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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 549, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782923

RESUMO

Four hundred and eighty 1-day-old Japanese quail chicks from white and brown strains, 240 birds from each strain, were divided into 4 treatment groups with 6 replicates each (10 birds/replicate). Both strains of quail were fed diets containing 0%, 3%, 6%, and 9% pomegranate peel (PP) powder for a period of 42 days. Results revealed that the final body weight (BW), total feed intake (TFI), body weight gain (BWG), gizzard percentage, and eviscerated carcass weight of white growing quails were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the brown strain. Quail group fed with 6% PP powder had the highest (P < 0.001) average final BW and BWG (P < 0.001). The dietary PP powder at different levels significantly (P = 0.032) decreased TFI, but had no significant effect on carcass traits except for the liver percentage. Quails fed diet 3% and 9% PP powder had significant (P < 0.001) increased count of immune cells, and improved antioxidant potency. White quails fed diet 3% and 6% PP powder had greater expression of hepatic GHR gene. The expression of hepatic IGF-1 gene was significantly (P < 0.05) higher for brown quails fed diet 6% and 9% PP powder. White quails recorded the highest value of total return (TR). Quails fed diet 6% and 9% PP powder significantly (P < 0.001) recorded higher net return (NR) values. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of PP powder at levels up to 9% for Japanese quail strains improved the growth performance, increased antioxidant properties, enhanced hepatic gene expression, and did not show any adverse influence on carcass quality and blood indices of Japanese quail. Moreover, it increased the NR.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Romã (Fruta) , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Pós , Codorniz
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 494, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599391

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and genistein on performance and meat fatty acid profiles in quail exposed to heat stress. A total of 360 Japanese quail were divided into 12 groups in a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design; each group comprised 30 quail with five replicates and were kept either at 22 ± 2 °C for 24 h/day (Thermoneutral, TN) or 34 ± 2 °C for 8 h/day (08:00 to 17:00 h) followed by 22 °C for 16 h (heat stress, HS) conditions. The diet contained either two levels of PUFA at 15 or 45% of total fat or three levels of genistein at 0, 400, or 800 mg/kg. Bodyweight gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency were lower (p ≥ 0.01) for quail reared under heat stress and fed low PUFA. Increasing dietary genistein in a linear manner improved the productive performance (p < 0.001). Heat stress caused increases in serum and thigh meat malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and decreases in genistein and vitamin E and A concentrations in serum and thigh meat (p < 0.001). High PUFA (PUFA45) in the diet of quail caused greater 18:2, 18:3 ALA, EPA, DHA, n-6, and n-3 PUFA as well as total PUFA and total USFA percentages (p < 0.001) in the thigh muscle, some of which decreased with heat stress (p ≥ 0.006) with no regard to genistein supplementation. This study revealed that genistein with greater doses along with greater PUFA inclusion to the diet of quail reared under heat stress is recommended for alleviating adverse effects of heat stress and for yielding healthier meat for human consumption.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Codorniz , Animais , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados , Genisteína , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Carne
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101418, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600273

RESUMO

Japanese quail is an increasingly important bird of economic importance for commercial egg and meat production, particularly in developing countries. There is a need for research aimed at improving efficiency of these birds during stressful challenges, such as oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a highly functional antioxidant, protects cells against oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the effects of CoQ10 on reproductive performance of Japanese quail under cadmium (Cd) challenge. A total of 216 six-wk-old Japanese quail were randomly allocated into 3 groups for an 8 wk experimental trial. The treatments include a negative control (NC): feeding basal diet; a positive control (PC): feeding basal diet and cadmium administration (1 mg/100 g BW, at 10 and 11 wk of age), and (CdQ10): feeding CoQ10 supplemented (900 mg/kg diet) basal diet and Cd administration. At 11 and 13 wk of age, egg production, body weight, mortality, oviduct, and ovarian biometry, were recorded. Histology and histopathology of isthmus and magnum, fertility, hatchability, hatchling quality, and HSP70 mRNA transcript abundance in the utero-vaginal junction (UVJ) were evaluated. Positive control and CdQ10 group had no significant effect on live body weight, stroma weight, follicle size, hatchability, and fertility; however, Cd administration increased (P < 0.01) mortality rate in the PC group compared to the NC and CdQ10 groups. CdQ10 quail produced more eggs and had a higher hatchling quality compared to the PC group (P < 0.01). The thickness and height of isthmus and magnum folds in the CdQ10 group was increased compared to the PC group (P < 0.01) and overall oviduct weight was increased with CoQ10 supplementation (P < 0.01). Compared to PC, the CdQ10 group had a reduction in infiltration of inflammatory cells. Relative abundance of HSP70 mRNA in UVJ was influenced by interactive effect of treatment × time (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of CoQ10 showed beneficial effects on some reproduction characteristics of female Japanese quail under Cd-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Coturnix , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Óvulo , Codorniz , Reprodução , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados
4.
Elife ; 102021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607629

