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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 128023, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920275

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of fungal fermentation on green canephora coffee beans were evaluated by observing the changes to selected non-volatile parameters before roasting, and subsequently the volatile profile after roasting. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) by Aspergillus spp. and Mucor spp. on green canephora coffee beans was shown to modulate the contents of free sugars, free amino acids and polyphenolic compounds such as caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). Significant strain-specific differences were observed in the contents of aroma compounds after roasting. A significant increase in pyrazines was observed in the Aspergillus oryzae-fermented samples, while higher levels of furans were detected in the Mucor plumbeus-fermented samples. The present work shows that fungal fermentation of green canephora coffee beans is a potentially promising method for the modulation and improvement of coffee flavour and aroma.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Coffea/metabolismo , Fermentação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Coffea/química , Odorantes/análise , Sementes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111016, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888590

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) is considered a beneficial element to higher plants based on its regulation of antioxidative system under abiotic or biotic stresses. However, the limit of beneficial and toxic physiological effects of Se is very narrow. In the present study, the antioxidant performance, nutritional composition, long-distance transport of Se, photosynthetic pigments, and growth of Coffea arabica genotypes in response to Se concentration in solution were evaluated. Five Coffea arabica genotypes (Obatã, IPR99, IAC125, IPR100 and Catucaí) were used, which were grown in the absence and presence of Se (0 and 1.0 mmol L-1) in nutrient solution. The application of 1 mmol L-1 Se promoted root browning in all genotypes. There were no visual symptoms of leaf toxicity, but there was a reduction in the concentration of phosphorus and sulfur in the shoots of plants exposed to high Se concentration. Except for genotype Obatã, the coffee seedlings presented strategies for regulating Se uptake by reducing long-distance transport of Se from roots to shoots. The concentrations of total chlorophyll, total pheophytin, and carotenoids were negatively affected in genotypes Obatã, IPR99, and IAC125 upon exposure to Se at 1 mmol L-1. H2O2 production was reduced in genotypes IPR99, IPR100, and IAC125 upon exposure to Se, resulting in lower activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). These results suggest that antioxidant metabolism was effective in regulating oxidative stress in plants treated with Se. The increase in sucrose, and decrease in SOD, CAT and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities, as well as Se compartmentalization in the roots, were the main biochemical and physiological modulatory effects of coffee seedlings under stress conditions due to excess of Se.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Coffea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Coffea/genética , Coffea/metabolismo , Coffea/fisiologia , Genótipo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Selênio/análise , Selênio/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5875, 2020 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246092

RESUMO

While [CO2] effects on growth and secondary chemistry are well characterized for annual plant species, little is known about perennials. Among perennials, production of Coffea arabica and C. canephora (robusta) have enormous economic importance worldwide. Three Arabica cultivars (Bourbon, Catimor, Typica) and robusta coffee were grown from germination to ca. 12 months at four CO2 concentrations: 300, 400, 500 or 600 ppm. There were significant increases in all leaf area and biomass markers in response to [CO2] with significant [CO2] by taxa differences beginning at 122-124 days after sowing (DAS). At 366-368 DAS, CO2 by cultivar variation in growth and biomass response among Arabica cultivars was not significant; however, significant trends in leaf area, branch number and total above-ground biomass were observed between Arabica and robusta. For caffeine concentration, there were significant differences in [CO2] response between Arabica and robusta. A reduction in caffeine in coffee leaves and seeds might result in decreased ability against deterrence, and consequently, an increase in pest pressure. We suggest that the interspecific differences observed (robusta vs. Arabica) may be due to differences in ploidy level (2n = 22 vs. 2n = 4x = 44). Differential quantitative and qualitative responses during early growth and development of Arabica and robusta may have already occurred with recent [CO2] increases, and such differences may be exacerbated, with production and quality consequences, as [CO2] continues to increase.


