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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0253635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610035

RESUMO

Hunter harvest is a potential factor contributing to population declines of sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). As a result, wildlife agencies throughout western North America have set increasingly more conservative harvest regulations over the past 25 years to reduce or eliminate hunter success and concomitant numbers of harvested greater (C. urophasianus) and Gunnison (C. minimus) sage-grouse. Sage-grouse hunting has varied widely over time and space, which has made a comprehensive summary of hunting management challenging. We compiled data on harvest regulations among 11 western U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces from 1870-2019 to create a timeline representative of hunting regulations. We compared annual harvest boundaries and area-weighted average hunting regulations, 1995-2018, relative to administrative boundaries and areas of high probability of sage-grouse occupation. We also summarized estimated numbers of birds harvested and hunters afield, 1995-2018, across both species' ranges. From 1995-2018, there was a 30% reduction in administrative harvest boundaries across the greater sage-grouse range compared to a 16.6% reduction in area open to harvest within 8 km from active leks. Temporary closures occurred in response to wildfires, disease outbreaks, low population numbers, and two research projects; whereas, permanent closures primarily occurred in small populations and areas on the periphery of the species distribution. Similarly, area-weighted possession limits and season length for greater sage-grouse decreased 52.6% and 61.0%, respectively, while season start date stayed relatively stable (mean start date ~259 [mid-September]). In contrast, hunting of the now federally-threatened Gunnison sage-grouse ended after 1999. While restrictions in harvest regulations were large in area, closures near areas of high greater sage-grouse occupancy were relatively smaller with the same trend for Gunnison sage-grouse until hunting ceased. For greater sage-grouse, most states reduced bag and possession limits and appeared to adhere to recommendations for later and shorter hunting seasons, reducing potential for additive mortality.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , América do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Codorniz/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543290

RESUMO

Habitat loss from land-use change is one of the top causes of declines in wildlife species of concern. As such, it is critical to assess and reassess habitat suitability as land cover and anthropogenic features change for both monitoring and developing current information to inform management decisions. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to develop consistent assessments through time. A range-wide lek habitat suitability model for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), currently under review by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for potential listing under the Endangered Species Act, was published in 2016. This model was based on lek data from 2002 to 2012, land cover data ranging from 2001 to 2013, and anthropogenic features from circa 2011, and has been used to help guide lesser prairie-chicken management and anthropogenic development actions. We created a second iteration model based on new lek surveys (2015 to 2019) and updated predictors (2016 land cover and cleaned/updated anthropogenic data) to evaluate changes in lek suitability and to quantify current range-wide habitat suitability. Only three of 11 predictor variables were directly comparable between the iterations, making it difficult to directly assess what predicted changes resulted from changes in model inputs versus actual landscape change. The second iteration model showed a similar positive relationship with land cover and negative relationship with anthropogenic features to the first iteration, but exhibited more variation among candidate models. Range-wide, more suitable habitat was predicted in the second iteration. The Shinnery Oak Ecoregion, however, exhibited a loss in predicted suitable habitat that could be due to predictor source changes. Iterated models such as this are important to ensure current information is being used in conservation and development decisions.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Codorniz/fisiologia
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1213-1220, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518079