RESUMO

Although cell-to-cell heterogeneity in gene and protein expression within cell populations has been widely documented, we know little about its biological functions. By studying progenitors of the posterior region of bird embryos, we found that expression levels of transcription factors Sox2 and Bra, respectively involved in neural tube (NT) and mesoderm specification, display a high degree of cell-to-cell heterogeneity. By combining forced expression and downregulation approaches with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that Sox2-to-Bra ratio guides progenitor's motility and their ability to stay in or exit the progenitor zone to integrate neural or mesodermal tissues. Indeed, high Bra levels confer high motility that pushes cells to join the paraxial mesoderm, while high levels of Sox2 tend to inhibit cell movement forcing cells to integrate the NT. Mathematical modeling captures the importance of cell motility regulation in this process and further suggests that randomness in Sox2/Bra cell-to-cell distribution favors cell rearrangements and tissue shape conservation.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Proteínas Fetais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/genética , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem da Célula , Codorniz
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(6): 518, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665349

RESUMO

This study investigates the effects of hesperidin on eggs' internal and external quality parameters, the fatty acid in egg yolk, and the nutrient content adding different amounts of hesperidin to the quail diets. A total of 150 Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were divided into three groups (0% hesperidin group (n = 5 × 10) (control group; HES0), 0.1% hesperidin group (HES1), and 0.2% hesperidin group (HES2)) with five replicates. It has been found in the analysis that hesperidin did not affect the weight and thickness of the shell from the external quality parameters of the egg (P > 0.05), but in terms of the HES1 and HES2 groups, the weight of the egg increased compared to the HES0 group, while the fracture resistance of the shell decreased (P < 0.05). Eggs' internal quality parameters have shown that the egg white width (P < 0.05) and the yolk diameter (P < 0.01) increased in the HES1 and HES2 groups, and the length of white decreased (P < 0.05). It has been found that n-6 (linoleic acid) and n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid) fatty acid values increased significantly according to hesperidin dosage (P < 0.05) from the parameters of the composition of fatty acids of the eggs. As a result, it is believed that hesperidin added to the diet has a generally positive effect on the fatty acid composition and internal and external quality parameters of the eggs and would be appropriate to use it as a feed additive.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Hesperidina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo , Ovos , Óvulo , Codorniz
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101463, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619580

RESUMO

The present study was performed to evaluate the influence of low crude protein (CP) levels, zinc sources (organic as zinc methionine-Zn-Met and inorganic as zinc oxide-ZnO) and their interactions on growth performance, carcass traits, and blood components of growing Japanese quail. A total of 450 one-wk-old Japanese quail with the same body weights were randomly distributed into 9 groups of 50 birds. The 9-diet treatments comprised 3 levels of CP (20, 22, and 24%) and 3 Zn source (0 g of Zn/kg diet, 0.1 g ZnO/kg diet, and 0.1 g Zn-Met/kg diet). The results obtained from this study showed that there were no significant differences among the groups, except for differences in body weight (BW) and body weight gain (BWG) at 3 to 5 - and 1 to 5 wk of age for quail supplemented with 24% and 20% CP. All the studied biochemical parameters were significantly influenced by different levels of CP and Zn, except urea and creatinine, which were affected by CP levels only. In conclusion, dietary protein level for growing Japanese quails could be reduced to 20% without negative effects on their performance, carcass traits, and blood metabolites.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Codorniz , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rim , Fígado , Zinco
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0253635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610035

