Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 100.462
Filtrar
1.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(8): 892-900, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of environmental enrichment on cognitive behavior and the expression of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter A7 (ABCA7) in hippocampus of the adolescent mice with high fat diet. METHODS: A total of healthy 3-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control (Con) group, a high fat diet (HFD) group, and a high fat diet+environmental enrichment (HFD+EE) group, with 10 mice in each group. The Con group was given normal diet. The HFD group was given high fat diet. The HFD+EE group was given high fat diet; at the same time, they treated by environmental enrichment. After 10 weeks, open field test was used to detect activity. Novel object recognition test and Y maze test were used to detect cognitive behavior. After the test, the brain was collected and used to detect the protein expression of ABCA7 in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. And quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to detect the ABCA7 mRNA expression level in the hippocampus. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the total movement distance in the mice among the 3 groups (P>0.05). In the novel object recognition test, the discrimination index of the HFD group was much lower than that of the Con group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). The discrimination index of the HFD+EE group was higher than that of the HFD group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). In the Y maze test, there was no significant difference in the percentage of time spent on the new arm among the mice in the 3 groups (P=0.1279). The percentage of entries in new arm in the HFD group was much lower than that in the Con group, and the difference was significant (P<0.01). The percentage of the entries in new arm in the HFD+EE group was significantly higher than that in the HFD group (P<0.05). The results of immunohistochemistry showed that ABCA7 was positively expressed in the cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons in the mice from these 3 groups, and the expression of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of the HFD group was lower than that of the Con group (CA1: P<0.01, CA3: P=0.06), while the expression of ABCA7 in hippocampus of HFD+EE group was higher than that of HFD group (CA1: P=0.23, CA3: P<0.05). Western blotting results showed that compared with the Con group, the protein level of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of the HFD group was significantly reduced (P<0.05), while compared with the Con group, the protein level of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of the HFD+EE group showed an upward trend (P=0.06). The results of RT-qPCR showed that the mRNA level of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of HFD group was significantly lower than that of the Con group (P<0.01), while the mRNA level of ABCA7 in the hippocampus of HFD+EE group was significantly higher than that of the HFD group (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: High fat diet in adolescent can impair cognitive function with a decrease in the expression of ABCA7 in hippocampus, which can be ameliorate by environmental enrichment.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Animais , Cognição , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hipocampo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
2.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 475-482, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009079

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies have increased our understanding of the biochemical and structural bases of visual hallucinations in patients with a variety of underlying causes. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual hallucinations may be related to disruption of functional connectivity networks, with underlying biochemical dysfunction such as decreased in cholinergic activity. Structural abnormalities in primary and higher order visual processing areas also have been found in patients with visual hallucinations. The occurrence of visual hallucinations after vision loss, the Charles Bonnet syndrome, may have more functional similarity to psychiatric and neurodegenerative causes than previously suspected despite retained insight into the unreal nature of the phenomena. SUMMARY: Visual hallucinations are common, and patients may not report them if specific inquiries are not made. Presence or absence of hallucinations may be of diagnostic and therapeutic importance, especially in patients with neurodegenerative conditions that have overlapping features. Treatment of visual hallucinations remains challenging and must be tailored to each patient based on the underlying cause and comorbid conditions.


Assuntos
Alucinações , Animais , Cognição , Alucinações/diagnóstico , Alucinações/etiologia , Alucinações/psicologia , Alucinações/terapia , Humanos , Corpos de Lewy , Visão Ocular
3.
J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ; 38(3): 222-231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004719

RESUMO

Context: Dental anxiety and fear is not only a psychological problem but also a dental health problem. It is important to understand how the cognitive elements influence child's dental anxiety/fear and interact with their oral health. Objective: This study was conducted among children to determine the association between cognitive vulnerability (CV) with dental fear and their oral health status. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 500 schoolchildren aged 12-15 years in Bengaluru city. Methodology: The schools and participants were selected by cluster random and systematic random sampling method, respectively. Cognitive vulnerability and Index of Dental Anxiety and Fear (IDAF-4C+) were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Oral health status was recorded using the World Health Organization 2013 proforma for children. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test, Student's t-test, Spearman's correlation, and multivariate hierarchical linear regression were used in this study. The statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: Nearly half of the study participants had cognitive perceptions, dental anxiety/fear, phobia, and stimulus toward dental treatment. Majority had dental caries and gingival bleeding. Cognitive vulnerability, dental anxiety/fear, phobia, and stimulus were independent of the age and gender and were associated with socioeconomic status. A significant correlation was found between participants' CV, IDAF-4C+, dental caries, and gingival bleeding. Cognitive vulnerability was a significant predictor of dental caries and gingival bleeding. Dental anxiety/fear and dental phobia were significant predictors of dental caries. Conclusion: Oral health status was significantly poorer and was associated with CV, dental anxiety/fear, phobia, and stimulus. Cognitive elements together with dental fear influenced oral health.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal
4.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(10): 686-691, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030847