RESUMO

This experiment aimed to evaluate the impact of continuous and intermittent thermal stress during early embryogenesis on hatchability, physiological body reaction, ovary weight, and follicle development of quails. A total of 540 eggs were divided into 3 equal groups (3 groups × 6 replicates × 30 eggs). In the first group (control), eggs were incubated at normal incubation conditions (37.5°C and 50-55% relative humidity) from day 0 till hatching. In the second group (continuous thermal stress [CTS]), eggs were daily exposed to 39.5°C and 50 to 55% during the early embryogenesis for 3 successive days (E4-E6) for 3 h (12:00-15:00). In the third group (intermittent thermal stress [ITS]), eggs were daily exposed to 39.5°C and 50 to 55% during the early embryogenesis for 90 min (12:00-13:30) then temperature was returned to 37.5°C for 60 min (13:30-14:30) after that the temperature was raised again for 39.5°C for 90 min (14:30-16:00) daily for 3 successive days (E4-E6). The findings showed that the highest relative water loss form egg (RWL/%) at 6 d of incubation was obtained in the CTS group (P ≤ 0.05). The hatchability rate was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased in the thermal-treated groups compared with the control group. The body surface temperature and cloacal temperature in the CTS and ITS groups significantly (P ≤ 0.001) increased compared with the control group. Chick weight (g) at 5 wk old, total weight gain, daily weight gain were significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) in the CTS group compared with the control group. Triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentration and globulin level were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower in the CTS and ITS groups compared with the control. The ovarian follicle weights (first, second, third, fourth, and fifth) and the diameter of the large follicle (fifth follicle) were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) decreased by increasing incubation temperature. From these findings, it could be concluded that the hatchability and body weight at sexual maturity for quails produced from eggs exposed to CTS and IST were significantly decreased by 8 and 2.1% as well as 2.98 and 2.1%, respectively, compared with the control group.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Codorniz/fisiologia , Animais , Ovos/normas , Feminino , Codorniz/embriologia , Codorniz/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Therm Biol ; 95: 102791, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454032

RESUMO

Temperature is increasingly recognized as an important component of wildlife habitat. Temperature is particularly important for avian nest sites, where extreme temperatures can influence adult behavior, embryonic development, and survival. For species inhabiting arid and semiarid climates, such as the scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), frequent exposure to extreme temperatures may increase the importance of the nest microclimate. Limited data suggest that scaled quail respond to temperature when selecting nest sites, and they are also known to respond to the presence of surface water and shrub cover on the landscape, two resources which may mitigate thermal stress. To better understand the role of temperature in nest site selection and survival, and to evaluate how other landscape resources may benefit nesting quail, we investigated nest site characteristics of scaled quail in southeastern New Mexico, USA. During the breeding seasons of 2018 and 2019 we located nests, monitored nest fate, and recorded thermal and vegetation characteristics at three spatial scales: the nest bowl, the nest microsite (area within 10 m of the nest bowl), and the landscape. We found that nest bowls moderated temperature relative to both the surrounding microsite and the broader landscape, remaining almost 5 °C cooler on average than the surrounding microsite at mid-day. Nest bowls also had taller, greater cover of vegetation compared to both the surrounding microsites and the landscape. Despite apparent selection for cooler temperatures and taller vegetation, these characteristics demonstrated a weak relationship with nest survival. Rather, nest survival was positively influenced by proximity to surface water and honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), with survival decreasing with increasing distance from these features. Although the mechanism for this relationship is unclear, our results support the importance of temperature for nest site selection of ground-nesting birds in semiarid landscapes, and suggest further exploration of landscape-level sources of thermal mitigation.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Nidação , Codorniz/fisiologia , Termotolerância , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ecossistema
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2206: 103-127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754814

RESUMO

For more than 2000 years, the avian embryo has helped scientists understand questions of developmental and cell biology. As early as 350 BC Aristotle described embryonic development inside a chicken egg (Aristotle, Generation of animals. Loeb Classical Library (translated), vol. 8, 1943). In the seventeenth century, Marcello Malpighi, referred to as the father of embryology, first diagramed the microscopic morphogenesis of the chick embryo, including extensive characterization of the cardiovascular system (Pearce Eur Neurol 58(4):253-255, 2007; West, Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304(6):L383-L390, 2016). The ease of accessibility to the embryo and similarity to mammalian development have made avians a powerful system among model organisms. Currently, a unique combination of classical and modern techniques is employed for investigation of the vascular system in the avian embryo. Here, we will introduce the essential techniques of embryonic manipulation for experimental study in vascular biology.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Codorniz/fisiologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Modelos Animais
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111501, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254389