Assuntos
Cafeína/metabolismo , Coffea/metabolismo , Biomassa , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Mudança Climática , Coffea/efeitos dos fármacos , Coffea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(8): 2597-2605, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040302

RESUMO

The world's coffee supply is threatened by the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, the most destructive pest affecting coffee production and quality. This study hypothesized that coffee berry borer infestation induces distinct metabolic responses in the green coffee seeds of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (robusta). A targeted metabolomics approach was conducted using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantify intracellular metabolites in infested and uninfested arabica and robusta green seeds. In parallel, the seed biomass content and composition were assessed for the same conditions. Coffee berry borer attack induced increases in the levels of chlorogenic acids in arabica seeds, whereas organic acids and sugar alcohols were more abundant in infested robusta seeds. Most importantly, a set of compounds was identified as biomarkers differentiating the metabolic response of these taxa to the coffee berry borer.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Sementes/química , Gorgulhos/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Coffea/química , Coffea/parasitologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/parasitologia , Álcoois Açúcares/análise , Álcoois Açúcares/metabolismo
5.
Talanta ; 209: 120591, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892095

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most important commodities, showing sensitivity to environmental variations. The main effects and their interaction for two levels of atmospheric CO2 concentrations and two water regimes of a factorial design were investigated for the metabolic profiles of Coffea arabica raw beans using UV fingerprint analysis from a mixture design. UV fingerprint results obtained from pure ethanol and binary ethanol-dichloromethane mixtures showed the largest metabolic discriminations between CO2 levels and their extracts were investigated in detail. The biosynthesis of major metabolites, chlorogenic acids, cafestol, kahweol and caffeine were altered owing to environmental conditions. Higher amounts of chlorogenic acids and kahweol were observed in beans from unirrigated plants grown with enriched CO2 and irrigated ones at the current CO2 level. Water availability and CO2 concentration interaction affects the metabolite amounts. Besides a significant CO2 atmospheric effect water availability was a limiting factor for metabolite content only at current CO2 level, suggesting the successful metabolic coping of CO2 enriched Arabic coffee beans suffering future droughts.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Coffea/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Sementes/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Cafeína/análise , Cafeína/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Coffea/química , Diterpenos/análise , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Secas , Sementes/química , Água/metabolismo
6.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 812, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee production relies on plantations with varieties from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora species. The first, the most representative in terms of coffee consumption, is mostly propagated by seeds, which leads to management problems regarding the plantations maintenance, harvest and processing of grains. Therefore, an efficient clonal propagation process is required for this species cultivation, which is possible by reaching a scalable and cost-effective somatic embryogenesis protocol. A key process on somatic embryogenesis induction is the auxin homeostasis performed by Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) proteins through amino acid conjugation. In this study, the GH3 family members were identified on C. canephora genome, and by performing analysis related to gene and protein structure and transcriptomic profile on embryogenic tissues, we point a GH3 gene as a potential regulator of auxin homeostasis during early somatic embryogenesis in C. arabica plants. RESULTS: We have searched within the published C. canephora genome and found 17 GH3 family members. We checked the conserved domains for GH3 proteins and clustered the members in three main groups according to phylogenetic relationships. We identified amino acids sets in four GH3 proteins that are related to acidic amino acid conjugation to auxin, and using a transcription factor (TF) network approach followed by RT-qPCR we analyzed their possible transcriptional regulators and expression profiles in cells with contrasting embryogenic potential in C. arabica. The CaGH3.15 expression pattern is the most correlated with embryogenic potential and with CaBBM, a C. arabica ortholog of a major somatic embryogenesis regulator. CONCLUSION: Therefore, one out of the GH3 members may be influencing on coffee somatic embryogenesis by auxin conjugation with acidic amino acids, which leads to the phytohormone degradation. It is an indicative that this gene can serve as a molecular marker for coffee cells with embryogenic potential and needs to be further studied on how much determinant it is for this process. This work, together with future studies, can support the improvement of coffee clonal propagation through in vitro derived somatic embryos.


Assuntos
Coffea/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Coffea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coffea/metabolismo , Homeostase , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Conformação Proteica
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547069

