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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 441-450, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736308

RESUMO

Absorption of glucose, via intestinal Na+/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), activates salt and water absorption and is an effective route for treating Escherichia coli (E. coli)-induced diarrhea. Activity and expression of SGLT1 is regulated by sensing of sugars and artificial/natural sweeteners by the intestinal sweet receptor T1R2-T1R3 expressed in enteroendocrine cells. Diarrhea, caused by the bacterial pathogen E. coli, is the most common post-weaning clinical feature in rabbits, leading to mortality. We demonstrate here that, in rabbits with experimentally E. coli-induced diarrhea, inclusion of a supplement containing stevia leaf extract (SL) in the feed decreases cumulative morbidity, improving clinical signs of disease (p < 0.01). We show that the rabbit intestine expresses T1R2-T1R3. Furthermore, intake of SL enhances activity and expression of SGLT1 and the intestinal capacity to absorb glucose (1.8-fold increase, p < 0.05). Thus, a natural plant extract sweetener can act as an effective feed additive for lessening the negative impact of enteric diseases in animals.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adoçantes não Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Coelhos/microbiologia , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Stevia/química , Animais , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Células Enteroendócrinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/mortalidade , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/química , Coelhos/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/genética
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 238: 108429, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648721

RESUMO

Viral haemorrhagic disease (VHD) and colibacillosis are common diseases in rabbits that cause economic losses worldwide. The effect of colibacillosis on the immune response of vaccinated rabbits against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was studied. Four groups (G1-G4) were included. G1 was the negative control group; G2 was the RHDV vaccine group; G3 was the E. coli-infected group; and G4 was the E. coli-infected + RHDV vaccine group. The E. coli infection and RHDV vaccination were simultaneously performed, with another previous infection, 3 days before vaccination. At 28 days post-vaccination (PV), the rabbits (G2-G4) were challenged intramuscularly with 0.5 ml of RHDV at a dose of 103 50% median lethal dose (LD50)/rabbit. The rabbits were observed for clinical signs, body weight gain and mortality rates. Tissue, blood, serum, and faecal samples and rectal swabs were collected at 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days PV. Significant clinical signs and mortality and a decrease in BW were observed in the infected + RHDV vaccine group. On the 3rd day post-infection (PI), compared with all the other groups, the vaccinated group (G2) had significantly upregulated hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels; however, the infected + RHDV vaccine group had significantly higher intestinal levels of TNF-α and IL-6 than the other groups. Furthermore, E. coli infection in vaccinated rabbits led to immunosuppression, as shown by significant decreases (P < 0.05) in heterophil phagocytic activity, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and HI antibody responses to RHDV and a significant increase in the heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio. In conclusion, colibacillosis leads to immunosuppression involving a shift in the equilibrium of cytokines and reduced weight gain and mortality in vaccinated rabbits and could be a contributing factor in RHDV vaccination failure in rabbit farming.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Coelhos/imunologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/mortalidade , Citocinas/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/mortalidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Hemorrágica de Coelhos/imunologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Coelhos/virologia , Vacinação/normas
3.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 3157-3160, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641840

RESUMO

Here, we report a novel virulent P2-like bacteriophage, R18C, isolated from rabbit faeces, which, in addition to Escherichia coli K-12 strains, was able to be propagated on Citrobacter rodentium strain ICC169 and a range of Shigella sonnei strains with high efficiency of plating (EOP). It represents the first lytic bacteriophage originating from rabbit and the first infectious P2-like phage of animal origin. In the three characteristic moron-containing regions of P2-like phages, R18C contains genes with unknown function that have so far only been found in cryptic P2-like prophages.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/isolamento & purificação , Citrobacter rodentium/virologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Shigella sonnei/virologia , Animais , Bacteriófagos/classificação , Bacteriófagos/genética , Citrobacter rodentium/fisiologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Prófagos/classificação , Prófagos/genética , Prófagos/isolamento & purificação , Shigella sonnei/fisiologia
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 280-284, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383313