RESUMO

Deltamethrin (DLM) is widely used in agriculture and the prevention of human insect-borne diseases. However, the molecular mechanism of DLM induced liver injury remains unclear to date. This study investigated the potential molecular mechanism that DLM induced liver fibrosis in quails. Japanese quails received resveratrol (500 mg/kg) daily with or without DLM (45 mg/kg) exposure for 12 weeks. Histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, biochemical indexes, TUNEL, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blot analysis were performed. DLM exposure induced hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Most importantly, the Nrf2/TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling pathway played an important role on DLM-induced liver fibrosis in quails. Interestingly, the addition of resveratrol, an Nrf2 activator, alleviates oxidative stress and inflammation response by activating Nrf2, thereby inhibits the liver fibrosis induced by DLM in quails. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to DLM induces oxidative stress via the Nrf2 expression inhibition and apoptosis, and then results in liver fibrosis in quails by the activation of NF-κB/TNF-α and TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Codorniz/fisiologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Codorniz/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3 , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
7.
J Therm Biol ; 92: 102668, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888571

RESUMO

This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary taurine supplementation on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant status, and the gene expression of ileal nutrient transporters in laying quails reared under heat stress (HS). One hundred and eighty laying Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with either 2.5 or 5 g of taurine per kg of diet, and reared at either 22 ± 2 °C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34 ± 2 °C for 8 h/d (HS) for 12 weeks. The quails reared under HS consumed less feed, produced less egg, and had lower dry matter, organic matter and crude protein apparent digestibilities compared with the quails reared under the TN condition (P = 0.001). However, increasing taurine concentrations in the diet improved feed intake and egg production (P = 0.001), but also the apparent digestibilities (P ≤ 0.027) in quails reared under HS. The greater doses (5 g/kg) of taurine resulted in more responses. The quails reared under HS had greater serum and liver MDA concentrations (P = 0.0001) which decreased with dietary taurine supplementations, particularly greater doses. The gene expressions of ileal PEPT1, EAAT3, CAT1, CAT2, SGLT1, SGLT5, GLUT2, and GLUT5 decreased under HS conditions (P = 0.001). However, supplementing taurine, in a dose-dependent fashion, to the diet of quails reared under HS resulted in increases in the gene expressions of the transporters (P < 0.05) except for CAT1. The results of the present work showed that taurine supplementation, particularly with greater doses (5 g/kg), to the diet of laying quails kept under HS acts as alleviating negative effects of HS, resulting in improvements in productive performance and nutrient digestion, and also upregulation of ileal nutrient transporters.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Codorniz/fisiologia , Taurina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Codorniz/genética , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(8): 984-991, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506759

RESUMO

In order to increase the reproductive indices of capercaillie kept in closed breeding facilities, it is necessary to constantly expand the methods of better understanding the characteristics of sperm and their fertilizing potency. The aim of the study was to analyse selected features of capercaillie sperm using flow cytometry and their connection with fertility results. The study included five males, three of which were kept in a family group with eight females and two were kept alone. For sperm viability, acrosome integrity, mitochondrial potential and DNA defragmentation were assessed. Paternity analyses were performed in order to confirm the paternity of the individual and to link the evaluated semen traits with reproductive success. Analyses carried out in the flow cytometer showed any significant differences between males in sperm characteristics. In the semen of male No. 101, the father of all chicks from the analysed family group, 91.3% of live sperm, 91.5% with intact acrosome, 83.6% with active mitochondria and 2.0% with DNA defragmentation were observed. The average fertility rate was 71.0%, and chick hatchability was 100%. Using flow cytometry in the analysis of capercaillie semen and its connection with the results of natural mating, we were able to obtain deeper knowledge about new sperm characteristics that were not examined before and which in the future may be helpful in selecting males for the reproductive flocks and developing assisted reproduction techniques.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Codorniz/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Acrossomo , Animais , Cruzamento , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Masculino , Mitocôndrias , Sêmen
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2556, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054913