RESUMO

Hunter harvest is a potential factor contributing to population declines of sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). As a result, wildlife agencies throughout western North America have set increasingly more conservative harvest regulations over the past 25 years to reduce or eliminate hunter success and concomitant numbers of harvested greater (C. urophasianus) and Gunnison (C. minimus) sage-grouse. Sage-grouse hunting has varied widely over time and space, which has made a comprehensive summary of hunting management challenging. We compiled data on harvest regulations among 11 western U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces from 1870-2019 to create a timeline representative of hunting regulations. We compared annual harvest boundaries and area-weighted average hunting regulations, 1995-2018, relative to administrative boundaries and areas of high probability of sage-grouse occupation. We also summarized estimated numbers of birds harvested and hunters afield, 1995-2018, across both species' ranges. From 1995-2018, there was a 30% reduction in administrative harvest boundaries across the greater sage-grouse range compared to a 16.6% reduction in area open to harvest within 8 km from active leks. Temporary closures occurred in response to wildfires, disease outbreaks, low population numbers, and two research projects; whereas, permanent closures primarily occurred in small populations and areas on the periphery of the species distribution. Similarly, area-weighted possession limits and season length for greater sage-grouse decreased 52.6% and 61.0%, respectively, while season start date stayed relatively stable (mean start date ~259 [mid-September]). In contrast, hunting of the now federally-threatened Gunnison sage-grouse ended after 1999. While restrictions in harvest regulations were large in area, closures near areas of high greater sage-grouse occupancy were relatively smaller with the same trend for Gunnison sage-grouse until hunting ceased. For greater sage-grouse, most states reduced bag and possession limits and appeared to adhere to recommendations for later and shorter hunting seasons, reducing potential for additive mortality.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , América do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Codorniz/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
8.
J Food Biochem ; 45(10): e13941, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532863

RESUMO

To improve the quality of salted quail eggs and solve the problem of excessive sodium content in salted eggs, we selected substitutes (K2 CO3 , CaCl2 , MgCl2 , ZnCl2 , and FeC6 H5 O7 ) to partially replace NaCl and study its effect on water migration, physicochemical properties, and textural characteristics. The low-field nuclear magnetic resonance technology (LF-NMR) was used to qualitatively analyze the moisture and proton content of quail eggs during the pickling process. The results showed that the relaxation curves of ZnCl2 and FeC6 H5 O7 groups were significantly different from those of other groups. The bound water content of the ZnCl2 group increased significantly, and FeC6 H5 O7 made the binding degree of water closer. The Na+ of different substitute groups was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; it was found that the permeation rate of NaCl in the curing process was in the following order: K2 CO3 > control group > MgCl2 > FeC6 H5 O7 > CaCl2 > ZnCl2 . Through the electronic tongue study and comparing the ripening period of salted quail eggs, it was found that the flavor and ripening time of salted quail eggs cured by ZnCl2 and FeC6 H5 O7 were not suitable for low-sodium pickling preparation. At the same time, CaCl2 and MgCl2 were suitable for low-sodium pickling and could improve the product quality. When using K2 CO3 , the substitution ratio can be reduced and two or more compound-curing agents can be formed with CaCl2 and MgCl2 , thus reducing the content of sodium salt in salted eggs. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: We simulated the metallic elements contained in the traditional black ash-salted eggs and salt mud coatings. By partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with different metal salts (K2 CO3 , CaCl2 , MgCl2 , ZnCl2 , and FeC6 H5 O7 ), we studied the effects of these metal salts on the physical and chemical properties, texture, and microstructure of quail eggs during the pickling process. Several suitable low-sodium substitutes were screened out to provide a theoretical foundation for the process optimization of low-sodium-salted quail eggs.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Cloreto de Sódio , Animais , Ovos , Codorniz , Sódio/análise
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543290