RESUMO

Surveillance of Pasteurella multocida resistance in food-producing animals is essential to guide the first-line treatment of respiratory diseases and to limit economic losses. Since Pasteurella are the most common bacteria isolated from dog and cat bites, this surveillance is also needed to guide treatment in humans in case of bites. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotypic resistance of P. multocida strains isolated from respiratory infections in animals, including both food-producing animals and pets. Data collected between 2012 and 2017 by the French national surveillance network for antimicrobial resistance referred to as RESAPATH were analyzed. The proportions of resistance to antimicrobials of relevance in veterinary and human medicines were estimated for each animal species. For cattle, resistance trends over the period were investigated using non-linear analysis applied to time-series. In total, 5356 P. multocida isolates were analyzed. Proportions of resistance of P. multocida were almost all below 20% over the period, and, more precisely, all resistance proportions were below 10% for rabbits, sheep and dogs. The highest resistance proportions to enrofloxacin were identified for cattle (4.5%) and dogs (5.2%). Despite its frequent use in livestock, resistance to florfenicol was less than 1% in P. multocida strains, regardless of the animal species considered. Time series analyses revealed continuous increases in resistance to tetracycline, tilmicosin, flumequine and fluoroquinolones in P. multocida strains isolated from cattle. These trends contrast with the decrease in use of antibiotics in cattle in France and with the decrease in resistance observed in E. coli isolated from diseased cattle.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Gado/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , França/epidemiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Pasteurella/epidemiologia , Pasteurella multocida/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300123

RESUMO

Encephalitozoon cuniculi infects a wide variety of domestic and wild mammalian species including humans. Although the infection status has been studied in laboratory and pet rabbits worldwide, there is shortage of information regarding the disease in Iran. In the present study, the occurrence of infection in brains of 117 asymptomatic rabbits from six breeding and experimental units with highest population of rabbit colonies in the country (n = 60) as well as pet rabbits of pet stores in two cities (n = 57) were examined by nested-PCR. Histological sections of brains and kidneys were also studied by light microscopy. PCR results revealed that 3.3% of laboratory rabbits (2/60) and 59.6% of pet rabbits (34/57) harboured E. cuniculi in their brains. Histopathology on the other hand showed spores of the parasite in kidney and brain of one and kidney of another pet rabbit. As encephalitozoonosis may interfere with results of experiments performed on laboratory rabbits, routine screenings for identification and culling of infected animals is recommended. Furthermore, infected companion rabbits can transmit E. cuniculi to people in close contact with them, therefore, improving public knowledge of this zoonotic infection is suggested.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/microbiologia , Encefalitozoonose/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/genética , Encefalitozoonose/microbiologia , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Rim/microbiologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 7(3)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124433

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is a mammalian commensal and opportunistic pathogen that colonizes niches such as skin, nares and diverse mucosal membranes of about 20-30% of the human population. S. aureus can cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans and both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant strains are common causes of nosocomial- and community-acquired infections. Despite the prevalence of literature characterising staphylococcal pathogenesis in humans, S. aureus is a major cause of infection and disease in a plethora of animal hosts leading to a significant impact on public health and agriculture. Infections in animals are deleterious to animal health, and animals can act as a reservoir for staphylococcal transmission to humans.Host-switching events between humans and animals and amongst animals are frequent and have been accentuated with the domestication and/or commercialisation of specific animal species. Host-switching is typically followed by subsequent adaptation through acquisition and/or loss of mobile genetic elements such as phages, pathogenicity islands and plasmids as well as further host-specific mutations allowing it to expand into new host populations.In this chapter, we will be giving an overview of S. aureus in animals, how this bacterial species was, and is, being transferred to new host species and the key elements thought to be involved in its adaptation to new ecological host niches. We will also highlight animal hosts as a reservoir for the development and transfer of antimicrobial resistance determinants.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Antibacterianos , Gatos/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Haplorrinos/microbiologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Plasmídeos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Coelhos/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Staphylococcus aureus/genética
7.
Lab Anim ; 53(3): 259-270, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096881

RESUMO

In recent years, tremendous advances have been made in our ability to characterize complex microbial communities such as the gut microbiota, and numerous surveys of the human gut microbiota have identified countless associations between different compositional attributes of the gut microbiota and adverse health conditions. However, most of these findings in humans are purely correlative and animal models are required for prospective evaluation of such changes as causative factors in disease initiation or progression. As in most fields of biomedical research, microbiota-focused studies are predominantly performed in mouse or rat models. Depending on the field of research and experimental question or objective, non-rodent models may be preferable due to better translatability or an inability to use rodents for various reasons. The following review describes the utility and limitations of several non-rodent model species for research on the microbiota and its influence on host physiology and disease. In an effort to balance the breadth of potential model species with the amount of detail provided, four model species are discussed: zebrafish, dogs, pigs, and rabbits.