RESUMO

Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is one of the most promising processes for large-scale dissemination of elite varieties. However, for many plant species, optimizing SE protocols still relies on a trial-and-error approach. Using coffee as a model plant, we report here the first global analysis of metabolome and hormone dynamics aiming to unravel mechanisms regulating cell fate and totipotency. Sampling from leaf explant dedifferentiation until embryo development covered 15 key stages. An in-depth statistical analysis performed on 104 metabolites revealed that massive re-configuration of metabolic pathways induced SE. During initial dedifferentiation, a sharp decrease in phenolic compounds and caffeine levels was also observed while auxins, cytokinins and ethylene levels were at their highest. Totipotency reached its highest expression during the callus stages when a shut-off in hormonal and metabolic pathways related to sugar and energetic substance hydrolysis was evidenced. Abscisic acid, leucine, maltotriose, myo-inositol, proline, tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites and zeatin appeared as key metabolic markers of the embryogenic capacity. Combining metabolomics with multiphoton microscopy led to the identification of chlorogenic acids as markers of embryo redifferentiation. The present analysis shows that metabolite fingerprints are signatures of cell fate and represent a starting point for optimizing SE protocols in a rational way.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Técnicas de Embriogênese Somática de Plantas , Coffea/citologia , Folhas de Planta/citologia
8.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4546-4556, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290518

RESUMO

Chrononutrition, or the circadian timing of food intake, proposes that nutrients, bioactive compounds, and foods modulate the peripheral clocks with implications on health. We evaluated the effects of biscuits supplemented with the antioxidant dietary fiber isolated from spent coffee grounds as a food ingredient (SCF-B) or a combination of spent coffee grounds and fructooligosaccharides (SC-FOS-B), and a traditional recipe (TB, without added fiber) on the modulation of circadian rhythm in young adults. The repeated intake (21 days/45 g portion) of SCF-B or SC-FOS-B decreased (p < 0.05) the evening chronotypes. SCF-B and SC-FOS-B consumption enhanced the chronodisruption associated with colonic short chain fatty acid production, thus improving the quality and length of sleep. This is the first study on the positive impact of antioxidant dietary fiber obtained from spent coffee grounds on circadian activity improvement in young adults. Further clinical trials and the role of other bioactive compounds as therapeutic candidates for health disturbances related to circadian dysfunction are necessary to confirm the results.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/dietoterapia , Ritmo Circadiano , Coffea/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Adulto , Antioxidantes/análise , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Coffea/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234581

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Coffea/toxicidade , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7331, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089179

RESUMO

Floral traits and rewards are important in mediating interactions between plants and pollinators. Agricultural management practices can affect abiotic factors known to influence floral traits; however, our understanding of the links between agricultural practices and floral trait expression is still poorly understood. Variation in floral morphological, nectar, and pollen traits of two important agricultural species, Coffea arabica and C. canephora, was assessed under different agricultural practices (sun and shade). Corolla diameter and corolla tube length were larger and pollen total nitrogen content greater in shade plantations of C. canephora than sun plantations. Corolla tube length and anther filament length were larger in shade plantations of C. arabica. No effect of agricultural practice was found on nectar volume, sugar or caffeine concentrations, or pollen production. Pollen total nitrogen content was lower in sun than shade plantations of C. canephora, but no difference was found between sun and shade for C. arabica. This study provides baseline data on the influence of agronomic practices on C. arabica and C. canephora floral traits and also helps fill a gap in knowledge about the effects of shade trees on floral traits, which can be pertinent to other agroforestry systems.


Assuntos
Coffea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Cafeína/análise , Cafeína/metabolismo , Coffea/anatomia & histologia , Coffea/metabolismo , Café/química , Café/metabolismo , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/metabolismo , Luz , Nitrogênio/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Pólen/química , Pólen/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 290: 295-307, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000050

RESUMO

To test the potential of different analytical tools to determine the geographical origin of Ethiopian coffee, 103 green arabica coffee samples from four coffee regions in Ethiopia were subjected to multi-elements and δ13C, δ15N and δ18O determinations. Multi-elements were determined by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP)- and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF)-based techniques, and δ13C, δ15N and δ18O were determined by using elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Using linear discriminant analysis, XRF-based multi-elements with and without δ13C appeared to be most effective in discriminating the geographical origin of coffee, giving higher classification accuracy (89 and 86%, respectively) than ICP-based multi-elements with and without stable isotopes (80%, each). These results demonstrate the potential of XRF-based multi-element profiling as a relatively fast and low-cost tool to trace the geographical origin of Ethiopian coffee. All together this study offers the proof of concept for a promising method that, upon standardization, could be used for coffee provenance authentication and fraud detection.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Café/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise de Variância , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Coffea/metabolismo , Análise Discriminante , Etiópia , Marcação por Isótopo , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/química , Isótopos de Oxigênio/química , Espectrometria por Raios X
12.
Food Chem ; 291: 49-58, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006470

