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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(6): 615-20, 2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of five-element acupuncture on the cognitive function repair of migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder. METHODS: The migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder (19 cases, 5 cases dropped off) were taken as the observation group, and received five-element acupuncture twice a week for 8 weeks. Healthy subjects (19 cases) were selected by demographic data matching as the control group. The cognitive function was evaluated with the event related potential (ERP) technique, and the latency and amplitude of visual evoked potential P300 were adopted as the observation indexes. The headache days (every 4 weeks), headache intensity [visual analogue scale(VAS) score], and headache impact test-6 (HIT-6) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score and Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score were used as the observation indexes for curative effect. RESULTS: Before the treatment, latency of target stimulus at Fz [ (417.5±34.3) ms] in the observation group was extended compared with the healthy subjects of the control group [(388.6±42.1) ms, P<0.05]. In the observation group, the latency of each point target stimulus [Fz: (376.1±36.2) ms, F3: (374.8±37.6) ms, F4: (372.0±37.6) ms] after treatment were shorter than those [Fz: (417.5±34.3) ms, F3: (417.4±33.8) ms, F4: (416.0±36.6) ms] before treatment (P<0.05). Before and after treatment, there was no significant difference in the amplitude of each point between the observation group and the control group (P>0.05). In the observation group, the headache days was shorter than that before treatment (P<0.01), and the VAS score, HIT-6 score, HAMD score and HAMA score were all lower than before treatment (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: There are some cognitive impairments in migraine patients with depression/anxiety disorder. Five-element acupuncture not only relieves headache, anxiety and depression effectively, but also improves the activation level of the frontal lobe. It significantly repairs the impaired cognitive function.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Pontos de Acupuntura , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Cognição , Depressão/terapia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074077

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the changes of the auditory event-related potentials P300 and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in the chronic mild lead poisoning in order to find out the impairment of cognitive function and intervene early. Methods: In February 2020, 50 patients with chronic mild lead poisoning in Wuhan Center for Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Diseases from June 2011 to June 2015 were selected as the case group, and 50 healthy people were selected as the control group. The changes of auditory event-related potential P300 and MOCA of the two groups were analyzed. Results: Compared with the control group, the latency of P300 of auditory event-related potential in the case group was prolonged and the amplitude was decreased (P<0.05) . Compared with the control group, the total score of MoCA in the case group was decreased, the mean score of language, abstract and delayed memory items decreased, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The combination of auditory event-related potential P300 and MOCA is helpful to detect the early cognitive impairment in chronic lead poisoning population, and auditory event-related potential P300 is an objective and effective early detection method.


Assuntos
Potencial Evocado P300 , Chumbo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Cognição , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065023

RESUMO

Understanding the predictors of belief in COVID-related conspiracy theories and willingness to get vaccinated against COVID-19 may aid the resolution of current and future pandemics. We investigate how psychological and cognitive characteristics influence general conspiracy mentality and COVID-related conspiracy theories. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data from an online survey of a sample of Czech university students (n = 866) collected in January 2021, using multivariate linear regression and mediation analysis. Sixteen percent of respondents believed that COVID-19 is a hoax, and 17% believed that COVID-19 was intentionally created by humans. Seven percent of the variance of the hoax theory and 10% of the variance of the creation theory was explained by (in descending order of relevance) low cognitive reflection, low digital health literacy, high experience with dissociation and, to some extent, high bullshit receptivity. Belief in COVID-related conspiracy theories depended less on psychological and cognitive variables compared to conspiracy mentality (16% of the variance explained). The effect of digital health literacy on belief in COVID-related theories was moderated by cognitive reflection. Belief in conspiracy theories related to COVID-19 was influenced by experience with dissociation, cognitive reflection, digital health literacy and bullshit receptivity.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Dissociativos , Humanos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069310