RESUMO

Though chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) are globally ubiquitous today, the timing, location, and manner of their domestication is contentious. Until recently, archaeologists placed the origin of the domestic chicken in northern China, perhaps as early as 8,000 years ago. Such evidence however complicates our understanding of how the chicken was domesticated because its wild progenitor - the red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) - lives in tropical ecosystems and does not exist in northern China today or in the recent past. Increasingly, multiple lines of evidence suggest that many of the archaeological bird remains underlying this northern origins hypothesis have been misidentified. Here we analyze the mitochondrial DNA of some of the earliest purported chickens from the Dadiwan site in northern China and conclude that they are pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Curiously, stable isotope values from the same birds reveal that their diet was heavy in agricultural products (namely millet), meaning that they lived adjacent to or among some of the earliest farming communities in East Asia. We suggest that the exploitation of these baited birds was an important adaptation for early farmers in China's arid north, and that management practices like these likely played a role in the domestication of animals - including the chicken - in similar contexts throughout the region.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Domesticação , Animais , Galinhas/genética , China , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Milhetes , Filogenia , Codorniz/genética , Codorniz/fisiologia
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(5): 5636-5639, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845253

RESUMO

The surroundings of wild and captive birds are divergent in existence. Wild birds inhabiting their natural environment have unlimited resources availability. They face variety of captivity stresses when moved from wild habitat to caged enclosures. The effect of similar captivity stresses on the DNA of birds living in cages for longer stretches of time is addressed in this study. The laboratory analysis to investigate DNA damage in Pavo cristatus was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay. Our results showed that measurable DNA damage was observed in Pavo cristatus species. Endogenous stress factors owing to long-term captivity were responsible to cause this damage. The caged conditions provided to the captive birds can be improved in order to prevent DNA impairment. Moreover, appropriate monitoring and effective management are necessary on continual basis to ensure the well-being of caged birds.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Codorniz/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Paquistão
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767650

RESUMO

Heart development is a complex process and begins with the long-range migration of cardiac progenitor cells during gastrulation. This culminates in the formation of a simple contractile tube with multiple layers, which undergoes remodeling into a four-chambered heart. During this morphogenesis, additional cell populations become incorporated. It is important to unravel the underlying genetic and cellular mechanisms to be able to identify the embryonic origin of diseases, including congenital malformations, which impair cardiac function and may affect life expectancy or quality. Owing to the evolutionary conservation of development, observations made in nonamniote and amniote vertebrate species allow us to extrapolate to human. This review will focus on the contributions made to a better understanding of heart development through studying avian embryos-mainly the chicken but also quail embryos. We will illustrate the classic and recent approaches used in the avian system, give an overview of the important discoveries made, and summarize the early stages of cardiac development up to the establishment of the four-chambered heart.


Assuntos
Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/fisiologia , Coração/embriologia , Modelos Animais , Codorniz/embriologia , Codorniz/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Corantes Fluorescentes , Cardiopatias Congênitas/embriologia , Ventrículos do Coração/embriologia , Humanos , Morfogênese , Crista Neural/embriologia , Organogênese , Pericárdio/embriologia , Transgenes
12.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(9): 1389-1399, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406033

RESUMO

The transgenerational maintenance of symbiotic microbes that benefit host nutrition and health is evolutionarily advantageous. In some vertebrate lineages, coprophagy is used as a strategy for effectively transmitting microbes across generations. However, this strategy has still not been studied in birds. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of maternal cecal feces consumption by Japanese rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta japonica) chicks as a strategy for acquiring essential gut microbes. Both the duration of coprophagy behavior by the chicks and the development process of the chick cecal microbiome (n=20 one- to three-week-old chicks, from three broods) were investigated. In all three broods, coprophagy behavior was only observed from 3 to 18 days of age. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the number of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in 1-week-old chicks (n=651) and adults (n=609), and most of the main OTUs observed in the adults were already present in the 1-week-old chicks. These results indicate that, in this precocial bird species, coprophagy may contribute to the early establishment of cecal bacteria that are essential for food digestion and, thus, chick survival. In fact, Japanese rock ptarmigan chicks consume the same food as their hens from the time of hatching. This behavior may have applications to ex-situ conservation.