RESUMO

Influence of heat pump drying (HP at 40, 45 and 50 °C), tray drying (TD) and sun drying (SD) on the quality of Arabica coffee was evaluated. Drying process did not affect the caffeine content, but influenced levels of some amino acids. Sucrose content was higher in HP and TD than in SD green coffees. The perceived aroma of brewed coffee from SD was similar to HP, but differed from TD. Concentrations of 30 important odorants were compared for SD, HP (50 °C) and TD brewed coffees. 2-Furfurylthiol, a key odorant of coffee, was at the same level in SD and HP coffees and lowest in TD samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) separated SD from HP and TD, based on the concentrations of 23 odorants. Combined results of sensory and chemical analyses showed that in comparison to SD, HP was superior to TD for preserving overall flavor quality.


Assuntos
Café/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Aminoácidos/análise , Coffea/química , Coffea/metabolismo , Dessecação/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Açúcares/análise , Temperatura , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
13.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(7): 1300-1305, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999827

RESUMO

Purine permeases (PUPs) mediate the proton-coupled uptake of nucleotide bases and their derivatives into cytosol. PUPs facilitate uptake of adenine, cytokinins and nicotine. Caffeine, a purine alkaloid derived from xanthosine, occurs in only a few eudicot species, including coffee, cacao, and tea. Although caffeine is not an endogenous metabolite in Arabidopsis and rice, AtPUP1 and OsPUP7 were suggested to transport caffeine. In this study, we identified 15 PUPs in the genome of Coffea canephora. Direct uptake measurements in yeast demonstrated that CcPUP1 and CcPUP5 facilitate adenine - but not caffeine - transport. Adenine uptake was pH-dependent, with increased activity at pH 3 and 4, and inhibited by nigericin, a potassium-proton ionophore, suggesting that CcPUP1 and CcPUP5 function as proton-symporters. Furthermore, adenine uptake was not competitively inhibited by an excess amount of caffeine, which implies that PUPs of C. canephora have evolved to become caffeine-insensitive to promote efficient uptake of adenine into cytosol.


Assuntos
Adenina/metabolismo , Coffea/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleobases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cafeína/metabolismo , Coffea/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nigericina/farmacologia , Oryza/metabolismo
14.
J Med Food ; 22(4): 416-420, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864854

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that plants can be therapeutic alternatives in the prevention or treatment of various diseases. Among these, green coffee may present different pharmacological effects related to the regulation of glycemia and lipid metabolism and is related to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effects of using green and ripe coffee on the metabolic profile and muscular enzymes after the practice of physical exercises in Wistar rats. We included six groups: G1 (control group), G2 (group submitted to swimming), G3 (group that consumed green coffee), G4 (group that consumed green coffee and was submitted to swimming), G5 (group that consumed ripe coffee), and G6 (group that consumed ripe coffee and was submitted to swimming). Our results showed that there was a significant reduction in the percentage of visceral fat in G3, G5, and G6. We did not observe significant modifications in glycemia, lipids, lactate dehydrogenase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, and ferric-xylenol orange. The levels of creatine phosphokinase showed a reduction in the groups G2 and G4. No significant differences were found in the atherogenic indices. There is a global demand for natural compounds that can be safe, cheap, related to minimum side effects, and provide health benefits. Our results show that the use of green or ripe coffee may contribute to reduce the percentage of visceral fat and consequently may protect against further complications once this tissue produces proatherogenic hormones. Furthermore, green coffee may play a role in protecting muscle injury after the practice of physical exercises.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Café/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Natação , Animais , Aterosclerose , Coffea/química , Café/química , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Food Chem ; 283: 579-587, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722914

