 down-regulated genes by C-cro. In addition, pathway enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to 'Tyrosine degradation I', 'Glycogen synthesis' and 'Phenylalanine and tyrosine catabolism' were up-regulated, and genes associated with 'Signal transduction', 'Immune system', etc. were down-regulated by C-cro. The expression of target genes was further validated by Q-PCR. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of C-cro on C. tangshen at the transcriptome level, and found possible C-cro responsive candidate genes. These findings could be further beneficial for improving the continuous cropping tolerance.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/genética , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Herbivoria , Plantas Medicinais/genética , China , Clorofila/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Codonopsis/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malondialdeído/química , Fotossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 110, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies on the effect of saponin-rich Codonopsis lanceolata as a bioactive source for improving physical health have been performed. C. lanceolata contains triterpenoid saponins, including lancemasides. These saponins are known to be particularly involved in the regulation of blood pressure or hypertension. This study investigated whether lancemaside A (LA), a major triterpenoid saponin from C. lanceolata, regulates nitric oxide (NO) production via the activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. METHODS: Upon separation with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, LA was found to be abundant in the n-butanol-soluble portion. For further purification of LA, HPLC was performed to collect fraction, and LA was identified using analysis of LC/MSMS and 13C-NMR values. In in vitro, the effects of LA on NO release mechanism in HUVECs were investigated by Griess assay, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR, and Western blotting. RESULTS: Our results showed that NO production was efficiently improved by treatment with LA in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the LA treatment resulted in extensive recovery of the NO production suppressed by the eNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, compared with that in the control group. Additionally, the level of eNOS mRNA was increased by this treatment in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that LA is an inducer of NO synthesis via eNOS mRNA expression. Also, the study indicated that LA is involved in activating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that LA is an inducer of NO synthesis via eNOS mRNA expression. Also, the study indicated that LA is involved in activating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. These findings suggest the value of using LA as a component of functional foods and natural pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/química , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/química
7.
Phytomedicine ; 59: 152903, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of procoagulant state under prolonged hypoxic exposures and the complications and lack of specificity associated with use of existing anti-thrombotic agents have necessitated the search for safer and natural therapeutics. Codonopsis, a widely studied medicinal herb, has been reported to decrease whole blood viscosity but the bioactive ingredients involved, and their mechanism of action therein however remain to be investigated. PURPOSE: The present study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of C. clematidea root extract and mechanism of action of its bioactive constituent flavonoid, Kaempferol, in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced procoagulant state. METHODS: Fingerprinting analysis of methanolic extract of C. clematidea root was performed by RP-HPLC. In vitro toxicity study was conducted using HUVEC cell line and in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicity were done according to OECD guidelines (section-4, number-420 and 407 respectively). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230-250 g were exposed to global hypoxia simulating an altitude of 7600 m (282 mmHg), in animal decompression chamber for 3, 7, 14 and 21 days for in vivo studies. Dose optimisation of the extract was done by quantification of Thromboxane A2 in the serum of hypoxic rats. C. clematidea root extract was also evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties. Procoagulant changes were studied by biochemical plasma coagulation assays and expression analysis of the signalling molecules of the platelet activation cascade like vWF, platelet activation marker CD41, GpIb-IX-V (CD42), Lyn kinase, p-PI3K, p-ERK and p-PLCγ were conducted to investigate C. clematidea mediated signalling mechanisms. RESULTS: Methanolic extract of C. clematidea root showed improved antioxidant status and improvement in bleeding time and in vitro coagulation assays like pT, aPTT, INR. Decreased concentrations of D-Dimers along with that of platelet activation marker CD41 and serum concentration of Thromboxane A2 were observed in C. clematidea root extract supplemented hypoxic animals. Phosphorylation of Lyn kinase, was reduced despite increase in concentration of activating ligand vWF. CONCLUSION: C. clematidea root extract was effective in preventing hypoxia induced platelet activation and resultant procoagulant state by inhibiting Lyn kinase, a serine threonine kinase effector of vWF signalling cascade.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/química , Hipóxia/complicações , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIb-IX de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Animais , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Metanol/química , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIb-IX de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tromboxano A2/sangue
8.
Arch Virol ; 164(6): 1733-1737, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953204

RESUMO

High-throughput sequencing revealed a tentative new badnavirus infecting Codonopsis lanceolata, provisionally named Codonopsis vein clearing virus (CoVCV). The complete 8,112-nt CoVCV genomic DNA sequence (GenBank accession: MK044821) comprises three open reading frames (ORFs) encoding conserved domains, with typical features of badnaviruses. Additionally, BLASTn searches indicated the CoVCV genome sequence is most similar to the grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) genome (72% identity and 46% query coverage). Moreover, the polyprotein encoded in CoVCV ORF3 is most similar to the corresponding protein of GVCV, with 60% amino acid sequence identity (89% query coverage). These results suggest that CoVCV is a new member of the genus Badnavirus in the family Caulimoviridae.