Assuntos
Coprofagia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Codorniz/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Japão , Codorniz/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise
13.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4516-4521, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287885

RESUMO

Poultry eggs from different species varied significantly, due to their divergent process of evolution. However, the information on egg characteristics has been limited mostly to chicken. The current study compared the egg quality, albumen physical and nutritional property for domesticated chicken, duck, goose, turkey, quail, and pigeon. Egg quality traits among different species differed significantly, such as egg weight (from 11 to 139 g), egg shape (from 1.28 to 1.44), proportion of yolk (from 19.3 to 37.9%), and breaking strength (from 0.91 to 8.04 kg/cm2). For the physical property of albumen gel, pigeon egg was the most special one. The albumen gel of pigeon egg had a transparent appearance (A = 1.23), and it had the highest hardness (121.7 g) and water-holding capacity (96%) but a medium level of total cutting work (440 g⋅s). Hence, it was easy for deformation but was hard to cut off when external force was applied. For nutritional compositions of egg albumen, goose egg had the highest moisture (89.21%) and lowest crude protein (8.5%) contents. Specific to amino acid, glutamic acid was found the most abundant in albumen of all six species. Egg albumen of turkey had the highest quantity of essential amino acids (EAA) and total amino acids (TAA), while duck and goose had relatively higher EAA/TAA ratios. Both PCA and cluster analysis revealed the high similarity of amino acid composition between duck and goose, and among quail, turkey, and chicken. The comparative data will improve the understanding of egg qualities of major poultry species and can be helpful in technological application of egg albumen.


Assuntos
Albuminas/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Albuminas/química , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Columbidae/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Gansos/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Codorniz/fisiologia , Perus/fisiologia
14.
J Therm Biol ; 83: 80-86, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331529

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of floor space and betaine supplementation on the nutrient digestibility and performance of laying quail, at an advanced stage of production, in a tropical environment. In total, 408 laying quail (23 weeks old) were distributed in 3 × 2 factorial arrangements with four replicates. The first factor was floor space (250 cm2 [FS-1], 221 cm2 [FS-2], and 200 cm2 per bird [FS-3]) by allocating 15, 17, and 19 birds per cage (cage size: 3750 cm2). The second factor was betaine supplementation, administered at levels of 0 (Control) and 0.12% (Betaine). The birds were housed under a natural, tropical environment that was outside the predominant thermoneutral zone, indicating heat stress conditions. Interactions were found between floor space and betaine on crude fiber digestibility, egg production, and eggshell thickness, with the highest values being yielded in FS-2 group supplemented with betaine. Reducing the floor space to 200 cm2 negatively affected nutrient digestibility and performance. The birds kept in FS-3 had lower (P < 0.05) dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, and calcium digestibility values than those kept in FS-1 and FS-2. Birds housed in FS-2 exhibited higher egg weight than those in FS-3 (P < 0.05), although they did not differ from those in FS-1. Furthermore, a lower eggshell weight in FS-3, compared with FS-1 and FS-2, was observed (P < 0.01). Betaine supplementation enhanced the dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, and calcium digestibility values (P < 0.05). Accordingly, betaine improved feed intake, egg weight, feed conversion, and protein and energy efficiency ratios (P < 0.01). Betaine also resulted in higher albumen, yolk, and eggshell weights (P < 0.01). In conclusion, a floor space of 221 cm2, combined with betaine supplementation at 0.12%, can be applied for raising quail under high environmental temperatures.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta , Abrigo para Animais , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Codorniz/fisiologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovos/normas , Oviparidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Clima Tropical
15.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(4): 1068-1080, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168619

RESUMO

A major driver of wildlife responses to climate change will include non-genomic effects, like those mediated through parental behavior and physiology (i.e., parental effects). Parental effects can influence lifetime reproductive success and survival, and thus population-level processes. However, the extent to which parental effects will contribute to population persistence or declines in response to climate change is not well understood. These effects may be substantial for species that exhibit extensive parental care behaviors, like birds. Environmental temperature is important in shaping avian incubation behavior, and these factors interact to determine the thermal conditions embryos are exposed to during development, and subsequently avian phenotypes and secondary sex ratios. In this article, we argue that incubation behavior may be an important mediator of avian responses to climate change, we compare incubation strategies of two species adapted to different thermal environments nesting in extreme heat, and we present a simple model that estimates changes in egg temperature based on these incubation patterns and predicted increases in maximum daily air temperature. We demonstrate that the predicted increase in air temperature by 2100 in the central USA will increase temperatures that eggs experience during afternoon off-bouts and the proportion of nests exposed to lethal temperatures. To better understand how species and local adaptations and behavioral-plasticity of incubation behavior will contribute to population responses to climate change comparisons are needed across more avian populations, species, and thermal landscapes.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Codorniz/fisiologia , Animais , Mudança Climática , Colinus/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5432-5445, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247643