RESUMO

Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual development disorder (IDD) are common but heterogeneous pediatric conditions. Guided by a rigorous clinical and anamnestic examination, the diagnostic approach is a dynamic process which is not limited to the intelligence quotient measurement. A large panel of paraclinical tests allows etiological exploration; this generally includes biological, genetic, metabolic and iconographic examinations. To maximize therapeutic efficiency and standardize practices, this document provides a guideline for the management of pediatric GDD/IDD.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Deficiência Intelectual , Criança , Cognição , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Família , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4783, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963219

RESUMO

Relations between task elements often follow hidden underlying structural forms such as periodicities or hierarchies, whose inferences fosters performance. However, transferring structural knowledge to novel environments requires flexible representations that are generalizable over particularities of the current environment, such as its stimuli and size. We suggest that humans represent structural forms as abstract basis sets and that in novel tasks, the structural form is inferred and the relevant basis set is transferred. Using a computational model, we show that such representation allows inference of the underlying structural form, important task states, effective behavioural policies and the existence of unobserved state-trajectories. In two experiments, participants learned three abstract graphs during two successive days. We tested how structural knowledge acquired on Day-1 affected Day-2 performance. In line with our model, participants who had a correct structural prior were able to infer the existence of unobserved state-trajectories and appropriate behavioural policies.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4796, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963231

RESUMO

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/ß-catenin, TGF-ß and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Encéfalo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estruturas Cromossômicas , Cognição , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genetic testing is recommended for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Pathogenic yield varies by clinician and/or patient characteristics. Our objectives were to determine the pathogenic yield of genetic testing, the variability in rate of pathogenic results based on subject characteristics, and the percentage of pathogenic findings resulting in further medical recommendations in toddlers with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of ASD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 500 toddlers, 18 to 36 months, diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ASD (mean age: 25.8 months, 79% male). Subject demographics, medical and neuropsychological characteristics, and genetic test results were abstracted. Genetic results were divided into negative or normal, variants of unknown significance, and pathogenic. Subject characteristics were compared across results. Manual chart review determined if further recommendations were made after pathogenic results. RESULTS: Over half of subjects (59.8%, n = 299) completed genetic testing, and of those, 36 (12.0%) had pathogenic findings. There were no significant differences in Bayley Scales of Infant Development cognitive (P = .112), language (P = .898), or motor scores (P = .488) among children with negative or normal findings versus a variant of unknown significance versus pathogenic findings. Medical recommendations in response to the genetic finding were made for 72.2% of those with pathogenic results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce the importance of genetic testing for toddlers diagnosed with ASD given the 12% yield and lack of phenotypic differences between subjects with and without pathogenic findings. The majority of pathogenic results lead to further medical recommendations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos 13-15 , Cognição , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Mosaicismo , Destreza Motora , Mutação , Fenótipo , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201424, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933446

RESUMO

Social interactions are thought to be a critical driver in the evolution of cognitive ability. Cooperative interactions, such as pair bonding, rather than competitive interactions have been largely implicated in the evolution of increased cognition. This is despite competition traditionally being a very strong driver of trait evolution. Males of many species track changes in their social environment and alter their reproductive strategies in response to anticipated levels of competition. We predict this to be cognitively challenging. Using a Drosophila melanogaster model, we are able to distinguish between the effects of a competitive environment versus generic social contact by exposing flies to same-sex same-species competition versus different species partners, shown to present non-competitive contacts. Males increase olfactory learning/memory and visual memory after exposure to conspecific males only, a pattern echoed by increased expression of synaptic genes and an increased need for sleep. For females, largely not affected by mating competition, the opposite pattern was seen. The results indicate that specific social contacts dependent on sex, not simply generic social stimulation, may be an important evolutionary driver for cognitive ability in fruit flies.