Assuntos
Badnavirus/classificação , Codonopsis/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Badnavirus/genética , Badnavirus/isolamento & purificação , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Viral , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/virologia
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 130: 556-563, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831168

RESUMO

Three polysaccharides were isolated from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. They were named RCNP, RCAP-1, and RCAP-2, and had apparent molecular weights of 1.14 × 104, 5.09 × 104, and 2.58 × 105, respectively. Their structures were characterized by HPGPC, chemical derivative analysis, GC-MS and NMR analyses. Results showed that RCNP contained arabinan and arabinogalactan regions. The arabinan region had a main chain comprising (1 → 5)-linked Araf residues, and the side chains branched at the O-3 position by the single Araf residues. The arabinogalactan region comprised alternating (1 → 4)-, (1 → 6)- or (1 → 3)-linked Galp along with small amounts of branches mainly at the O-3 position of the (1 → 6)-linked Galp or O-6 position of the (1 → 3)-linked Galp residues by terminally linked Araf residues. RCAP-1 and RCAP-2 were highly methyl-esterified pectin-type polysaccharides with long homogalacturonan regions interrupted by a short rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region. The side chains of the RG-I region consisted of (1 → 2)-linked Rha residues attached to the position O-4 of rhamnose. Their degrees of methyl-esterification were approximately 60.6% and 68.1%, respectively. Bioactivity tests showed that RCAP-1 and RCAP-2 exerted a significant immunostimulatory effect based on NO production from RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested that these two pectin-type polysaccharides were potential immunostimulation agents.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Metilação , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Análise Espectral , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 236: 31-41, 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776470

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Codonopsis Radix is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, and has the effect of strengthening spleen and tonifying lung, nourishing blood and engendering liquid. In addition, it is also used as important food materials. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to explain the underlying correlations between chemical constituents and pharmacological effects and explore the bioactive markers of Codonopsis Radix. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Codonopsis Radix samples from Min county, Gansu province processed with different methods were taken as the materials, UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis was conducted to identify the compounds and establish UPLC fingerprint. Meanwhile, hematopoietic and immunologic functions of Codonopsis Radix were investigated to obtain relevant pharmacological index. Then, the correlation analysis between chemical constituents in UPLC fingerprints and pharmacological effects was carried out. The plant name was confirmed to the database "The Plant List" (www.theplantlist.org). RESULTS: According to the results of canonical correlation analysis, tryptophan, syringin, tangshenoside I, codonopyrrolidium A, lobetyolin and two unknown compounds might be the potential bioactive markers related to the hematopoietic and immunologic functions of Codonopsis Radix, which could be recommended as the index compounds. CONCLUSION: This study illustrated the underlying correlations between chemical constituents and pharmacological effects, explored the pharmacological material basis, and could lay a foundation for the improvement of quality standard of Codonopsis Radix.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/química , Hematopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos do Sistema Imunológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
11.
Molecules ; 24(3)2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717158

RESUMO

Bioactive metabolites in Codonopsis pilosula are of particular interest as an immunostimulant. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in the elicitation of metabolite biosynthesis. Here, we explored the response of metabolites to MeJA elicitation in C. pilosula adventitious roots and multiple shoots. The results showed that the biomass, polysaccharide, and lobetyolin content of adventitious roots exhibited the highest increases with 100 µmol·L-1 MeJA at the 16th day of subculture, whereas the atractylenolide III (a terpenoid) content increased extremely with 50 µmol·L-1 MeJA treatment at the 7th day of subculture. In addition, the biomass and lobetyolin content significantly increased at the 4th day after treatment. Similarly, the polysaccharide and lobetyolin content increased in multiple shoots. Further identification of different metabolites responding to MeJA by ¹H-NMR showed an extremely significant increase of the lobetyolinin level, which coincided with lobetyolin. Accordingly, the precursor, fatty acids, showed a highly significant decrease in their levels. Furthermore, a significant increase in ß-d-fructose-butanol glycoside was detected, which was accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose level. Accordingly, the enzyme genes responsible for terpenoid and carbohydrate biosynthesis, CpUGPase, and CpPMK, were up regulated. In conclusion, MeJA promoted culture growth and accelerated bioactive metabolite accumulation by regulating the expression of the metabolite biosynthesis related genes, CpUGPase and CpPMK in C. pilosula.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Codonopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Biomassa , Codonopsis/genética , Codonopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Codonopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Lactonas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/genética , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Poli-Inos/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/genética , UTP-Glucose-1-Fosfato Uridililtransferase/metabolismo
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 112: 108682, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797152