RESUMO

Habitat loss from land-use change is one of the top causes of declines in wildlife species of concern. As such, it is critical to assess and reassess habitat suitability as land cover and anthropogenic features change for both monitoring and developing current information to inform management decisions. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to develop consistent assessments through time. A range-wide lek habitat suitability model for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), currently under review by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for potential listing under the Endangered Species Act, was published in 2016. This model was based on lek data from 2002 to 2012, land cover data ranging from 2001 to 2013, and anthropogenic features from circa 2011, and has been used to help guide lesser prairie-chicken management and anthropogenic development actions. We created a second iteration model based on new lek surveys (2015 to 2019) and updated predictors (2016 land cover and cleaned/updated anthropogenic data) to evaluate changes in lek suitability and to quantify current range-wide habitat suitability. Only three of 11 predictor variables were directly comparable between the iterations, making it difficult to directly assess what predicted changes resulted from changes in model inputs versus actual landscape change. The second iteration model showed a similar positive relationship with land cover and negative relationship with anthropogenic features to the first iteration, but exhibited more variation among candidate models. Range-wide, more suitable habitat was predicted in the second iteration. The Shinnery Oak Ecoregion, however, exhibited a loss in predicted suitable habitat that could be due to predictor source changes. Iterated models such as this are important to ensure current information is being used in conservation and development decisions.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Codorniz/fisiologia
10.
J Vis Exp ; (174)2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459802

RESUMO

Microplastics are an emerging global pollutant type that poses a great health threat to animals due to their uptake and translocation in animal tissues and organs. Ecotoxicological effects of microplastics on the development of bird embryos are not known. The bird egg is a complete development and nutrition system, and the entire embryo development occurs in the eggshell. Therefore, a direct record of bird embryo development under the stress of pollutants such as microplastics is highly limited by the opaque eggshell in traditional hatching. In this study, the effects of microplastics on quail embryo development were visually monitored by hatching without an eggshell. The main steps include the cleaning and disinfection of fertilized eggs, the incubation before exposure, the short-term incubation after exposure, and the sample extraction. The results show that compared with the control group, the wet weight and body length of the microplastics-exposed group displayed a statistical difference and the liver proportion of the whole exposed group significantly increased. Additionally, we evaluated external factors that affect the incubation: temperature, humidity, egg rotation angle, and other conditions. This experimental method provides valuable information on the ecotoxicology of microplastics and a novel way to study the adverse effects of pollutants on the development of embryos.


Assuntos
Casca de Ovo , Microplásticos , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Plásticos/toxicidade , Codorniz
11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255434, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347834

RESUMO

Infectious diseases in captive pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) are well known, but there is a lack of knowledge about occurrence and distribution of pathogens in free-ranging pheasants in Germany. We investigated 604 sera from hunted pheasants and 152 sera from wild caught pheasants between 2011 to 2015, with the aim to determine the prevalence of specific antibodies against different viruses: Avian influenza virus (AIV) of subtypes H5, H7, H9, paramyxovirus type 1 (PMV-1), avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV), infectious bursitis disease virus (IBDV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Salmonella sp., Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). In addition, 178 caeca were investigated for Histomonas meleagridis. The study reveals an ongoing circulation of IBV in the wild pheasant population during the study. Also high seroprevalences of specific antibodies against aMPV depending on the area and a strong increase in prevalence of IBDV antibodies in sera of pheasants in Lower Saxony were detected. ILTV antibody prevalences differed between areas and AEV antibody detection differed between years significantly, whereas specific antibodies against PMV-1 could not be detected and antibodies against AIV-H5, -H7 and -H9 and Mycoplasma spp. were detected in very few cases.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Animais , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1 , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Codorniz
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(7): e1009801, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324600

RESUMO

Pathogens possess the ability to adapt and survive in some host species but not in others-an ecological trait known as host tropism. Transmitted through ticks and carried mainly by mammals and birds, the Lyme disease (LD) bacterium is a well-suited model to study such tropism. Three main causative agents of LD, Borrelia burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii, vary in host ranges through mechanisms eluding characterization. By feeding ticks infected with different Borrelia species, utilizing feeding chambers and live mice and quail, we found species-level differences in bacterial transmission. These differences localize on the tick blood meal, and specifically complement, a defense in vertebrate blood, and a polymorphic bacterial protein, CspA, which inactivates complement by binding to a host complement inhibitor, Factor H (FH). CspA selectively confers bacterial transmission to vertebrates that produce FH capable of allele-specific recognition. CspA is the only member of the Pfam54 gene family to exhibit host-specific FH-binding. Phylogenetic analyses revealed convergent evolution as the driver of such uniqueness, and that FH-binding likely emerged during the last glacial maximum. Our results identify a determinant of host tropism in Lyme disease infection, thus defining an evolutionary mechanism that shapes host-pathogen associations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Borrelia burgdorferi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Borrelia burgdorferi/genética , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Fator H do Complemento/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/fisiologia , Camundongos , Codorniz , Especificidade da Espécie , Carrapatos
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101235, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214746