Assuntos
Cães/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais , Coelhos/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(1): 284-291, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063623

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the Staphylococcus aureus carriage rate in wild mammals in Aragon, northern Spain, to analyse their antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype and to characterize the recovered isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nasal and rectal swabs of 103 mammals were collected in Aragón during the period 2012-2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors were investigated. Molecular characterization was carried out by spa, MLST, agr and SCCmec. Staphylococcus aureus were recovered from 23 animals (22%). Four of the 23 S. aureus were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Three MRSA were mecC-positive and were isolated from European rabbits and were typed as t843 (ascribed to CC130). The remaining MRSA was a mecA-carrying isolate from European hedgehog, typed as ST1-t386-SCCmecIVa-agrIII and it harboured the blaZ, erm(C), ant(6)-Ia and aph(3´)-IIIa resistance genes. A high diversity of spa-types was detected among the 19 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates, which showed high susceptibility to the antimicrobials tested. The tst gene and different combinations of staphylococcal enterotoxins were found. CONCLUSIONS: Staphylococcus aureus were detected in nasal and rectal samples of wild mammals. Wild rabbits could be a reservoir of mecC-MRSA. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This work provides information on the presence and characteristics of S. aureus from mammals in a defined geographic region in Spain.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos/microbiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Virulência/genética
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 129-136, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897395

RESUMO

The interest in antimicrobial compounds as feed additives is currently increasing. Among different options, tannins seem to have several beneficial effects when employed in animals diet. The present study aimed at investigating the influence on caecal microbial communities of the supplementation of a chestnut and quebracho tannins mix in meat rabbit's diet, also considering animals live performances. Four groups of rabbits were fed with a different diet: a control diet (C); a control diet with coccidiostat (CC), and two experimental diets with 0.3% (T0.3) and 0.6% (T0.6) chestnut and quebracho tannins mix. For microbial analysis, culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were employed. Live performances were not significantly affected by tannins mix supplementations, as well as culturable microbial loads of E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. C. perfringens was always under the detection limit. A consistent result was obtained by qPCR. As for PCR-DGGE analysis, the Richness and evenness (Shannon-Weiner index) of bacterial communities in caecum resulted significantly higher in control samples (C and CC) than in those from rabbit fed with tannin-containing diets. Sequencing analysis revealed that the phylum Firmicutes was less represented in samples from control groups. As for the methanogen archaeal DGGE, no significant differences were found in richness and diversity among different groups, all dominated by Methanobrevibacter spp.. This work highlights the potential antimicrobial effect of chestnut and quebracho tannins mix in an in vivo system revealed by molecular analysis.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Ceco/microbiologia , Fagaceae/química , Coelhos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coelhos/microbiologia , Taninos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Archaea/efeitos dos fármacos , Archaea/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Taninos/administração & dosagem
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(2): 155-163, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741115

RESUMO

Knowledge of changes in the composition of microbial communities (microbiota) in tissues after death, over time, is critical to correctly interpret results of microbiologic testing from postmortem examinations. Limited information is available about postmortem changes of the microbiota and the associated microbial genes (microbiome) of internal organs in any species. We examined the effect of time and ambient temperature on the postmortem microbiome (thanatomicrobiome) of tissues typically sampled for microbiologic testing during autopsies. Twenty rabbits were euthanized and their bodies stored at 4°C or 20°C for 6 or 48 h. Ileum, cecum, kidney, and lung tissue were sampled. Bacterial DNA abundance was determined by RT-qPCR. Microbiome diversity was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. By relative abundance of the microbiome composition, intestinal tissues were clearly separated from lungs and kidneys, which were similar to each other, over all times and temperatures. Only cecal thanatomicrobiomes had consistently high concentrations and consistent composition in all conditions. In lungs and kidneys, but not intestine, proteobacteria were highly abundant at specific times and temperatures. Thanatomicrobiome variation was not explained by minor subclinical lesions identified upon microscopic examination of tissues. Bacterial communities typically found in the intestine were not identified at extra-intestinal sites in the first 48 h at 4°C and only in small amounts at 20°C. However, changes in tissue-specific microbiomes during the postmortem interval should be considered when interpreting results of microbiologic testing.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Íleo/microbiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Morte , Rim/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 229: 72-80, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642601