RESUMO

Immunity due to immune balance contributes to disease prevention and treatment. Radix Codonopsis polysaccharide (RCP) is isolated from the root of the Chinese herb Codonopsis pilosula. Previous studies have indicated that RCP has immunomodulatory activities; however, the effects of RCP on immunity, especially immune balance, are still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of RCP on T-cell balance in mice. The mice were pretreated intragastrically with or without RCP for 15 days and injected with hydrocortisone on days 10-15 to disturb the immune system. The spleen and thymus were weighed and used to calculate immune organ indexes. The percentages of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, Th1 cells, Th2 cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells in peripheral blood were assayed by flow cytometry. Pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-10, in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The results showed that RCP pretreatment could maintain the homeostasis of CD8+ T cells, Tregs, Th17 cells, TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-10 in hydrocortisone-treated mice. Furthermore, RCP pretreatment maintained the immune balance of CD4+/CD8+ T cells, Th1/Th2 cells, Tregs/Th17 cells, IL-10/TNF-α and IL-10/IL-1ß. Taken together, RCP pretreatment had beneficial effects on the maintenance of T-cell balance against hydrocortisone disturbance in mice and potential to be developed into novel functional food.


Assuntos
Codonopsis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
J Microbiol ; 57(5): 337-342, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806981

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, nonspore- forming, coccoid or rod-shaped and creamy-pigmented bacterium, designated SYP-B2100T, was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of Codonopsis clematidea in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The optimal growth occurred at 28°C, pH 5.0, in the absence of NaCl. The cells tested positive in catalase and methyl red tests but negative in oxidase, urease, gelatinase, milk coagulation, and peptonisation, H2S production, nitrate reduction, and Voges-Proskauer tests. The major isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 and summed feature 8. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain SYP-B2100T was the most similar to that of Rahnella inusitata DSM 30078T (96.9%) within the family Enterobacteriaceae. The genomic DNA G + C content of strain SYP-B2100T was 50.3 mol%. The combined data from the phylogenetic, morphological, physiological, biochemical, and chemotaxonomic analyses presented in this study support the conclusion that strain SYP-B2100T represents a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Edaphovirga cremea gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is SYPB2100T (= CGMCC 1.5857T = DSM 105170T = KCTC 62024T).


Assuntos
Codonopsis/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Talanta ; 192: 486-491, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30348422

RESUMO

Species of herbaceous flowering perennial plant of the family Campanulaceae such as Platycodon grandiflorum (P. grandiflorum) and Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) widely used in traditional medicine to treat different diseases. In spite of different medicinal results after consumption of the plants, it is hard to distinguish between two of them, because of their similar morphological characteristics. In this study, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) - based metabolite profiling approach was performed and examined to discriminate tuberous roots of P. grandiflorum and C. lanceolate for medicinal purposes. Two basic approaches for sample preparation, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solvent extraction were adopted. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) plots showed significant differences between P. grandiflorum and C. lanceolata for polar primary and volatile organic metabolites. A number of potential candidates were suggested as the chemomarkers for discrimination of two plants.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Platycodon/metabolismo , Codonopsis/química , Análise Discriminante , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Raízes de Plantas/química , Platycodon/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
15.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 21(1): 25-32, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319339

RESUMO

Three new compounds, pilosulinene A (1), pilosulinols A (2), and B (3), along with seven known compounds, were isolated from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula cultivated in Xundian County of Yunnan Province. The structures of new compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. In particular, the presence of an aromatic ring in the structure of 1 makes it intriguing. The inhibitory activity of compounds against SIRT1 was evaluated. The results showed that 8 could inhibit Sirt1 in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sirtuína 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Raízes de Plantas/química
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 125: 534-543, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521910

RESUMO

Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPPS) has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities. In previous study, CPPS was successfully modified to obtain its best selenizing Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (sCPPS5). The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of the selenizing derivative of CPPS (sCPPS5) from H2O2-induced oxidative damage in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and the possible mechanism of this protection. Results showed that the sCPPS5 was significantly stronger than that of the corresponding unmodified polysaccharide, CPPS. Meanwhile, sCPPS5 treatment could improve the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme, MMP, caspases-3 and apoptosis capacity of H2O2-induced RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the mechanism might be elucidated that sCPPS5 could increase expression level of Nrf2 and its downstream ARE gene battery, promote production of corresponding antioxidative enzymes and protein, and enhance Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway to avoid male reproductive dysfunction. Overall, these results showed that sCPPS5 as a potent antioxidant could reduce reproductive oxidative stress damage related to Keap1-Nrf2/ARE pathway.