RESUMO

Traditional evaluation of user experience is subjective by nature, for what is sought is to use data from physiological and behavioral sensors to interpret the relationship that the user's cognitive states have with the elements of a graphical interface and interaction mechanisms. This study presents the systematic review that was developed to determine the cognitive states that are being investigated in the context of Quality of Experience (QoE)/User Experience (UX) evaluation, as well as the signals and characteristics obtained, machine learning models used, evaluation architectures proposed, and the results achieved. Twenty-nine papers published in 2014-2019 were selected from eight online sources of information, of which 24% were related to the classification of cognitive states, 17% described evaluation architectures, and 41% presented correlations between different signals, cognitive states, and QoE/UX metrics, among others. The amount of identified studies was low in comparison with cognitive state research in other contexts, such as driving or other critical activities; however, this provides a starting point to analyze and interpret states such as mental workload, confusion, and mental stress from various human signals and propose more robust QoE/UX evaluation architectures.


Assuntos
Cognição , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070866

RESUMO

The present study aimed to verify the effect of a warm-up protocol with and without facemask-use on cognitive function. The sample was composed of 17 healthy, non-smoking physical education students (age = 17.6 years, height = 1.71 m, and body mass = 69.7 kg). They were randomized to perform 15 min of warm-up exercises, while wearing a cloth facemask (EXP) or no mask (CON) on two separate occasions, with at least 48-h separating conditions. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and d2 Attention assessment were used to verify cognitive function, using a repeated measures general linear model. The warm-up improved cognitive abilities and the results demonstrated significant differences between the EXP vs. CON groups in post-concentration performance (186.06 ± 15.47 EXP-score vs. 178.12 ± 13.66 CON-score), post the total number of errors (23.47 ± 14.50 EXP-frequency < 29.06 ± 13.74 CON-frequency), and in the post RPE (6.0 ± 1.37 EXP-index > 4.7 ± 0.85 CON-index). Wearing a cloth facemask caused positive effects on cognitive function. This data suggests that wearing a cloth facemask during warm-up may stimulate/improve the cognitive function.


Assuntos
Exercício de Aquecimento , Adolescente , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Máscaras , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(4. Vyp. 2): 36-40, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078858

RESUMO

Cognitive-behavior therapy of insomnia (CBT-I) is first-line treatment for insomnia, but it produces a clinical significant result only in 60-80% of patients. Addition reason of reduction of CBT-I efficacy is a relatively low adherence: the attrition rate is 10-39%. The authors discuss options to enhance efficacy of the therapy by usage of complex approach, individualized choice of technics, motivating a patient and his relatives, and combination of CBT-I with hypnotics.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Cognição , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 259-270, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085974

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to review the qualitative literature on cognitive accessibility in a digital environment and areas of inquiry for future qualitative research in this context. The focus of this literature review was to identify qualitative research in the cognitive accessibility field and how commonly this term is mentioned in qualitative research articles. In this study, a literature review was conducted on selected qualitative research studies performed globally related to cognitive accessibility. This literature review analysed through meta-synthesis. Based on the results of the literature review, an understanding of existing qualitative research was obtained in the cognitive accessibility field, as well as topics for further qualitative research in the cognitive accessibility field.