Assuntos
Cognição , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Memória , Fenótipo , Reprodução , Fatores Sexuais , Sono , Comportamento Social
10.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 313-319, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192068

RESUMO

The quality of learning in Higher Education is particularly dependent on students' skills in regulating their cognition. This regulation requires cognitive and metacognitive skills as well as motivational dimensions. Due to its relevance in explaining students' academic achievement and developing lifelong learning skills, it´s important to increase research in the area. This study aims to adapt and validate a short version of the Regulation of Cognition of Metacognitive Awareness Inventory to first-year Portuguese university students. A sample of 360 students was considered and was identified a three-dimensional structure (Planning, 4 items; Strategies, 7 items; and Monitoring and evaluation, 7 items) with a second-order factor (Regulation of Cognition). The internal consistency values of the reduced scale are within the acceptable parameters for a self-report scale and the correlations with academic achievement at the end of the first year of the university guarantee the predictive validity of the scale. This short version of regulation of cognition measure allows its use in research with other instruments in larger studies and can function as a diagnostic / screening tool to help students in higher education learning challenges


La calidad del aprendizaje en la Educación Superior depende, especialmente, de las habilidades de los estudiantes para regular su cognición. Esta regulación requiere habilidades cognitivas y metacognitivas, así como dimensiones motivacionales. Dada su relevancia en el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo de habilidades para el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, es importante aumentar la investigación en el campo. Este estudio pretende adaptar y validar una versión abreviada de la dimensión Regulación de la Cognición del Metacognitive Awareness Inventory para estudiantes universitarios portugueses de primer año. Se empleó una muestra de 360 estudiantes y se identificó una estructura tridimensional (Planificación, 4 ítems; Estrategias, 7 ítems; y Monitoreo y evaluación, 7 ítems) con un factor de segundo orden (Regulación de la cognición). Los valores de consistencia interna de la escala reducida son aceptables para una escala de auto-informe y las correlaciones con el logro académico al final del primer año de la universidad garantizan su validez predictiva. Esta versión abreviada para medir la regulación de la cognición puede usarse en investigación junto con otros instrumentos en estudios más amplios y puede funcionar como una herramienta de diagnóstico para ayudar a los estudiantes en los desafíos del aprendizaje en la enseñanza superior


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cognição , Estudantes/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autorrelato , Portugal , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 320-329, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192069

RESUMO

In accordance with the goal of the positive psychology approach, this study was designed to build an understanding of the relationships among optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life and happiness by proposing a multiple mediation model. A total of 386 undergraduates (64% female and 36% male) between 18-22 years participated in the study. The participants were recruited from a small university in Turkey. The Life Orientation Test, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, University Life Scale, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form were utilized as measures. The results showed that optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life, and happiness positively correlated. The findings from the mediational analyses also indicated that the serial multiple mediation of cognitive flexibility and adjustment to university life in the hypothetical model was statistically significant and explained approximately 50% of the variance in happiness


De acuerdo con el objetivo del enfoque de psicología positiva, este estudio fue diseñado para construir una comprensión de las relaciones entre optimismo, flexibilidad cognitiva, ajuste a la vida universitaria y felicidad mediante la propuesta de un modelo de mediación múltiple. Un total de 386 estudiantes universitarios (64% mujeres y 36% hombres) entre 18-22 años participaron en el estudio. Los participantes fueron reclutados de una pequeña universidad en Turquía. El Test de Orientación de Vida, el Inventario de Flexibilidad Cognitiva, la Escala de Vida Universitaria y el Formulario Corto del Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford fueron utilizados como medidas. Los resultados mostraron que el optimismo, la flexibilidad cognitiva, el ajuste a la vida universitaria y la felicidad se correlacionan positivamente. Los resultados de los análisis mediacionales también indicaron que la mediación serial múltiple de la flexibilidad cognitiva y el ajuste a la vida universitaria en el modelo hipotetizado fue estadísticamente significativa y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza en la felicidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Otimismo , Felicidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Universidades , Cognição , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4715, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948772

