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1.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234581

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Coffea/toxicidade , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(17): 4774-4781, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963762

RESUMO

Targeted analysis of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora green coffees (total sample size n = 57) confirmed 2- O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-carboxyatractyligenin (6) as the quantitatively dominating carboxyatractyligenin derivative. Its abundance in Arabicas (2425 ± 549 nmol/g, n = 48) exceeded that in Robustas (34 ± 12 nmol/g, n = 9) roughly by a factor of 70. Coffee processing involving heat (e.g., steam treatment and decaffeination) reduced concentrations of 6 and increased those of the decarboxylated derivative. The bioavailability of compound 6 in Caenorhabditis elegans was demonstrated by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of extracts prepared from nematode cultures incubated in a liquid medium containing 6. A toxicity assay performed to assess the impact of 6 in vivo showed a 20-fold higher median lethal dose (LD50 = 11.7 ± 1.2 mM) concentration compared to that of the known phytotoxic adenine-nucleotide transporters inhibitor carboxyatractyloside (2, LD50 = 0.61 ± 0.05 mM), whereas 1 mM 6 and 0.1 mM 2 were sufficient to decrease the survival of wild type C. elegans, already 10-20-fold lower doses reduced reproduction. Because the insulin/insulin-like growth factors signaling cascade (IIS) is a key regulator of life span and stress resistance, the impact of compound 6 on the survival of long-living daf-2 C. elegans was tested. As the susceptibility of these nematodes to 6 was as high as that in wild type, an impact on central metabolic processes independent of IIS was suggested. Analysis of the in vivo adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of adult C. elegans revealed no changes after 1 and 24 h, but a 50% reduction after treatment with 1 mM 6 during the entire postembryonic development. These data speak for a developmental-stage-dependent modulation of the ATP pool by 6.


Assuntos
Atractilosídeo/análogos & derivados , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Coffea/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Atractilosídeo/farmacocinética , Atractilosídeo/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Coffea/toxicidade , Café/química , Feminino , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino
3.
Nutrients ; 10(3)2018 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547558

RESUMO

Coffee roasting affects the taste, color, and aroma of coffee. The Maillard reaction, a major reaction during the roasting process, produces melanoidin, which affects the overall antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee. In this experiment, coffee roasting was divided into four degrees: Light, Medium, City, and French. To examine the in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts with different roasting degrees, we used 10-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Mice were pre-treated with coffee extracts for 10 days by oral gavage (300 mg/Kg.B.W). After the last pre-treatment, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 15 mg/Kg.B.W) was injected intraperitoneally for immune stimulation. Histopathological analysis showed that hepatic portal vein invasion and liver necrosis were severe in the LPS-treated group. However, these phenomena were greatly ameliorated when mice were pre-treated with Light- or Medium-roasted coffee extracts. Hepatic glutathione level was increased in the French group but decreased in the LPS-stimulated group. When mice were treated with LPS, mRNA expression level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was increased, whereas TNF-α expression was significantly reduced in the Light and Medium groups. Treatment with coffee extracts decreased the mRNA expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in mice stimulated by LPS, regardless of coffee roasting degrees. These effects decreased with the increasing coffee roasting degree. Results of luciferase reporter assay revealed that these effects of coffee extracts were transcriptionally regulated by the NF-κB pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that the roasting degree affects the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of coffee extracts.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Coffea , Café , Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Coffea/toxicidade , Café/química , Café/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/toxicidade , Choque Séptico/imunologia , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Choque Séptico/patologia
4.
Med Lav ; 108(5): 349-57, 2017 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Green coffee workers can develop allergic symptoms due to green coffee beans (GCB) or to castor bean (CB) that can contaminate sacks used for the transportation. Data are limited in literature and a previous study performed in Trieste demonstrated allergic symptoms in 14.3% of dockworkers handling GCB. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate symptoms and exposure to GCB ultrafine particles in Trieste dockworkers. METHODS: Workers involved in GCB sacks transportation, storage and opening were asked to fill out a questionnaire on allergic respiratory symptoms. They performed a spirometry test and an evaluation of NO exhaled breath condensate. Inhalable and respirable dust exposures were evaluated by means of personal and environmental pumps. Ultrafine particles exposure was evaluated by means of portable particles counter DISCMini. RESULTS: Between the 40 dockworkers exposed to GCB, 28 participated in the study (70%). Five (17.9%) reported personal allergy symptoms and two workers (7.1%) reported allergic oculorhinitis during work. One subject had symptoms only with Tanzania sacks and he resulted sensitized to CB. Workplace dust evaluation demonstrated values below Threshold Limit Values, but some work tasks were associated with exposure to more than 40,000 ultrafine particles with a geometric mean size of 37.2±1.35 nm. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of allergic symptoms in GCB workers was low but the presence of peaks of ultrafine particles exposure suggests the need to protect workers from exposure, limiting powder dispersion, avoiding the unloading of sacks inside the container and suggesting personal protective equipment regular use (FFP3).


Assuntos
Coffea/toxicidade , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sementes/toxicidade , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Avaliação de Sintomas
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 8: 4, 2012 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22239973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica) husks are reused in several ways due to their abundance, including as stall bedding. However, field veterinarians have reported that horses become intoxicated after ingesting the coffee husks that are used as bedding. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether coffee husk consumption causes intoxication in horses. RESULTS: Six horses fed coast cross hay ad libitum were given access to coffee husks and excitability, restlessness, involuntary muscle tremors, chewing movements and constant tremors of the lips and tongue, excessive sweating and increased respiration and heart rates were the most evident clinical signs. Caffeine levels were measured in the plasma and urine of these horses on two occasions: immediately before the coffee husks were made available to the animals (T0) and at the time of the clinical presentation of intoxication, 56 h after the animals started to consume the husks (T56). The concentrations of caffeine in the plasma (p < 0.001) and urine (p < 0.001) of these animals were significantly greater at T56 than at T0. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that consumption of coffee husks was toxic to horses due to the high levels of caffeine present in their composition. Therefore, coffee husks pose a risk when used as bedding or as feed for horses.


Assuntos
Coffea/toxicidade , Doenças dos Cavalos/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Cafeína/sangue , Cafeína/química , Cafeína/urina , Coffea/química , Feminino , Cavalos , Sementes/química , Sementes/toxicidade
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