RESUMO

The intent of this study was to investigate the effects of cold stress on oxidative indexes, inflammatory factors, and microbiota in the quail cecum. A total of 192 male quails (15-day-old) were randomly divided into 12 groups (16 in each group) and were exposed to acute (up to 12 h) and chronic (up to 20 D) cold stress at 12 ± 1°C. After cold stress treatment, we examined morphological damage, oxidative stress indexes, inflammatory factors, and intestinal microbiota. Results of morphological examination showed that both acute and chronic cold stress can lead to cecal tissue injury. In addition, both acute and chronic cold stress, especially chronic cold stress can influence the activity of oxidative stress mediators. Glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities decreased significantly (p < 0.05), while the nitric oxide (NO) content and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity increased significantly (p < 0.05). Moreover, mRNA levels of inflammatory factors cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were higher in both acute and chronic cold stress groups when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the intestinal microbiota was changed in both the acute and chronic cold stress groups. These results suggested that cold stress caused oxidative stress and inflammatory injury in cecal tissues, influenced cecal microbiota, and increased expression of Hsp70, which may contribute in protecting the cecum against cold stress in quails.


Assuntos
Ceco/fisiologia , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Inflamação/veterinária , Estresse Oxidativo , Codorniz/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Ceco/imunologia , Ceco/microbiologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/microbiologia , Codorniz/genética , Codorniz/imunologia
17.
Anim Sci J ; 90(7): 870-879, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099149

RESUMO

Three experiments were carried out to determine the crude protein requirements for maintenance (CPm) and weight gain (CPg) of meat quail and to develop protein-requirement prediction models. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine CPm by the nitrogen-balance technique. The regression of nitrogen balance on nitrogen intake revealed a CPm requirement of 2.94 g/kg0.75 /day. Experiment 2 was aimed at determining CPm by the comparative-slaughter technique. Retained nitrogen (RN) and nitrogen intake (NI) were quantified considering the metabolic weight of the birds. The linear regression of RN on NI provided a CPm estimate of 6.63 g/kg0.75 /day. Experiment 3 was conducted to determine CPg. The regression of body nitrogen from the carcasses on fasted body weight revealed CPg estimates of 407.68 (0-7 days), 501.76 (8-14 days), 470.40 (0-14 days), 517.44 (15-21 days), 627.20 (22-28 days), 423.36 (29-35 days), and 517.44 mg/g (15-35 days). The protein-requirement prediction models developed for meat quail aged 0-7, 8-14, 0-14, 15-21, 22-28, 29-35, and 15-35 days were CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.408.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.502.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.470.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0,517.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.627.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.423.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.517.G, respectively, where: W0.75  =  metabolic weight (kg), and G =  daily weight gain (g).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Estatísticos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Codorniz/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal , Animais , Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
18.
Poult Sci ; 98(8): 3292-3297, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944932

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the effect of supplementing the semen extender with calcitriol on in vitro sperm characteristics in Chukar partridges. A total of 60 male Chukar partridges were habituated for semen collection by abdominal massage. Pooled ejaculates from several males were extended (1 to 5 v/v ratio) in the Sexton's diluent containing 0, 24, 48, 96, or 192 µg calcitriol/mL. These concentrations represented 0-, 2-, 4-, 8-, and 16-fold levels of the mean seminal calcitriol concentration, respectively. A total of 12 subsamples from each treatment group were kept at 4 to 5°C or 19 to 24°C for 4, 24, or 48 h. The percentages of motile sperm, live sperm, abnormal sperm, incidence of hypoosmotic swelling (HOS), and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) concentrations were determined. The data were analyzed by the xtmixed procedure of STATA software. The percentages of motile sperm, live sperm, abnormal sperm, and seminal TBARS were affected by calcitriol (P < 0.05). There was no effect of treatments on HOS (P > 0.05). There was an interaction effect between calcitriol, storage time, and storage temperature on sperm motility, sperm viability, and seminal TBARS. Supplementation of the diluent with 96 µg calcitriol/mL resulted in the highest sperm motility at 4°C. Also, the same treatment group recorded the highest sperm viability and lowest seminal TBARS at 19 to 24°C. Supplementing the diluent with calcitriol had beneficial effects on spermatozoa; however, the fertility rate of spermatozoa extended in calcitriol-supplemented diluent needs to be determined before the procedure can be recommended for use in artificial insemination programs.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Codorniz/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
19.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214839, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964896