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to develop both a possible process and a spray-dried coffee product with a balanced content of bioactive compounds. Spray-dried coffees were prepared by mixing different ratios of medium-roasted Coffea canephora (R) with green Coffea arabica (A) beans. Overall, quality characteristics of spray-dried coffees were not different. The dominant signals of 1D 1H NMR were identified as trigonelline, caffeine and chlorogenic and organic acids. Principal component analysis explained 81.8% of the total variance. Roasted Robusta spray-dried coffee was clearly distinguished from blended coffees. Forty-two volatile compounds were identified. An increase in green Arabica mixed with roasted Robusta in the blends resulted in an increase in 5-caffeoylquinic acid but a decrease in caffeine contents. Spray-dried coffee prepared from a A35:R65 showed greater total phenolic content and antioxidant activity due to a balance in bioactive compounds. In addition, its coffee brew obtained the highest overall liking score.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Café/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Alcaloides/química , Cafeína/análise , Cafeína/química , Coffea/metabolismo , Dessecação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Ácido Quínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Quínico/análise , Ácido Quínico/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
16.
Food Res Int ; 116: 645-651, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716991

RESUMO

Coffee sensory properties can depend on several factors such as the species/varieties cultivated, the processing after the harvesting phase, geographical origin, and climatic factors. The impact of microclimates has been suggested to be critical to coffee sensory properties. Thirteen Arabica coffee samples from different farms in different sub areas of the same municipality (Pitalito region of Huila, Colombia), were evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis. The coffee samples differed in growing altitude, shading level, and fermentation practices. Overall, samples differed for attributes such as burnt, acrid, ashy, metallic, sour and sweet aromatics. However, differences generally were small, <1-point on a 0-15 scale for most attributes. Differences could not be directly attributed to geographical area, different farming practice, or storage methods. This study suggests that the impact of specific microclimates within the same small region does not have a large impact on sensory properties of coffee.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Café/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Percepção Olfatória , Olfato , Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Coffea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Colômbia , Humanos , Microclima
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(6)2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709820

RESUMO

A cup of coffee is the final product of a complex chain of operations. Wet postharvest processing of coffee is one of these operations, which involves a fermentation that inevitably has to be performed on-farm. During wet coffee processing, the interplay between microbial activities and endogenous bean metabolism results in a specific flavor precursor profile of the green coffee beans. Yet, how specific microbial communities and the changing chemical compositions of the beans determine the flavor of a cup of coffee remains underappreciated. Through a multiphasic approach, the establishment of the microbial communities, as well as their prevalence during wet processing of Coffea arabica, was followed at an experimental farm in Ecuador. Also, the metabolites produced by the microorganisms and those of the coffee bean metabolism were monitored to determine their influence on the green coffee bean metabolite profile over time. The results indicated that lactic acid bacteria were prevalent well before the onset of fermentation and that the fermentation duration entailed shifts in their communities. The fermentation duration also affected the compositions of the beans, so that longer-fermented coffee had more notes that are preferred by consumers. As a consequence, researchers and coffee growers should be aware that the flavor of a cup of coffee is determined before as well as during on-farm processing and that under the right conditions, longer fermentation times can be favorable, although the opposite is often believed.IMPORTANCE Coffee needs to undergo a long chain of events to transform from coffee cherries to a beverage. The coffee postharvest processing is one of the key phases that convert the freshly harvested cherries into green coffee beans before roasting and brewing. Among multiple existing processing methods, the wet processing has been usually applied for Arabica coffee and produces decent quality of both green coffee beans and the cup of coffee. In the present case study, wet processing was followed by a multiphasic approach through both microbiological and metabolomic analyses. The impacts of each processing step, especially the fermentation duration, were studied in detail. Distinct changes in microbial ecosystems, processing waters, coffee beans, and sensory quality of the brews were found. Thus, through fine-tuning of the parameters in each step, the microbial diversity and endogenous bean metabolism can be altered during coffee postharvest processing and hence provide potential to improve coffee quality.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Coffea/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Coffea/química , Coffea/metabolismo , Café/química , Equador , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/química , Aromatizantes/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Metabolômica , Microbiota , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(3): 1267-1274, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coffee is one of the most popular beverages in the world. However, as daily consumables, coffee beans may contain pesticide residues that are capable of causing adverse health effects. Thus, we investigated residue dynamics in coffee beans using supervised field trials under Good Agricultural Practice conditions and determined the effects of household coffee processing on the coffee-bean pesticide residues dinotefuran and its metabolites 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) urea (UF) and 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) guanidine (DN). RESULTS: The recovery rate of dinotefuran and its metabolites UF and DN was in the range 73.5%-106.3%, with a relative SD < 10%. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for dinotefuran, UF and DN were all 0.003 and 0.01 mg kg-1 , respectively. Dissipation experiments were conducted over 2015 and 2016 and showed a mean half-life of 40.8 days. Coffee processing procedures were performed as described for traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Dinotefuran contents were reduced by 44.4%-86.7% with washing of coffee beans and the roasting process reduced these contents by 62.2%-100%. DN residues were not detected in roasted coffee beans before day 21 or in brewed coffee before day 35 and UF residues were not detected in brewed coffee before day 35. Kruskal-Wallis analyses indicated large variations in the stability of pesticide residues between processing methods (P ≤ 0.05). Reductions of pesticide concentrations with washing were also significantly lower than those following roasting (P = 0.0001) and brewing processes (P = 0.002). Moreover, processing factors were less than one for all processing stages, indicating reductions of pesticides contents for all processing stages. CONCLUSION: The cumulative effects of the three processing methods are of paramount importance with respect to an evaluation of the risks associated with the ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly those in coffee beans. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Guanidinas/química , Neonicotinoides/química , Nitrocompostos/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Coffea/metabolismo , Café/química , Café/metabolismo , Etiópia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Guanidinas/isolamento & purificação , Guanidinas/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides/isolamento & purificação , Neonicotinoides/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos/isolamento & purificação , Nitrocompostos/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Funct Integr Genomics ; 19(1): 151-169, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30196429