Assuntos
Cognição , Pesquisa Qualitativa
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 313, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nuts are nutrient-rich and reported to provide some cognitive and cardiometabolic health benefits, but limited studies have focused on older adults. This study investigated the cross-sectional relationship between habitual nut intake, dietary pattern and quality, cognition and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in older adults. METHODS: Older adults (≥ 60 years) from the NHANES 2011-12 and 2013-14 cohorts, who had complete data on cognitive function (as CERAD total, delayed recall, animal fluency and digit-symbol substitution test) and variables to calculate the Fatty Liver Index (FLI), an indicator of NAFLD, were included (n = 1848). Nut intake and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index 2015) were determined using two 24-hour diet recalls. Participants were categorised into one of four groups based on their habitual nut intake: non-consumers (0 g/d), low intake (0.1-15.0 g/d), moderate intake (15.1-30.0 g/d) or met recommendation (> 30 g/d), with all outcomes compared between these nut intake groups. RESULTS: Cognitive scores of older adults were the lowest in non-consumers and significantly highest in the moderate intake group, with no further increase in those who consumed nuts more than 30 g/d (p < 0.007). FLI was the lowest among older adults with moderate nut intake but the associations disappeared after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.329). Moderate nut intake was also associated with better immediate and delayed memory in older adults with high risk of NAFLD (FLI ≥ 60) (B = 1.84 and 1.11, p < 0.05 respectively). Higher nutrient intake and better diet quality (p < 0.001) were seen with higher nut intake but did not influence energy from saturated fat intake. Factor analysis revealed 'Nuts and oils' as one of the four major dietary patterns associated with better cognition and lower FLI scores. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate nut intake (15.1-30.0 g/d) may be sufficient for better cognitive performance, but not NAFLD risk of older adults in the US.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Nozes , Idoso , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 328, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that sodium imbalances may be associated with cognitive impairment; however, the association between specific domains of cognition remains unclear. This study examines the association between serum sodium levels and immediate and delayed verbal memory as measured by the CERAD Word Learning Test (CERAD WLT), executive function as measured by the Animal Fluency test (AFT), and sustained attention, working memory, and processing speed as measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution test (DSST) in the elderly population of the US aged 60 and older who participated in the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (n = 2,541). METHODS: Cognitive function tests were performed by trained interviewers and sodium levels were measured using indirect ion selective electrode methodology. RESULTS: After adjusting for all covariates, quintiles of CERAD WLT scores showed significant positive associations with log-transformed sodium levels (Immediate recall (IR) ß = 4.25 (SE = 1.83, p-value 0.027); Delayed recall (DR) ß = 6.54 (SE = 1.82, p-value 0.001)). Compared to normal sodium levels, hyponatremia was significantly associated with lower CERAD WLT-IR (ß = -0.34, SE = 0.15, p-value 0.035) and CERAD WLT-DR scores (ß -0.48, SE = 0.10, p-value < 0.001) and showed borderline significance with AFT scores (ß = = -0.38, SE = 0.19, p-value 0.052). Hypernatremia did not show any significant relationships with cognitive test scores, compared to normal sodium levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our cross-sectional study showed that lower sodium levels were associated with cognitive change, especially regarding memory and executive function.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sódio
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 329, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the relation between anemia and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, physical performance, and cognitive function in a large sample of Iranian elderly population. METHODS: Data were collected from Bushehr elderly health (BEH) program. A total of 3000 persons aged ≥60 years were selected through multistage random sampling. Hemoglobin values lower than 12 and 13 g/dL were considered as anemia for women and men, respectively. The cognitive function was measured using the Mini-cog test and Category fluency test (CFT), and the physical function was measured using handgrip strength (muscle strength), Relative handgrip strength (RHGS), and 4.57-m usual gait speed. Univariate and adjusted multivariate logistic regression and linear regression with Stata MP (version 15) were run, and a p-value of < 0.05 was used as statistically significant for all analyses. RESULTS: Among participants, 7.43% were anemic, and 115 (51.57%) simultaneously had anemia and cognitive disorder. There were significant associations between red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hgb), platelet count (PLT), and hematocrit percentage (HCT) with cognitive impairment. Additionally, Hgb concentration was significantly associated with all physical measures (Mean handgrip, Relative handgrip, and usual gait speed) and late recall (mini-cog) among the whole participants. This association remained statistically significant after considering multi-cofounders. In contrast, after stratifying the participants by gender, the association between Hgb concentration and usual gait speed was decreased in both men and women; moreover, Hgb association with cognitive measures (category fluency test and late recall) was no longer significant (all p-values > 0.05). CONCLUSION: There was a cross-sectional and significant association between anemia and functional variables (e.g., Relative and mean handgrip) in Iranian elderly population, whereas Semantic memory, Late recall, and walking were more affected by gender.