Assuntos
Codonopsis/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Molecules ; 23(12)2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501018

RESUMO

Radix Codonopsis, derived from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. Var. modesta (Nannf.) L.T. Shen and Codonopsis tangshen Oliv., has been used as traditional Chinese medicine for improving poor gastrointestinal function, treating gastric ulcers and chronic gastritis in China. Inulin-type fructans are carbohydrates consisting mainly of ß (2→1) fructosyl-fructose links in chemical structure and exhibit a range of properties such as prebiotic activity, fat substitutes in low-calorie foods and disease-modifying effects. The prebiotic effects of inulin-type fructans are hypothesized to improve gastrointestinal function through alterations to gut microbiota composition and metabolism. In the present study, three inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization (DP = 16, 22, and 31) were isolated from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. and their structures were confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR. The prebiotic activity of these fructans was evaluated by detecting growth stimulation on Bifidobacterium longum. The results demonstrated that three fructans at a concentration of 2.0 g/L exhibited significant growth stimulation on Bifidobacterium longum in a time-dependent manner (p < 0.01). The data indicated that inulin-type fructans in Radix Codonopsis could be used as potential prebiotics.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum/efeitos dos fármacos , Codonopsis/química , Inulina/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Prebióticos , Bifidobacterium longum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297684

RESUMO

Codonopsis lanceolata is widely used in traditional medicine and diets. However, there is no optimal protocol for the commercial production of C. lanceolata seedlings. This study was carried out to find the optimum supplementary light source for the production of C. lanceolata seedlings. Seedlings were grown for four weeks in a glasshouse with an average daily light intensity of 490 µmol·m-2·s-1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) coming from the sun and a 16-h daily supplementary lighting at 120 µmol·m-2·s-1 PPFD from either high-pressure sodium (HPS), metal halide (MH), far-red (FR), white LED (LED-w), or mixed (white: red: blue = 1:2:1) LEDs (LED-mix). The results showed that the greatest total biomass, stem diameter, ratio of shoot weight to shoot length, root biomass, and ratio of root weight to shoot weight were found in seedlings grown under supplementary LED-mix. Meanwhile, the stomatal properties and soluble sugar contents were improved for seedlings in LED-mix. The contents of starch, total phenols, and flavonoids were the greatest for seedlings in LED-w and LED-mix. The expression of photosynthetic proteins and genes in seedlings was also enhanced by LED-mix. Overall, these results suggest that LED-mix is advantageous to the photosynthetic potential and the accumulation of biomass, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites in C. lanceolata.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Codonopsis/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Codonopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Codonopsis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Fotossíntese , Amido/biossíntese
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 108: 1048-1061, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372805

RESUMO

In an attempt to explore reasonable and impervious remedies against visceral leishmaniasis, antileishmanial potential of hydroethanolic extract of Codonopsis clematidea (HECC) and its active component, naringenin (NRG) was investigated on the basis of innocuous and immunostimulatory properties. In vitro analysis showed the ability of HECC and NRG to arrest the promastigotes in sub G0/G1 phase. Further to evaluate the protective efficacy, inbred BALB/c mice infected with L. donovani were treated with HECC and NRG for 14 days. The treated animals were sacrificed on 7th and 14th post treatment days and scrutinized for clearance of parasite, DTH response, different Th1/Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-10, IL-4), T cells and B cell responses. The expression of iNOS, NFκB and the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species was also evaluated. The toxic effect of HECC and NRG was checked in terms of biochemical parameters and histological studies. Maximum reduction in parasite load and increase in the DTH response was observed in NRG treated animals in comparison to HECC and infected control. HECC and NRG switched the host Th2 immune response to the Th1-type along with the induction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. CD19 B cells were found to be decreased in NRG and HECC treated animals as compared to infected control. Moreover, treatment of HECC and NRG showed no alterations in hepatic and renal enzymes which was well supported by normal architecture of liver and kidney. The mechanistic details of NRG proved that it increased the NO and ROS production by activating the NFκB and iNOS expression and thus reduced the parasite load. These findings depicted that activity of HECC might be due to the presence of NRG and that the NRG provides an encouraging alternative for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis with the rejuvenation of immune status of the host.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Codonopsis/química , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Arch Pharm Res ; 41(11): 1082-1091, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264325

RESUMO

A new phenylpropanoid (1), a new alkaloid (11), and a new natural polyacetylene (17), together with nine phenolic compounds (2-10), five alkaloids (12-16), three polyacetylenes (18-20), three triterpenoidal saponins (21-23), one phenylethanoid glycoside (24), and three hexyl glycosides (25-27) with previous known structures, were isolated from the roots of Codonopsis lanceolata. All of the isolates 1-27 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and cell viability in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. Among the isolates, lancemasides A and B have a significant inhibitory effect on the production of NO in RAW264.7 cells (IC50 values < 50 µM). In A2780 cells, lancemaside A exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect on cell viability. This is the first report on the pharmacological activities of lancemaside B (22).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Codonopsis/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Saponinas/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Células RAW 264.7 , Saponinas/farmacologia , Triterpenos/farmacologia
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