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing rabbit necrotizing pneumonia and brings huge economic losses to rabbit production. This study investigated the preventive effect of a phage on rabbit necrotizing pneumonia caused by S. aureus. S. aureus S6 was isolated from the lungs of rabbits suffering necrotizing pneumonia and identified. A novel phage named VB-SavM-JYL01 was isolated by using S. aureus S6 as a host and showed a broader host range than the phages GH15 and K. The genome of VB-SavM-JYL01 lacked bacterial virulence-, antibiotic resistance- and lysogenesis-related genes. A single intranasal administration of VB-SavM-JYL01 (3 × 109 PFU) could effectively improve the survival rate at 48 h to 90% (9/10) compared with the survival rate of 10% and 80% observed with the PBS or linezolid treatment, respectively. The bacterial count in the lungs of rabbits treated with the phage VB-SavM-JYL01 was 4.18 × 104 CFU/g at 24 h, which was significantly decreased compared to that of rabbits treated with PBS (7.38 × 107 CFU/g) or linezolid (3.12 × 105 CFU/g). The phage treatment significantly alleviated lung tissue damage. The levels of total proteins, Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), alpha-toxin (Hla) and cytokines in the lungs of the rabbits treated with the phage were significantly lower than those of the rabbits treated with PBS and similar to those of the rabbits treated with linezolid. These data demonstrate the potential utility of phage as an alternative for preventing rabbit necrotizing pneumonia caused by S. aureus.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Necrosante/veterinária , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/veterinária , Coelhos/microbiologia , Fagos de Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus aureus/virologia , Animais , Feminino , Pneumonia Necrosante/microbiologia , Pneumonia Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/prevenção & controle
12.
Microbiologyopen ; 8(4): e00665, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931813

RESUMO

Staphylococcus argenteus, a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus or a member of the S. aureus complex, is closely related to S. aureus and is usually misidentified. In this study, the presence of S. argenteus in isolated S. aureus was investigated in 67 rabbits with abscess lesions during 2014-2016. Among 19 S. aureus complex isolates, three were confirmed to be S. argenteus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene amplification, and multilocus sequence type. All S. aureus complex isolates, including the S. aureus isolates, were examined for their antimicrobial resistance phenotype by disk diffusion and for their resistance genotype by PCR assays. Among the S. argenteus isolates, one was susceptible to all antimicrobial drugs and the other two were resistant to penicillin and doxycycline. In contrast, most S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin (37.5%), and gentamicin (12.5%). Moreover, S. aureus isolates harbored the blaZ, mecA, aacA-aphD, and mrs(A) as well as mutations of gyrA and grlA, but S. argenteus isolates carried solely the blaZ. S. argenteus isolates were investigated for enterotoxin (sea-sed) and virulence genes by PCR. One isolate carried sea, sec, and sed, whereas the other two isolates carried only sea or sed. No isolate carried seb and see. All three S. argenteus isolates carried hla, hlb, and clfA, followed by pvl, whereas coa, spa (IgG-binding region), and spa (x region) were not detected in the three isolates. This paper presents the first identification of S. argenteus from rabbits in Thailand. S. argenteus might be pathogenic because the isolates carried virulence genes. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance was observed. Investigations of this new bacterial species should be conducted in other animal species as well as in humans.


Assuntos
Coelhos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Tailândia
13.
Vet Ital ; 54(3): 189-196, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574995

RESUMO

The virulence gene profile of 26 rabbit enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, isolated from 17 colibacillosis outbreaks located in two regions of Northern Italy, was determined using an Echerichia coli virulence DNA microarray. All strains were classified according to their determined biotype, sero- and phylo-group. The distribution of virulence genes encoding for the Locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), LEE type III secretion system (T3SS), non-LEE T3SS translocated proteins and adherence factors was also determined. All strains but one belonged to phylogroups A and B1. A prevalent association between the O103 serogroup with the rhamnose-negative phenotype (biotype 12 or 14) was found. The most prevalent LEE profile found in tested strains was ler/cesT/espA-1/espB-3/tir-1/eae(beta)/espD-2/escN/eprJ. All strains possessed either the adhesive factor rabbit-2 (afr/2) or the plasmid Rabbit adherence locus (ral) gene and 24 of them an additional individual or combined set of colonization factors efa1/lifA, lpfA and paa genes. Finally, the combined or single presence of a set of LEE and/or non-LEE effector proteins encoding genes, namely espG, cif, map and nle family genes, attested to the genetic potential of investigated strains to induce pathologic lesions to the host. The application of microarray-based technologies in assessing the genetic profile of rabbit E. coli is a reliable, cost-effective candidate for large scale investigations in monitoring programs aimed to survey the circulation of pathogenic strains within rabbit production units, their zoonotic genetic potential and to select E. coli strains eligible for vaccinal prophylaxis in fattening rabbit production.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica/patogenicidade , Coelhos/microbiologia , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Perfil Genético , Genótipo , Itália , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Virulência/genética
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 227: 78-81, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473355