Assuntos
Anemia , Força da Mão , Idoso , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desempenho Físico Funcional
11.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 29(2): 203-209, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043401

RESUMO

Driving after cannabis use (DACU) is a significant public health concern and represents one of the riskiest cannabis-related behaviors. Though years of research has demonstrated that cannabis use impairs driving ability, many college students report believing that cannabis use does not impair their driving abilities. This perception of low danger may contribute to a permissive attitude toward DACU. The present proof-of-concept pilot study examined the preliminary efficacy of a mobile phone-based intervention with personalized feedback and text messaging to increase perceptions of dangerousness of DACU. Participants were 77 college cannabis users (65.8% women; average age = 21.2; 88.3% Caucasian) who endorsed DACU at least three times in the past 3 months. After completing baseline measures, participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) personalized feedback plus interactive text messaging (PFT), (b) personalized feedback only (PF), or (c) informational control (IC). Participants completed outcome measures 3 months post intervention. Repeated measures mixed models revealed that compared to those in the IC condition, cannabis users in the PFT condition reported significantly greater increases over time in the perception of dangerousness of DACU. These findings provide initial support for the short-term efficacy of a mobile phone-based intervention for changing perceptions related to dangerousness of DACU among college cannabis users. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Intervenção na Crise , Fumar Maconha/prevenção & controle , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Adulto , Telefone Celular , Cognição , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252228, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent the viral transmission from higher infected to lower infected area, controlling the vehicular traffic, consequently public movement on roads is crucial. Containment strategies and local cognition regarding pandemic might be helpful to control vehicular movement. This study aimed to ascertain the effectiveness of containment strategies and local cognition for controlling traffic volume during COVID-19 pandemic in Dhaka, Bangladesh. METHOD: Six containment strategies were considered to explore their influence on traffic condition, including declaration of general holiday, closure of educational institution, deployment of force, restriction on religious gathering, closure of commercial activities, and closure of garments factories. Newspaper coverage and public concern about COVID-19 were considered as local cognition in this research. The month of Ramadan as a potential event was also taken into account considering it might have an impact on the overall situation. Average daily journey speed (ADJS) was calculated from real-time traffic data of Google Map to understand the vehicular traffic scenario of Dhaka. A multiple linear regression method was developed to comprehend the findings. RESULTS: The results showed that among the containment strategies, declaration of general holiday and closure of educational institutions could increase the ADJS significantly, thereby referring to less traffic movement. Besides, local cognition could not significantly affect the traffic condition, although the month of Ramadan could increase the ADJS significantly. CONCLUSION: It is expected that these findings would provide new insights into decision-making and help to take appropriate strategies to tackle the future pandemic situation.


Assuntos
Veículos Automotores , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , /prevenção & controle , Cognição , Humanos , Emissões de Veículos
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 175: 104847, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993965