RESUMO

Comparative studies designed to investigate the role of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity on the enzyme catalyzed trapping of aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO) with glutathione, and the relationship with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) resistance have not been conducted in poultry. Hepatic cytosolic fractions of chickens, quail, turkeys and ducks were used to measure in vitro the enzymatic parameters maximal velocity (Vmax), Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and intrinsic clearance (CLint) for GST activity. AFB1 used ranged from 2.0 to 157.5 µM and the AFB1-GSH produced was identified and quantitated by HPLC. Significant differences were found in GST Vmax values, being the highest in chickens, followed by quail, ducks and turkeys. The Km values were also significantly different, with chickens < ducks < turkeys < quail. Chickens had the higher CLint value in contrast to ducks. Differences by sex showed that duck females had a higher CLint value than the turkey and quail, whereas duck males had a CLint close to that of turkey. The ratio "AFBO production /AFB1-GSH production" follows the order duck>turkey>quail>chicken, in agreement with the known poultry sensitivity. The extremely high "AFB1 epoxidation activity/ GST activity" ratio observed in ducks might be the explanation for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in this species.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Glutationa Transferase , Animais , Galinhas , Patos , Feminino , Fígado , Masculino , Aves Domésticas , Codorniz , Perus
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101277, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198089

RESUMO

The study of adipogenesis is one of the most important areas for not only regulating meat quality, but production efficiency associated with fat accretion in the poultry species. Current in vitro models for avian adipogenesis require adipogenic inducers including dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), fatty acids, or insulin. However, problems still remain in these models for testing/screening potential nutritional, hormonal, and pharmaceutical factors because of interfering/overriding effects of the inducing factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a simple in vitro method for avian adipogenesis. In this study, chicken serum (CS) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared for adipogenic potential using chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF). Oil-red O staining at 4 d in culture of CEF under CS revealed that lipid droplet formation was increased by CS in a dose-dependent manner (0 to 10%). On the contrary, all concentrations of FBS (0 to 10%) alone did not show lipid droplet formation. In accordance with the morphological data of CEF, mRNA expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation/determination, fatty acid uptake, and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis, were most significantly up-regulated by 10% CS at d 4 compared to 1 or 5% CS. In addition, embryonic cells isolated from quail (QEF) at E5, duck (DEF) at E6, and turkey (TEF) at E6, were tested for adipogenic differentiation by media containing the same concentrations of CS. Similar to the morphological data from CEF, quantitative data of the Oil-red O staining showed that lipid droplet formation in QEF, DEF, and TEF was increased by CS in a dose-dependent manner (0 to 10%). The current study demonstrates that CS alone can induce adipogenesis on embryonic fibroblasts of various poultry species. By providing a new simple in vitro method of avian adipogenesis, diverse nutritional, hormonal, and pharmaceutical factors can be broadly and easily tested for scientific and industrial purposes.


Assuntos
Adipogenia , Galinhas , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Patos , Fibroblastos , Codorniz
15.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202741