RESUMO

The emergence of mobile colistin resistance genes (mcr) is yet another challenge in the fight against antimicrobial resistance, with reports proving the dissemination of these genes in different countries and different environments being of great concern. In the present study, we describe the recovery of three E. coli strains with mcr-1 gene in IncHI2 plasmids from intestinal content of necropsied meat rabbits reared in two intensive production systems in Portugal. Our findings are worrisome, given the high level of dependence on the usage of antibiotics in rabbit rearing and call for the development and implementation of an active surveillance system in this species.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Coelhos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fazendas , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Gado/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Plasmídeos/genética
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 262: 26-29, 2018 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389008

RESUMO

Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a zoonotic and opportunistic pathogen, can cause latent infection, especially in lagomorphs. Nowadays, this member of the Eukaryotes has drawn significant attention in the fields of veterinary and public health. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of infection in a New Zealand rabbit farm that has a clinical history of neurological manifestations including head tilt ataxia, aggressiveness, seizures, and circling and rotational movements around the body length axis, but the general conditions and food intake were normal. Blood samples were taken from 42 breeding rabbits and researched for E. cuniculi antibodies. Out of that, 25 (59%) animals resulted positive against the pathogen. The rabbit was found to be seropositive for E. cuniculi antibodies, but negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes antibodies. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters were measured at reference intervals. No brain tissue impairment was observed the computed tomography (CT) scan. As a result of these histopathological findings, the brain cortex presented severe neuronal degeneration and partial myelin loss, with reactive diffuse gliosis against the parasite spores was observed to the histopathology. These results are possibly related to the early stage of infection because the parasitic infestation comprise long time spreading. E. cuniculi DNA was detected on brain tissues using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and it partial DNA sequence was identified as E. cuniculi genotype I.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/imunologia , Encefalitozoonose/veterinária , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/veterinária , Coelhos/microbiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/genética , Encephalitozoon cuniculi/isolamento & purificação , Encefalitozoonose/diagnóstico , Encefalitozoonose/microbiologia , Encefalitozoonose/patologia , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/microbiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Turquia
16.
Res Vet Sci ; 119: 259-261, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055409

RESUMO

During the past years epizootic outbreaks of mucoid enteropathy syndrome (MES) disease have emerged and spread rapidly in rabbit farms in East China causing great economic losses. To investigate the nature and evolution of the disease, two trials were conducted in an attempt to reproduce the disease and to assess the microbiota cecal profile changes associated with the disease. In the first trial, twenty 6-week-old New Zealand White healthy rabbits were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: 1) Inoculation with 2.0 mL of cecal content (inoculum) from dead rabbits affected with MES; 2) No inoculation or control group. In the second trial, V3 - V4 regions of 16S ribosomal genes from three virulent (MES) and two non-virulent (healthy) cecal samples were amplified and sequenced for microbiota genomic characterization. The mucoid enteropathy syndrome was reproduced using a virulent cecal material (inoculum). The mortality rates for treatments 1 and 2 were 70% and 0%, respectively. Clinical signs and gross lesions of affected rabbits consisted of bloated abdomen, cecal impaction, presence of variable amounts of gelatinous mucus particularly in the colon, mucus excretion and diarrhea of low intensity. The disease that emerged in China is similar to the epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) described in Europe. However, microbiota cecal changes associated with the disease differed from those in ERE. Here, a comprehensive analysis of mucoid enteropathy syndrome disease is presented, which should be carefully monitored.


Assuntos
Enteropatias/veterinária , Coelhos , Animais , Ceco , China , Fazendas , Enteropatias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Coelhos/microbiologia
17.
J Mycol Med ; 28(3): 542-546, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773434

RESUMO

Tinea blepharo-ciliaris is a rare form of dermatophyte infection which involves eyelids and associated eyelashes. We report a 13-year-old girl with type I diabetes mellitus who had right eyelid swelling and eyelash loss for two weeks. The lesions were presented as erythematous patches with scales and tiny pustules on the right upper and lower eyelids with broken eyelashes. Two additional annular erythematous patches with scaly active borders were found on her right forearm and right thigh. Microscopic examination of broken eyelashes demonstrated many chains of arthroconidia and hyaline hyphae in an endothrix invasion pattern. Fungal cultures of right eyelid scales, eyelashes, and right thigh lesions all grew Trichophyton benhamiae, which was diagnosed by both morphological characters and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. The patient had a contact history with rabbits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of tinea blepharo-ciliaris caused by T. benhamiae, and also the first formal report of infection by this fungus in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Blefarite/microbiologia , Pestanas/microbiologia , Tinha/diagnóstico , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Animais , Vínculo Homem-Animal de Estimação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/microbiologia
18.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia ; 23(1-2): 27-41, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705830