RESUMO

Animal-fMRI is a powerful method to understand neural mechanisms of cognition, but it remains a major challenge to scan actively participating small animals under low-stress conditions. Here, we present an event-related functional MRI platform in awake pigeons using single-shot RARE fMRI to investigate the neural fundaments for visually-guided decision making. We established a head-fixated Go/NoGo paradigm, which the animals quickly learned under low-stress conditions. The animals were motivated by water reward and behavior was assessed by logging mandibulations during the fMRI experiment with close to zero motion artifacts over hundreds of repeats. To achieve optimal results, we characterized the species-specific hemodynamic response function. As a proof-of-principle, we run a color discrimination task and discovered differential neural networks for Go-, NoGo-, and response execution-phases. Our findings open the door to visualize the neural fundaments of perceptual and cognitive functions in birds-a vertebrate class of which some clades are cognitively on par with primates.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Vigília , Animais , Artefatos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Columbidae , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Movimento (Física) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Recompensa
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21669, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether regional anesthesia (RA) offers better long-term neurodevelopment outcomes compared to general anesthesia (GA) to infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy is still under heated debate. The aim of this meta-analysis is to compare the long-term neurodevelopment impact of RA with GA on infants undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov and controlledtrials.com will be performed. Published eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs (including abstracts) through May 20, 2020 with language limit of English will be enrolled in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers will independently conduct the procedures of study selection, data extraction, methodological quality assessment, and risk of bias assessment. The primary outcome is long-term neurodevelopmental state (at 2- and 5-year follow-up) as reflected in the Bayley and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) scales of infants development following surgeries. The secondary outcomes consist of satisfactory intraoperative infants immobility, duration of surgery, any anesthetic failure, the supplement of postoperative analgesia, postoperative apnea, and postoperative bradycardia. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) or odds ratios (ORs) of each outcome measurement and relative 95% confident intervals (CIs) will be calculated. EndNote X8 (Clarivate Analytics) software will be applied to manage all citations. The Cochrane Review Manager version 5.3 software (RevMan 5.3) will be employed for statistical analysis. DISCUSSION: This study will summarize scientific and practical evidence and provide evidence-based individualized decision-making guidance on anesthesia regimen for inguinal herniorrhaphy in infants. REGISTRATION: This protocol was registered with the International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (INPLASY) on 17 June 2020 (registration number INPLASY202060064).


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Herniorrafia/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 38(4): 410-414, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the current cognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occupational protection among the managers of multi-level stomatology medical institutions in efforts to provide a reference for formulating technical standards for occupational protection. METHODS: Eighteen managers of oral medical institutions were individually interviewed in-depth using asemi-structured questionnaire on issues related to AIDS occupational protection using the phenomenological research method. Nvivo 12.0 software was used to code and analyze the interview data, and relevant themes were extracted. RESULTS: Three themes were extracted from the data. Occupational protection measures for AIDS in dental medical institutions mainly based on the aspects of standardized operation, standardized prevention, and post-exposure treatment. However, the implementation of these protective measures was often inadequate. Occupational protection training for AIDS was carried out regularly at dental medical institutions, but the training effect was not generally tracked. Several limitations in AIDS occupational protection management; these limitations included the lack of a specific occupational protection system, the difficulty of AIDS screening for outpatients, and the difficulty of AIDS occupational protection supervision. CONCLUSIONS: Oral medical institutions should strengthen their occupational protection training and supervision approaches and formulate unified occupational protection standards to reduce occupational exposure and improve hospital management quality and efficiency.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Exposição Ocupacional , Medicina Bucal , Cognição , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 142(4): 385-391, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32914881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by clinical motor symptoms including hypokinesia, rigidity and tremor. In addition to the movement disorder, cognitive deficits are commonly described. In the present study, we applied FP-CIT SPECT to investigate the impact of nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration on cognitive function in PD patients. METHODS: Fifty-four PD patients underwent [123I]FP-CIT SPECT and CERAD (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease) testing. FP-CIT SPECT visualized the density of presynaptic dopamine transporters in both striata, each subdivided into a limbic, executive and sensorimotor subregion according to the atlas of Tziortzi et al (Cereb Cortex 24, 2014, 1165). CERAD testing quantified cognitive function. RESULTS: In the CERAD testing, PD patients exhibited deficits in the domains of semantic memory, attention, visuospatial function, non-verbal memory and executive function. After correction for multiple testing, the performance of the subtests Figure Recall and Trail-Making Test A correlated significantly with FP-CIT uptake into the ipsilateral executive subregion. The performance of the subtest Figure Saving correlated significantly with FP-CIT uptake into the contralateral executive subregion. CONCLUSIONS: The significant correlation between cognitive function and density of nigrostriatal dopamine transporters, as assessed by FP-CIT SPECT, indicate that striatal dopaminergic pathways-primarily the executive striatal subregion-are relevant to cognitive processing in PD.