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of different types of heat treatments on hen's egg white (HEw) and quail egg white (QEw) proteins and their cross-reactivity in young children. Crude extracts of raw and water-boiled HEw and QEw and commercially developed stone-baked HEw were prepared. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was then performed. Patients diagnosed with HEw allergy were enrolled, and pooled sera were tested with each extract in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-inhibition test. A skin prick test (SPT) and oral food challenge (OFC) were also performed. The median age of 12 patients was 2.5 years. SDS-PAGE results revealed strongly stained bands for the ovomucoid of boiled HEw and QEw, while stone-baked HEw displayed remarkable changes for all protein fractions. In the ELISA-inhibition test, pre-incubation of the sera led to a profound decrease, moderate decrease, and minimal decrease in the amount of IgE binding to boiled and raw HEw, boiled and raw QEw, and stone-baked HEw proteins, respectively. SPTs and OFC demonstrated cross-reactivity values of 41.7% (5/12) and 16.7% (2/12) for boiled QEw and stone-baked HEw, respectively. We observed moderate cross-reactivity between QEw and HEw. Boiling had a limited effect on altering egg allergenicity. Commercially developed, stone-baked HEw can be an alternative food for children with HE allergy.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/imunologia , Proteínas do Ovo/imunologia , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Galinhas , Pré-Escolar , Culinária , Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante/métodos , Ovos/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ovomucina/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Codorniz , Testes Cutâneos
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101266, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225203

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the impacts of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) on the growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal microbiota, liver and kidney functions, immunity, oxidative status, and lipid profile of Japanese quails. A total of 200 one-week-old unsexed Japanese quails with an average initial body weight of 26.24 ± 0.2 g were randomly distributed into 5 equal groups of 40 birds and further subdivided into 5 replicates. The first (control) group was fed a diet without any licorice, while licorice powder was added at levels of 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg per kg diet in the second, third, fourth, and fifth groups, respectively. At the age of 3 wk, the group of quail fed on a diet supplemented with 750 and 1000 mg licorice/kg of diet gained the highest body weight (BW) and daily body weight (DBW), while attaining the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to other groups. Meanwhile, groups fed diets with licorice at levels of 0 and 250 mg/kg showed the highest feed intake. After the 5-wk feeding trial, the highest BW and DBW values, and the lowest FCR were recorded in the group fed with 750 mg licorice/kg diet. The different treatments produced no significant differences (P > 0.05) in quail carcass characteristics, including percentages of carcass, liver, gizzard, heart, giblets, and dressing. The blood of the group fed a 750 mg licorice diet had higher contents of total protein and GLOB, while its contents of A/G%, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were lower. Apart from the high level of licorice (1000 mg/kg), the MDA level was linearly and quadratically (P = 0.0413 and 0.001) decreased with different licorice groups, while superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), immunoglobulin G (IgG), and M (IgM) were quadratically increased when compared to the control group. Licorice supplementation resulted in marked reductions in the number of total bacteria, coliforms, E. coli, and Salmonella, compared to those in the control. In conclusion, the inclusion of licorice at levels of 750 and 1000 mg/kg into the diet of Japanese quail enhances the animal's performance, immunity, antioxidant capacity, and maintains a healthy gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Glycyrrhiza , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Coturnix , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli , Codorniz
17.
Curr Biol ; 31(12): R781-R783, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157259

RESUMO

Birds are experts in many behaviors akin to those in mammals that are known to involve the hippocampus, yet the avian hippocampus is still poorly understood. A new study finds head-direction cells, but not place cells, in the hippocampal formation of quails.


Assuntos
Células de Lugar , Codorniz , Animais , Hipocampo , Mamíferos
18.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(2): 125-133, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170843

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of different dietary concentrations of ochratoxin A (OTA) on the growth, feed intake, mortality, blood plasma protein content and some parameters of lipid peroxidation and the glutathione redox system of pheasant chicks in a three-week long trial. A total of 320 seven-day-old female pheasants were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 40 in each), fed with a diet artificially contaminated with OTA [control (<0.02 mg/kg), 0.88 mg/kg, 1.14 mg/kg and 1.51 mg/kg] for 21 days (up to 28 days of age). The pheasant chicks were sacrificed at early (12, 24 and 72 h) and late (7, 14 and 21 days) stages of mycotoxin exposure to check the effect of OTA. Minimal feed refusal was found in the medium- and high-dose toxin groups (-9.8 and -7.9%, respectively), and body weight gain was nearly the same in all groups. The glutathione redox system was activated mainly in the liver, confirmed by significantly increased reduced glutathione content and glutathione peroxidase activity during the late phase of mycotoxin exposure and at a high-dose treatment. The results suggest that pheasants have low susceptibility to OTA, and activation of the glutathione redox system has importance in this tolerance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Glutationa , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ocratoxinas , Oxirredução , Codorniz/metabolismo
19.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 321(2): H294-H305, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142884