RESUMO

Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is widely used as a pesticide and a veterinary drug, although studies suggest that it could be toxic to mammals. The objectives of this study were to examine the pharmacokinetic profile of fipronil in mice, dogs, and cats, and to evaluate its effects on emotional and cognitive behaviors of dogs and cats using the data obtained from mice. The assessment of in vivo kinetics of fipronil was conducted in mice and dogs. We also performed behavioral tests (elevated plus-maze and Y-maze) and measured the levels of neurotransmitters in mice exposed to fipronil. In addition, the in vitro metabolism of fipronil were evaluated using liver microsomes of rats, mice, dogs, and cats. The results revealed that fipronil is distributed throughout the body (blood, brain, adipose tissue, and liver) of mice after dermal application. It was metabolized to fipronil sulfone primarily in the liver. The data on kinetics show that both fipronil and fipronil sulfone have a longer half-life in dogs and cats than in mice. The behavioral tests indicated that fipronil and fipronil sulfone could affect emotional and cognitive behaviors and alter the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine in the striatum and serotonin in the hippocampus) in mice. Furthermore, we found that dogs and cats have a low ability to metabolize fipronil than mice and rats. However, further comprehensive studies are needed to determine whether fipronil affects the emotional and cognitive behaviors when administered to dogs and cats. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the pharmacokinetic data and verify the effects of fipronil on emotional and cognitive behaviors of dogs and cats using the data obtained from mice.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Inseticidas , Animais , Gatos , Cognição , Cães , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mamíferos , Camundongos , Pirazóis , Ratos
14.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(5): 668-674, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is insufficient knowledge about the functional and medical recovery of older people infected with SARS-CoV-2. This study aims to gain insight into the course of functional and medical recovery of persons who receive geriatric rehabilitation (GR) following SARS-CoV-2 infection across Europe. Special attention will be paid to the recovery of activities of daily living (ADL) and to the GR services offered to these patients. DESIGN: A multi-center observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This study will include several European countries (EuGMS member states) each providing at least 52 comparable routine datasets (core dataset) of persons recovering from a SARS-CoV-2 infection and receiving geriatric rehabilitation. The routine data will be anonymously collected in an online CASTOR database. The ethical regulations of each participating country will be followed. PRIMARY OUTCOME: ADL functioning. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: length of stay, discharge destination, hospital readmission and mortality. Other variables that will be collected are quality of life, treatment modalities, complications, cognition, frailty, mood/anxiety, BMI, nutrition and pain. All variables will be reported at admission and compared with follow-up scores (discharge, 6 weeks and 6 months follow-up). CONCLUSION: This study will explore the effect of geriatric rehabilitation on post-COVID-19 patients, especially on ADL recovery, and the variety of geriatric rehabilitation services across Europe. Information from this study may help improve recovery of older persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 and improve geriatric rehabilitation services in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , /reabilitação , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Fragilidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pandemias
15.
Patient Educ Couns ; 104(5): 1059-1065, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Learning about clinical trials is as stressful and challenging for cancer patients as it is for the clinical staff who provide education to patients. Information aids (IAs) can support both discussions and patients' decision-making, especially when IAs offer interactive features that provide information based on individuals' needs and experiences. However, it is not clear which factors contribute to interactive IAs' effectiveness. METHODS: An experiment with cancer patients and survivors (n = 313) compared the effects of two IAs about clinical trial participation: one with modality (i.e. website/technological) interactivity only and one with both modality and message interactivity (i.e. provides information contingent on individual users' information needs). RESULTS: The IA with both modality and message interactivity features elicited the higher perceived visual informativeness (PVI) and cognitive absorption (CA) scores. The model supports the moderating role of PVI and cancer information overload (CIO), and the mediating role of CA. CONCLUSION: The IA with both modality and message interactivity better supported individuals' decision-making and improved attitudes and knowledge scores. CIO was experienced more by participants using the modality interactivity-only IA. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Message interactivity may simplify individuals' cognitive processes. IAs about clinical trial participation should include both message and modality interactivity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Atitude , Cognição , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Neoplasias/terapia
16.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931962, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945520

RESUMO

Trait anxiety is characterized as a constant and often subliminal state that persists during daily life. Interoception is the perception of internal states and sensations, including from the autonomic nervous system. This review aims to develop a predictive model to explain the emergence, manifestations, and maintenance of trait anxiety. The model begins with the assumption that anxiety states arise from active interoceptive inference. The subsequent activation of autonomic responses results from aversive sensory encounters. A cognitive model is proposed for trait anxiety that includes the aversive sensory components from interoception, exteroception, and proprioception. A further component of the hypothesis is that repeated exposure to subliminal anxiety-evoking sensory elements can lead to an overgeneralization of this response to other inputs that are generally non-aversive. Increased uncertainty may result when predicting the sensory environment, resulting in arbitrary interoceptive anxiety responses that may be due to unjustifiable causes. Arbitrary successful or unsuccessful matching of predictions and responses reduces the individual's confidence to maintain the anxiety trait. In this review, the application of the proposed model is illustrated using gut microbial dysbiosis or imbalance of the gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interocepção/fisiologia , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Humanos
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 217: 103329, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984573