RESUMO

The One Health concept promotes integrated evaluation of human, animal, and environmental health questions to expedite advances benefiting all species. A recognition of the multi-species impact of mastitis as a painful condition with welfare implications leads us to suggest that mastitis is an ideal target for a One Health approach. In this review, we will evaluate the role of the mammary microenvironment in mastitis in humans, ruminants and rabbits, where appropriate also drawing on studies utilising laboratory animal models. We will examine subclinical mastitis, clinical lactational mastitis, and involution-associated, or dry period, mastitis, highlighting important anatomical and immunological species differences. We will synthesise knowledge gained across different species, comparing and contrasting disease presentation. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is characterised by elevated Na/K ratio, and increased milk IL-8 concentrations. SCM affecting the breastfeeding mother may result in modulation of infant mucosal immune system development, whilst in ruminants notable milk production losses may ensue. In the case of clinical lactational mastitis, we will focus on mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Understanding of the pathogenesis of involution-associated mastitis requires characterization of the structural and molecular changes occurring during involution and we will review these changes across species. We speculate that milk accumulation may act as a nidus for infection, and that the involution 'wound healing phenotype' may render the tissue susceptible to bacterial infection. We will discuss the impact of concurrent pregnancy and a 'parallel pregnancy and involution signature' during bovine mammary involution.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite/microbiologia , Coelhos/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Microambiente Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Única
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 143, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabbits are cecotrophic, hindgut-fermenters that rely heavily on their gastrointestinal microbiota for optimal digestion of plant-based diets. Dysbiosis, caused by disruption of the gastrointestinal microbiota, is known to predispose rabbits to rabbit enteritis complex (REC), a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to describe the fecal microbiota of domestic rabbits from a variety of settings (commercial meat, companion, laboratory, and shelter) and to identify how factors such as age, season, and routine antimicrobial use affect the fecal microbiota composition. RESULTS: A total of 86 pooled commercial meat, 54 companion, 14 pooled laboratory, and 14 shelter rabbit fecal samples were evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the V4 region. In all sample types, the predominant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes. Other commonly identified phyla (composing ≥ 1% of the total microbiota composition) were Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Significant differences in composition were noted between commercial, companion, laboratory, and shelter rabbit samples for proportions of Verrucomicrobia (P < 0.01), Proteobacteria (P < 0.01), and Lentisphaerae (P = 0.01) within the total microbiota. Within the commercial meat rabbit samples, significant differences between the microbiota composition of growers (n = 42) and does (n = 44) were limited to one unclassified Firmicutes (P = 0.03) and no differences were identified at the phylum level. Significant differences were present between fecal samples taken from rabbits during the summer (n = 44) compared to the winter (n = 42), with Firmicutes (P = 0.04), Verrucomicrobia (P = 0.03), Proteobacteria (P = 0.02), Deinococcus-Thermus (P = 0.04), Armatimonadates (P = 0.003), and Actinobacteria (P = 0.03) forming significantly different proportions of the microbiota. The only significant difference in composition between those farms that routinely reported antimicrobial use and those that did not was in one unclassified Bacteroidetes (P < 0.05) and no differences were identified at the phylum level. CONCLUSIONS: Rabbit husbandry and diet, in addition to season, significantly influence the fecal microbiota composition of domestic rabbits, while age of the rabbit post-weaning has minimal impact.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Coelhos/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais de Laboratório/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
20.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(4): 814-818, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29545107

RESUMO

The rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard, is known for its association with Rickettsia rickettsii as it harbors both virulent and avirulent strains of this pathogen. In this manuscript we report findings and preliminary characterization of a novel spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) in rabbit ticks from California, USA. Rickettsia sp. CA6269 (proposed "Candidatus Rickettsia lanei") is most related to known R. rickettsii isolates but belongs to its own well-supported branch different from those of all R. rickettsii including strain Hlp2 and from Rickettsia sp. 364D (also known as R. philipii) and R. peacockii. This SFGR probably exhibits both transovarial and transstadial survival since it was found in both questing larvae and nymphs. Although this rabbit tick does not frequently bite humans, its role in maintenance of other rickettsial agents and this novel SFGR warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Ninfa/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Coelhos/microbiologia , Coelhos/parasitologia , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia
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