RESUMO

Coffea arabica L. is an important agricultural commodity, accounting for 60% of traded coffee worldwide. Nitrogen (N) is a macronutrient that is usually limiting to plant yield; however, molecular mechanisms of plant acclimation to N limitation remain largely unknown in tropical woody crops. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of coffee roots under N starvation, analyzing poly-A+ libraries and small RNAs. We also evaluated the concentration of selected amino acids and N-source preferences in roots. Ammonium was preferentially taken up over nitrate, and asparagine and glutamate were the most abundant amino acids observed in coffee roots. We obtained 34,654 assembled contigs by mRNA sequencing, and validated the transcriptional profile of 12 genes by RT-qPCR. Illumina small RNA sequencing yielded 8,524,332 non-redundant reads, resulting in the identification of 86 microRNA families targeting 253 genes. The transcriptional pattern of eight miRNA families was also validated. To our knowledge, this is the first catalog of differentially regulated amino acids, N sources, mRNAs, and sRNAs in Arabica coffee roots.


Assuntos
Coffea/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Nitrogênio/deficiência , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Plantas/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Coffea/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Nitratos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poli A/genética , Poli A/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/classificação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/classificação , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/classificação , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
20.
Talanta ; 191: 382-389, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262073

RESUMO

The first metabolic study of the impact of elevated CO2 (590 µL CO2 L-1) levels on the leaves and buds of Coffea arabica L. plants is reported. A novel sequential statistical mixture design strategy allowed optimization of both the extraction and mobile phase solvent systems to increase differences detected in metabolites of Coffea arabica L. plants and buds. Factor analysis showed that the 227 and 273 nm bands of the 1:1:1 ternary ethyl ether - dichloromethane - methanol mixture spectra resulted in discrimination of elevated CO2 extract samples from those obtained from leaves grown in a current level CO2 atmosphere (390 µL CO2 L-1) of leaf sample extracts. DAD-HPLC spectral peak evidence showed a 32% increase in absorbance of the 273 band for the enriched CO2 leaf extracts. This band has been assigned to caffeine-like substances and confirmed by the mass spectral signal at m/z 195 ([M + H]+). No enrichment band increases were found for kahweol, kaempferol and quercetin that had presence confirmed by mass spectral analysis. No epigenetic effect of this metabolic profile was found in new leaves after the addition of CO2 stopped. Enriched CO2 perturbation of the bud metabolite were much smaller than for the leaf samples. Absorbance increases in the 228 nm and decreases in the 235 nm bands play a prominent role in the discrimination of enriched CO2 buds from the controls in the pure dichloromethane extracting solvent. This global metabolome strategy allows the monitoring of chemical groups of plants susceptible to environmental changes as well as elucidate metabolic variations in complex matrices of biochemical responses.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Coffea/efeitos dos fármacos , Coffea/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
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