RESUMO

The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary propolis supplementation to laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on egg production, egg quality, physiological and immunological aspects under heat stress conditions. A total of 200, 21-day-old, Japanese quail females were distributed equally into standard wired cages in two identical environmentally-controlled rooms (10 cages per room, 10 birds per cage). From 29-70 d of age, the quail birds in the first room remained at a normal temperature of 24°C (C group), whereas the quail birds in the second room were kept under heat stress at 35°C (HS group). Each group was further assigned to 2 propolis subgroups (5 cages per subgroup); one of them received a basal diet without propolis supplementation (-PR subgroup), while, the other received 1 g propolis/ kg basal diet (+PR subgroup). In the present study, performance and egg production of laying quail were significantly (P<0.001) impaired by HS treatment and improved by the PR treatment. Similarly, the negative and positive effects of HS and PR, respectively, were appeared on the egg shell thickness and yolk index. Stress indicators in laying quail were significantly (P<0.001) increased by HS, while, PR significantly (P<0.05) moderated these levels in the HS+PR group when compared to the HS-PR quail group. In addition to the positive impact of PR on the plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, and albumin, it also normalized the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and cholesterol in the heat-stressed quail birds. Moreover, the quail birds in the HS groups expressed lower immunological aspects than those in the C group, while, the addition of propolis to the diets enhanced the immune status of laying quail birds under HS conditions. These results strongly suggest that dietary propolis supplementation could be a successful attempt to maintain the performance and egg production of laying Japanese quail at convenient levels under heat stress conditions.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/tratamento farmacológico , Própole/farmacologia , Codorniz/metabolismo , Codorniz/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Colesterol/metabolismo , Coturnix/metabolismo , Coturnix/fisiologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Casca de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovos , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Minerais/farmacologia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 152-162, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884394

RESUMO

Although it is fairly well known that eggshells are the major source of Ca and other micronutrients for developing avian embryos, potential anatomical and/or ecological correlates explaining the variation in embryo-induced depletion of micronutrients from eggshells remain to be addressed. Using unhatched eggs at various developmental stages and post-hatched eggshells of wild and captive-bred birds of a large precocial species, the Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus, we explored two major questions. (i) Do egg size, regional eggshell thickness as well as levels of two major micronutrients (Ca and Mg) and eight trace elements (Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, Cd, Pb and Zn) measured in egg shells and contents vary with embryonic age within and between wild and captive-bred bird eggs? (ii) How the proportions of eggshell elements become depleted during the entire process of embryogenesis? The eggshells of wild Capercaillies were thinner at the equator and the sharp pole, and contained more Mg and Ca, while in their contents there was more Cu, Cd and Pb compared with captive birds. All ten metal concentrations measured in the egg contents increased (from 15% to 285% more) with the age of embryos. The concentrations of six elements measured in eggshells (Cu, Mn, Fe, Co, Cd and Zn) decreased consistently (from 15 to 70% less) during embryogenesis. This suggests the presence of these elements in the innermost decalcified shell layer and their further mobilization into the embryos/egg contents. Our results strongly imply that most trace elements present in the egg contents/developing embryos are mobilized from the eggshells. We highlight the fact that knowledge of the magnitude of embryogenesis-related functional changes in the physical (such as shell thickness) and chemical traits of the eggs and eggshells of oviparous vertebrates is fundamental for drawing correct inferences regarding the response of an individual to variable environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Cálcio/análise , Metais/análise , Óvulo/química , Codorniz/fisiologia , Animais , Casca de Ovo/química , Ovos , Oligoelementos/análise
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