RESUMO

A previous study used days as a sequence symbol to investigate the interaction mechanism between location and sequence in sequence symbol cognition; the study findings suggested that the spatial stimulus-response compatibility effect and the Simon effect could not co-exist with the SNARC-like effect when processing sequence symbols. The previous study did not include the influence of the difficulty of identifying sequence symbols on the Simon effect in the investigation, so it is unclear whether the conclusion about processing sequence symbols with considerable identification difficulty can be extended to the processing of sequence symbols with less identification difficulty. Therefore, the present study explored letters that have a low level of identification difficulty to investigate the interaction mechanism between location and sequence in sequence symbol cognition. Participants were asked to classify a probe letter, which was randomly displayed on the left or right side of the screen, according to its location (Experiment 1), its sequence (Experiment 2) or its colour (Experiment 3). The results indicated that (1) only the spatial stimulus-response compatibility effect and Simon effect were present in the letter location classification task and letter colour classification task, respectively. (2) The Simon effect co-existed with the SNARC-like effect, and these two effects interacted with each other in the letter sequence classification task. From these results, it can be concluded that the task determines whether the Simon effect and the SNARC-like effect can co-exist, with differences presented across sequence symbols.


Assuntos
Cognição , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 217: 103332, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991795

RESUMO

In order to gauge the executive processes underlying adaptive behavior, a central criterion in psychology is the extent to which experimental findings generalize across response types. The latency of two major acts of control, action initiation and inhibition, was evaluated using a stop-signal paradigm with two response types, involving either a finger key-pressing or a wrist pen-swiping response. In both conditions, 40 participants were instructed to respond quickly to a GO stimulus but to cancel their responses when a STOP signal was presented, which occurred randomly in 25% of the trials. Taken together, analyses of reaction times and of inhibition probability functions indicated that action initiation generalized across the two response types. In contrast, the finger key-pressing and the wrist pen-swiping responses involved independent inhibition processes. These results challenge a strictly top-down view for some acts of control by showing an interaction between the executive and motor levels in terms of response modality specificity.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Movimento , Animais , Cognição , Dedos , Cavalos , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 205, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic disorders may have a bidirectional causal relationship with mental disorders. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to assess the associations between cognitive abilities and emotional function tests and quality of life with the presence of allergic disease in young women. METHODS: A diagnosis of allergic disorders, comprising allergic rhinitis (AR), asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD), was confirmed by a specialist in allergy. The presence and severity of depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia and sleepiness were evaluated using validated questionnaires. Cognitive abilities and quality of life were assessed using standard instruments. RESULTS: Among 181 female young participants, the prevalence of AR, asthma and AD were 26.5%, 2.8%, and 14.9% respectively. The AR group had higher scores than the non-AR group for depression, anxiety, insomnia, and lower scores for physical and mental health-related quality of life. Moreover, the AD cases had higher scores on the depression and stress scale compared to those without it (p < 0.05). Asthmatic patients also had significantly higher insomnia severity and lower physical health-related quality of life than non-asthmatic. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of psychological/psychiatric disorders that included: anxiety, and sleep problems among allergic women, and a reduced quality of life that may be associated with it.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Asma/complicações , Asma/epidemiologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 281: 729-733, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042672

RESUMO

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is an action-oriented psychotherapy that combines cognitive and behavioural techniques for psychosocial treatment for depression, and is considered by many to be the golden standard in psychotherapy. More recently, computerized CBT (CCBT) has been deployed to help increase availability and access to this evidence-based therapy. In this vein, a CBT ontology, as a shared common understanding of the domain, can facilitate the aggregation, verification, and operationalization of computerized CBT knowledge. Moreover, as opposed to black-box applications, ontology-enabled systems allow recommended, evidence-based treatment interventions to be traced back to the corresponding psychological concepts. We used a Knowledge Management approach to synthesize and computerize CBT knowledge from multiple sources into a CBT ontology, which allows generating personalized action plans for treating mild depression, using the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). We performed a formative evaluation of the CBT ontology in terms of its completeness, consistency, and conciseness.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno Depressivo , Cognição , Depressão/terapia , Humanos
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