RESUMO

The etiology of ethanol-related congenital heart defects has been the focus of much study, but most research has concentrated on cellular and molecular mechanisms. We have shown with optical coherence tomography (OCT) that ethanol exposure led to increased retrograde flow and smaller atrioventricular (AV) cushions compared with controls. Since AV cushions play a role in patterning the conduction delay at the atrioventricular junction (AVJ), this study aims to investigate whether ethanol exposure alters the AVJ conduction in early looping hearts and whether this alteration is related to the decreased cushion size. Quail embryos were exposed to a single dose of ethanol at gastrulation, and Hamburger-Hamilton stage 19-20 hearts were dissected for imaging. Cardiac conduction was measured using an optical mapping microscope and we imaged the endocardial cushions using OCT. Our results showed that, compared with controls, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited abnormally fast AVJ conduction and reduced cushion size. However, this increased conduction velocity (CV) did not strictly correlate with decreased cushion volume and thickness. By matching the CV map to the cushion-size map along the inflow heart tube, we found that the slowest conduction location was consistently at the atrial side of the AVJ, which had the thinner cushions, not at the thickest cushion location at the ventricular side as expected. Our findings reveal regional differences in the AVJ myocardium even at this early stage in heart development. These findings reveal the early steps leading to the heterogeneity and complexity of conduction at the mature AVJ, a site where arrhythmias can be initiated.NEW & NOTEWORTHY To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the impact of ethanol exposure on the early cardiac conduction system. Our results showed that ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited abnormally fast atrioventricular conduction. In addition, our findings, in CV measurements and endocardial cushion thickness, reveal regional differences in the AVJ myocardium even at this early stage in heart development, suggesting that the differentiation and maturation at this site are complex and warrant further studies.


Assuntos
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Coxins Endocárdicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Coxins Endocárdicos/diagnóstico por imagem , Coxins Endocárdicos/embriologia , Gastrulação , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/embriologia , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/embriologia , Codorniz , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Imagens com Corantes Sensíveis à Voltagem
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101257, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174566

RESUMO

Increased growth rate and decreased cost of feed are main focuses to increase revenue of poultry farms. Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth and mutation on MSTN results in increased muscle growth. Due to the antimyogenic function of MSTN, MSTN gains high attention as a potential target and genetic selection marker to increase meat yield in the livestock industry. In addition, MSTN can affect feed efficiencies and, thus decrease total feed requirement as shown in increased feed efficiencies in pigs and cattle with MSTN mutations. Although MSTN mutation in various animal species has been previously studied, MSTN mutation in avian species has only recently been generated to characterize its biological function. However, beneficial effects of MSTN mutation on poultry production need to be further investigated. In this study, using the MSTN mutant quail, feed efficiency related to interplay of changes in body weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), and fat accretion were investigated. WG of mutant quail were significantly higher (P< 0.001) than those of wild-type (WT) from all time periods, 10-d interval from post-hatching day (D)10 to 40. Feed intake of mutant quail were significantly higher than those of WT from D 10 to 20 (P< 0.01) and D 20 to 30 (P< 0.001), but not from D 30 to 40, resulting in a significantly lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) of mutant quail compared to WT quail only from D 30 to 40 (P< 0.001). From those results, overall (D 10 to 40) FCR was significantly lower in mutant quail (P< 0.001) indicating improved feed efficiency by MSTN mutation. In addition, percentages of leg or abdominal fat compared to body weight in mutant quail at 8 wk were significantly lower than WT (P< 0.05). In combination to greater WG, less fat accretion might partially contribute to improved feed efficiency in MSTN mutant quail. As there is a current preference of meat with lower fat as a healthy food, MSTN can be used for the potential selection marker for not only bigger and leaner poultry, but also better feed efficiency that can satisfy both producers and consumers.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Miostatina , Codorniz , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Edição de Genes/veterinária , Mutação , Miostatina/genética , Codorniz/genética
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