Assuntos
Cognição , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tropanos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Tremor
16.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 24(4): 431-449, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960756

RESUMO

This paper aimed to (a) validate a novel technique that quantifies the length of the trajectories the cardiac system follows within a two-dimensional state-space, and (b) test its usefulness to better understand how cognitive emotion regulation (CER) style is associated with cardiac output. A positive CER style was assessed in a sample of healthy adolescents (n = 57), and mean and total distances, in addition to heart rate variability (HRV) measures and cardiac entropy (SampEn), were calculated during a conflict discussion with the adolescents' mothers. Associations between distances and HRV measures in time and frequency-domains and SampEn were examined to better understand the physiological meaning of distances; further, whether a positive CER style would predict distances, HRV, and SampEn. Correlation analysis revealed that associations of distances with time-domain HRV measures were stronger than associations with frequency-domain HRV measures, while correlations between distances and SampEn were moderate. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that a positive CER style predicted distances and SampEn, but not HRV measures. Distances are clearly time-domain measures of HRV, but only partly capture the complexity of the heart signal. The results highlight the importance of assessing heart rate dynamics beyond HRV in the study of CER.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Conflito Familiar , Frequência Cardíaca , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Coração , Humanos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22370, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia among the Japanese aged 65 years or over population is estimated to approach about 700 million cases by 2025, and a corresponding rapid increase in Alzheimer disease (AD) can also be expected. The ballooning number of dementia patients, including AD, is creating major medical and social challenges. At present, only 3 drugs are recognized for the treatment of mild AD, and these are only used to alleviate symptoms. Although new therapies are needed to treat mild AD, insufficient development of disease-modifying drugs is being done. METHODS/DESIGN: The aim of this exploratory, open standard, treatment-controlled, randomized allocation, multicenter trial is to determine the efficacy of the traditional Japanese Kampo medicine hachimijiogan (HJG) on the cognitive dysfunction of mild AD.Eighty-six patients with AD diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 and as mild AD according to the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE ≥21) will be included. All will already have been taking the same dose of Donepezil, Galantamine, or Rivastigmine for more than 3 months. The patients will be randomly assigned to receive additional treatment with HJG or to continue mild AD treatment without additional HJG. The primary endpoint is the change from baseline of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive component- Japanese version (ADAS-Jcog). ADAS-Jcog is a useful index for detecting change over time that investigates memory and visuospatial cognition injury from the early stage. The secondary endpoints are the changes from baseline of the Instrumental Activity of Daily Life, Apathy scale, and Nueropsychiatric Inventory scores. In this protocol, we will examine the Geriatric depression scale and do Metabolome analysis as exploratory endpoints. The recruitment period will be from August 2019 to July 2021. DISCUSSION: This is the first trial of Kampo medicine designed to examine the efficacy of HJG for the cognitive dysfunction of patients with mild AD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on the Japan Registry of Clinical trials on 2 August 2, 2019 (jRCTs 071190018).


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Kampo/métodos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22068, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nearly 20% of night shift nurses will cause shift work disorder (SWD) due to the disruption of sleep-wake cycle, which not only affects the daily work efficiency, but also brings a huge burden on physical and mental health. Acupuncture is a safe and effective intervention on SWD. This trial will combine with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the clinical effects and potential mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of SWD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomized controlled neuroimaging trial, with enrolled participants, outcome assessors, and data statisticians blinded. 60 patients with SWD and 30 healthy controls who sleep regularly will be recruited and divided into divided into a control group, a true acupoints treatment group (TATG) and a sham acupoints treatment group (SATG) by the ratio of 1:1:1. The TATG and SATG will receive 8 sessions of acupuncture treatment in 4 weeks. Cognitive function scales and MRI scanning will be performed before and after 4-week acupuncture treatment. The control group will receive no intervention. Functional connectivity of intra-network and inter-network will be the primary outcome and effect indicator. The secondary outcomes included Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Attentional Network Test, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale and needle sensation assessment scale. Neuroimage indicators will be correlated with clinical data and scores of cognitive function assessment to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the changes of brain activity caused by acupuncture treatment. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will enable us to verify the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on SWD and explore the potential central mechanism of acupuncture on SWD from the change of brain activity.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/psicologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4523, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908125

RESUMO

Thousands of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided important insight into the human brain. However, only a handful of these studies tested infants while they were awake, because of the significant and unique methodological challenges involved. We report our efforts to address these challenges, with the goal of creating methods for awake infant fMRI that can reveal the inner workings of the developing, preverbal mind. We use these methods to collect and analyze two fMRI datasets obtained from infants during cognitive tasks, released publicly with this paper. In these datasets, we explore and evaluate data quantity and quality, task-evoked activity, and preprocessing decisions. We disseminate these methods by sharing two software packages that integrate infant-friendly cognitive tasks and eye-gaze monitoring with fMRI acquisition and analysis. These resources make fMRI a feasible and accessible technique for cognitive neuroscience in awake and behaving human infants.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vigília/fisiologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA