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1.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 121-125, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407072

RESUMO

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating stroke type. Approximately 50% of survivors suffer from the permanent disability, caused by the cognitive deficits. To enrich the pre-clinical research on the neurological deficits after SAH, we investigate the temporal cognitive deficits and the longitudinal course of cognitive recovery in endovascular perforation SAH murine model. The SAH mice show reproducible body weakness and headache-symbolized moaning symptoms, which is closed to clinical patients. SAH mice exhibit significantly impaired cognitive function in domains of learning ability, short-term and long-term memory. The cognitive deficits occur mostly in the early phase and recover gradually till day 10 after SAH. The systematical assessments of cognitive function after experimental aneurysmal SAH elucidate the time course of cognitive deficits and provide the time window of potential interventions.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Animais , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Cefaleia , Humanos , Camundongos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações
2.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 218-240, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019283

RESUMO

Abstract Greater social engagement is commonly associated with more efficient cognitive processing, as it improves cognitive reserve. The aim of this research is to assess the relationship between social engagement (in the dimensions of social contact, support and conflict) and certain cognitive skills (cognitive flexibility, planning, verbal fluency, processing speed, and verbal comprehension) in young college students. This cross-sectional rank correlation study was carried out in a sample of 49 college students. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed relationship between: social contact and verbal fluency (r = -.299, p = .037); social support and planning (r = .368, p = .009); and social conflict and processing speed (r = .306, p = .032). The results outline a measurable relationship between social engagement and certain cognitive skills, even when said results are not entirely conclusive. Thus, the need for more detailed studies on these processes becomes clear.


Resumo A literatura científica indica que um maior compromisso social está relacionado com um pensamento cognitivo mais eficiente, devido ao fato de que tal compromisso aumenta a reserva cognitiva. Levando isso em consideração, o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi identificar a relação existente entre o compromisso social (em suas dimensões de contato, apoio e conflito social) e alguns processos cognitivos (como flexibilidade mental, planejamento, fluidez verbal, velocidade de processamento e compreensão verbal) em jovens universitários. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo correlacional com um desenho transversal em uma amostra de 49 estudantes. A análise de correlação de Spearman revelou correlações entre contato social e fluidez verbal (r = -.299, p = .037), apoio social e planejamento (r = .368, p = .009) e conflito social e velocidade de processamento (r = .306, p = .032). Esses resultados constituem uma associação entre o compromisso social e algumas funções cognitivas. Apesar dos resultados não serem completamente conclusivos, fica clara a necessidade de um estudo mais detalhado desses processos.


Resumen La literatura científica indica que un mayor compromiso social se relaciona con un procesamiento cognitivo más eficiente, debido a que dicho compromiso incrementa la reserva cognitiva. Teniendo esto en cuenta, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue identificar la relación existente entre el compromiso social (en sus dimensiones de contacto, apoyo y conflicto social) y algunos procesos cognitivos (como flexibilidad mental, planeación, fluidez verbal, velocidad de procesamiento y comprensión verbal) en jóvenes universitarios. Para esto, se realizó un estudio correlacional con un diseño transversal en una muestra de 49 estudiantes. El análisis de correlación de Spearman reveló correlaciones entre contacto social y fluidez verbal (r = -.299, p = .037), apoyo social y planeación (r = .368, p = .009), y conflicto social y velocidad de procesamiento (r = .306, p = .032). Estos resultados perfilan una asociación entre el compromiso social y algunas funciones cognitivas. A pesar de que los resultados no son del todo concluyentes, queda claro que se necesita de un estudio más detallado de estos procesos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Psicologia Social , Cognição , Relações Interpessoais
3.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 251-266, July-Dec. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019284

RESUMO

Abstract The analyzes carried out by Michel Foucault in the mid-1970s show the emergence of a disciplinary power in the West and the figure of the "mentally weak" in the educational field. This panorama drives the appearance of various theoretical elaborations and intervention modalities called by the author "psi function", which in the case of childhood reaches a remarkable productivity in France at the beginning of the 20th century. This article takes up these issues in order to investigate, in the case of Chile, the deployment of the psychological knowledge and practices that deal with those children who, for various reasons, fail to adapt to the rules imposed by the school system. A historiographic method was used, through the work of archiving and using primary sources with a complement of secondary sources. Among the findings, the crucial contributions of Wilhelm Mann, a German pedagogue and a pioneer figure of psychology in Chile regarding abnormal childhood at the beginning of the 20th century are analyzed. Based on this, a part of his production is explored and analyzed to illuminate the way in which Mann introduces himself into European institutional debates and models and begins to think about an intervention modality on children at the local level.


Resumo As análises realizadas por Michel Foucault até meados da década de 1970 tratam do surgimento de um poder disciplinar no ocidente e da figura do "débil mental" no contexto educativo. Esse panorama impulsiona a aparição de diversas elaborações teóricas e modalidades de intervenção denominadas pelo autor como "função psi", que, no caso da infância, alcança uma notável produtividade na França do início do século XX. O presente artigo retoma essas questões com o objetivo de indagar, no caso do Chile, o desdobramento desses saberes e práticas psicológicas que se ocupam daquelas crianças que, por diferentes motivos, não conseguem se adaptar às normas impostas pelo dispositivo escolar. Utilizou-se um método de tipo historiográfico, por meio do trabalho de arquivo e uso de fontes primárias com um complemento de fontes secundárias. Entre as descobertas, analisam-se as colaborações cruciais de Wilhelm Mann, pedagogo alemão e figura pioneira da psicologia no Chile, com respeito à infância anormal no início do século XX. Com isso, uma parte de sua produção é explorada e analisada para iluminar o modo em que Mann se introduz nos debates e nos modelos institucionais europeus e começa a pensar em uma modalidade de intervenção sobre a infância em um contexto local.


Resumen Los análisis realizados por Michel Foucault hacia mediados de la década de 1970 dan cuenta del surgimiento de un poder disciplinario en occidente y de la figura del "débil mental" en el ámbito educativo. Este panorama impulsa la aparición de diversas elaboraciones teóricas y modalidades de intervención denominadas por el autor como "función psi", que en el caso de la infancia alcanza una notable productividad en la Francia de comienzos del siglo XX. El presente artículo retoma estas cuestiones con el fin de indagar, en el caso de Chile, el despliegue de esos saberes y prácticas psicológicas que se ocupan de aquellos niños que, por motivos diversos, no logran adaptarse a las normas que impone el dispositivo escolar. Se utilizó un método de tipo historiográfico, mediante el trabajo de archivo y uso de fuentes primarias con un complemento de fuentes secundarias. Entre los hallazgos, se analizan los cruciales aportes de Wilhelm Mann, pedagogo alemán y figura pionera de la psicología en Chile, respecto de la infancia anormal a comienzos del siglo XX. Con esto, se explora y analiza una parte de su producción para iluminar el modo en que Mann se introduce en los debates y los modelos institucionales europeos y comienza a pensar una modalidad de intervención sobre la infancia a nivel local.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Psicologia Experimental , Ensino , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Cognição
4.
Brain Nerve ; 71(10): 1061-1070, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588050

RESUMO

Due to the recent rapid increase in the number of elderly people in the world, health management and maintenance in elderly people have become important issues. Centenaria, who are older than 100 years, tend to stay independent in their daily life with maintenance of cognitive function until the later stage of their life compared with elderly people who die earlier. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of centenarians, the genetic risk and protective factors for longevity, and intersections between research on centenarians and dementia research.


Assuntos
Demência/genética , Longevidade , Fatores de Proteção , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17557, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. The major clinical features of both are progressive memory loss and progressive cognitive loss. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to provide the methods for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment on cognitive deficits in transgenic mouse. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search the electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, as well as the Chinese databases such as Chinese Biomedicine Literature (CBM), Chinese Medical Current Content (CMCC), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), WanFang Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from their inceptions to July 2019. RevMan 5.3 software will be used for the data synthesis and the quality of each study was assessed independently by use of the CAMARADES checklist. RESULTS: This review will provide a high-quality synthesis based on present evidence of acupuncture treatment for AD and MCI in transgenic mouse models. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review will provide evidence for weather acupuncture is an effective intervention for AD and MCI in transgenic mouse models. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not necessary since this protocol is only for systematic review and does not involve privacy data or conduct an animal experiment. This protocol will be disseminated by a peer-review journal or conference presentation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019142985. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY: This systematic review will be the first to provide new knowledge underlying the effectiveness to improve cognitive function of acupuncture treatment for AD and MCI in transgenic mouse models. The result of this systematic review may provide experimental and theoretical basis for the future clinical application of acupuncture in the treatment of AD.The limitation of this systematic review may come from language barriers, because only English and Chinese can be included. Also, this study includes various kinds of acupuncture treatments which may result in essential heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(42): e17626, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626144

RESUMO

To establish a nomogram model to predict early cognitive impairment after supratentorial spontaneous intracranial hematoma in adult patients.A retrospective cohort study was held between January 2016 and October 2018. One hundred twenty seven out of 170 consecutive patients with supratentorial spontaneous intracranial hematoma were enrolled in this study. They were divided into development (n = 92) and validation (n = 35) dataset according to their admission time. Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) was conducted between the third and the sixth month after the onset of stroke. MMSE ≤ 24 was considered as cognitive impairment. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to screen for independent risk factors which correlate with cognitive impairment on the development dataset. A nomogram was built based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calibration curve on development and validation dataset was drawn with each area under the curves (AUC) calculated. The decision curve analysis was also conducted with the development dataset.The bleeding volume, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) are the most significant risk factors which may cause cognitive impairment both in the univariate and multivariate analysis. The finial model performed good discrimination ability on both development and validation dataset with AUC 0.911 and 0.919. Most patients would benefit from the model according to the decision curve analysis.A nomogram, constructed based on bleeding volume, GCS, and IVH can provide a feasible tool to evaluate cognitive impairment after supratentorial spontaneous intracranial hematoma in adult patients.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Hematoma/complicações , Nomogramas , Adulto , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1234-1239, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658523

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between edentulism and cognition in people aged 50 and over in China. Methods: Cross-sectional data was collected from the first wave of World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health in China, among people aged 50 and over in China. A comprehensive cognitive test was used to assess cognitive functions, including verbal recall (VR), verbal fluency (VF), forward digit span (FDS) and backward digit span (BDS) among the subjects. Association between edentulism and cognition was examined by a two-level (individual level and community level) linear model. Results: A total of 12 843 individuals aged 50 years and over were included for analysis, with an average age of (63.0±9.3) years. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.0%. The edentulous adults had lower mean scores of VR (4.55), VF (10.88), FDS (6.25), BDS (2.96) and overall cognition (49.15) (P<0.001). Edentulism was negatively associated with VR (ß=-0.216, 95%CI: -0.370 - -0.062), FDS (ß=-0.186, 95%CI: -0.293 - -0.078) and overall cognition (ß=-1.703, 95%CI: -3.025 - -0.381) after adjusted for age, sex, residence, education level, marital status, household income, co-morbidity of chronic conditions, BMI, smoking and drinking alcohol. Conclusion: Edentulism was related with lower cognition level in people aged 50 and over in China.


Assuntos
Cognição , Boca Edêntula/epidemiologia , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
9.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 705-716, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646324

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences of the pathological changes and cognitive function after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) between Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar rats. Male SD and Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, respectively: sham operated (S-sham and W-sham) and operated (S-BCCAO and W-BCCAO) groups. The survival rate and the rate of loss of pupillary light reflex (PLR) were observed on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after the operation, and the light-dark box, Y-maze and odor recognition tests were performed to detect cognitive function on day 28 after the operation. HE and Luxol fast blue staining were used to observe the pathological changes of gray matter (hippocampus), white matter (optical tract), optic nerve, and retina. The results showed that the survival rate of the W-BCCAO group was 62.5%, and PLR loss rate was 100%; whereas the survival rate of the S-BCCAO group was 100%, and PLR loss rate was 58.3%. In the W-BCCAO group, percentages of time spent and distance traveled in the light box were more than those in the W-sham group, but there was no statistical significance between the S-BCCAO and S-sham groups. In the S-BCCAO group, the percentages of time spent and distance traveled in the III arm (labyrinth arm) of the Y-maze were less than those in the S-sham group, but no statistical significance was found between the W-BCCAO group and W-sham group. In the S-BCCAO group, the discrimination ratio of the odor recognition task was less than that in the S-sham group, but no statistical significance could be seen between the W-BCCAO and W-sham groups. Ischemic injury was observed in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in the S-BCCAO group, but no readily visible damage was observed in the W-BCCAO group. Ischemic injury of the visual beam and optic nerve was observed in both the S-BCCAO and W-BCCAO groups. Compared with the corresponding sham groups, the S-BCCAO and W-BCCAO groups showed serious retinal damage with significant thinner retina. The ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and outer plexiform layer (OPL) were thinner in the S-BCCAO group, but no statistical significances were shown in the other layers. All the layers, except the outer nuclear layer (ONL), were significantly thinner in the W-BCCAO group. The results indicate that there are differences of the pathological changes in the hippocampus and visual conduction pathway after BCCAO between SD and Wistar rats, and the degree of learning and memory injury was also different, which suggests that the vascular dementia model of different rat strains should be selected according to research purpose.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/patologia , Cognição , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar
10.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 749-759, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646329

RESUMO

With the evolution of medical techniques and technology, an increasing number of infants, neonates, and fetuses are exposed to general anesthesia for clinical diagnostic and therapeutic process. The neurotoxic effects of general anesthetics on developing brain have been a subject of concern and considerable research interest. Population-based study confirmed that single short-term general anesthetic exposure does not affect nervous system function, but multiple exposures to general anesthesia could damage cognitive function. Animal studies further discovered the underlying mechanisms. Nervous system is most susceptible to general anesthetics during the brain growth spurt. The time-point is more critical than the duration of exposure to general anesthetics. General anesthetics can induce intracellular calcium overload, disturb energy metabolism, promote cell apoptosis and lead to cell loss. General anesthetics can damage synaptic structure, transmission and plasticity, and impair brain function. High throughput omics technologies have been used to screen the differentially expressed genes induced by general anesthetics, which provide further understanding of the mechanism of general anesthetics affecting cognitive function. This review provides an update on the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the anesthesia-neurotoxicity, which will be helpful to provide instructions for the clinical use of general anesthesia in children.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Gerais/efeitos adversos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia
12.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(8): 924-930, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the cognitive ability and coping strategy to mental disorders among medical workers in ear-nose-throat departments and its impact on doctor-patient relationship.
 Methods: A total of 78 medical workers (including doctors, nurses, and technicians) in ear-nose-throat departments from 10 general hospitals in Hunan Province were investigated by self-compiled questionnaire on the perspective and coping strategy to mental disorders among medical workers.
 Results: Mental disorders except depression and schizophrenia were poorly understood in respondents, and many of their coping strategies were inappropriate. Furthermore, subjects tend to avoid too much contact with psychiatric patients for being afraid of the mental disorders. The poorer understanding of mental disorders, the more inappropriate coping strategies in dealing with mental disorders (P<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference in inappropriate coping strategies to mental disorders between patients being abused and patients not being abused (P=0.017). Factors such as education background (P=0.031) and the hospital level (P=0.038) also impacted the coping strategies to mental disorders.
 Conclusion: Among all mental disorders, only depression and schizophrenia are coped with the right way in medical workers of ear-nose-throat departments. In addition, obviously negative attitude and avoidance are found in dealing with mental disorders by medical workers. Importantly, poor cognitive ability to mental disorders is the main reason for hurting doctor-patient relationship in the ear-nose-throat departments.


Assuntos
Faringe , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adaptação Psicológica , Cognição , Humanos , Nariz
13.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 290-307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596822

RESUMO

Temperament traits of Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence, are well defined in terms of their neural circuitry, neurochemical modulators, and patterns of associative learning. When heritably excessive, each of these traits may become a mechanistically fundamental biogenetic trait vulnerability for personality disorder. The other main risk factor for personality disorder is environmental, notably abuse, neglect, and psychological trauma. The emerging concept of mechanism-based pharmacotherapy aims to activate the brain's homeostasis as the only available delivery system to re-calibrate complex neurophysiological participants in each of the temperament traits. In a positive feedback, a homeostasis-driven improvement of excessive temperament is expected to facilitate maturation of neocortical networks of cognition, most reliably in expert psychotherapy (Part I of this paper) and, ultimately, thereby improve top-down cortical control of subcortical affect reactivity. As an emerging concept informed by neuroscience and clinical research, mechanism-based pharmacotherapy has the potential to be superior to traditional symptom-based treatments. Such mechanism-based approach illustrates what the pharmacological treatment of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) might look like.


Assuntos
Modelos Psicológicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/tratamento farmacológico , Temperamento , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cognição , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 316-324, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive processes are important factors in the aetiology of pathological gambling and they are always important aspect of all gambling interventions. Among other things, the gamblers' decision-making process and persistence in gambling is under the influence of their perception of the importance of knowledge/skills versus luck in different gambling activities. In this study, we examine cognitive distortions of pathological gamblers and their perceptions on the significance of luck versus knowledge/skills in different games of chance. Effects of age and length of treatment are also examined. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 65 pathological gamblers at the gambling addicts' club in Zagreb were included in the study. Cognitive distortions were measured using a modified version of the Gambling related cognitive distortions scale (Ricijas et al. 2011). Participant thoughts on the role of luck versus knowledge/skills in games of chance were measured with a questionnaire especially designed for this study. All instruments were self-assessment questionnaires and anonymously filled out during a group sessions. RESULTS: In general, results showed moderate cognitive distortions in terms of gambling beliefs, but significant perception of the importance of knowledge/skills for some games, especially sports betting and card games. Younger patients and patients in treatment for longer period have lower illusion of control. Length of treatment also seem to effect gambling-related superstition beliefs and incorrect understanding of probability, as well as importance of knowledge/skills for success in sports betting and card games. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study lead to the indirect conclusion that length of treatment is a positive factor, which likely influences gamblers' cognitive distortions. This conclusion certainly requires additional examination using longitudinal studies, which would provide a better overview of whether these differences are in fact due to the length of treatment and also to confirm its value for future abstinence from gambling activities.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Fatores Etários , Cognição , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Esportes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574859

RESUMO

To investigate the cognitive and psychological outcomes of pediatric allogeneic HSCT survivors in China.A total of 135 3 to 18 years old children and adolescents who underwent allo-HSCT and survived at least 3 months post-HSCT were recruited and completed the assessments. Cognitive and psychological functions were assessed via age-appropriate standardized measures. Clinical information was extracted from the medical records.Forty one 3 to 6 years old children completed Psychological Questionnaires for 3 to 6 years Children. The scores of 21(51.2%) children in cognitive development dimension, 18(43.9%) in motor development dimension, 16(39.0%) in language development and social development dimension, 15(36.6%) in emotion and will dimension and 14(34.1%) in living habits dimension were less than the standard. Fifty six 8 to 16 years old children and adolescents completed the Depression Self-rating Scale for Children and 9 (16.1%) of these met the criteria of depression. Sixty nine 7 to 16 years old children and adolescents completed the screening for Child Anxiety Related Disorders and 7 (10.1%) of these met the criteria of anxiety, especially social phobia and school phobia. Eighty nine 6 to 18 years old children and adolescents completed the Symptom Checklist-90 and 43.8% to 77.5% of these experienced mild symptoms like obsession-compulsion (77.5%), hostility (64%), and interpersonal sensitivity (60.7%). Children treated with total body irradiation (TBI) showed more cognitive impairments like motor deficits than those without TBI. Also older children and adolescents had more symptoms like psychoticism.These findings demonstrated cognitive and psychological late effects of pediatric allo-HSCT survivors in a single center in China and highlighted that the survivors conditioned with TBI had more cognitive impairments and older children and adolescents had more symptoms. Early intervention in these children and adolescents might minimize the cognitive losses and psychological effects.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Disfunção Cognitiva , Depressão , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Técnicas Psicológicas , Sobreviventes/psicologia
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(667): 1882-1886, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617977

RESUMO

The association of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI or Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor) is a new actor in the management of heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The PARADIGM-HF trial performed in outpatients with a LVEF ≤ 35-40 % demonstrated that sacubitril-valsartan was superior to enalapril in reducing cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalizations. Precautions in the initiation of sacubitril-valsartan, its use as well as its place in the drug management strategy for chronic heart failure are described in the present review. Additional data in patients hospitalized with reduced LVEF, in patients with LVEF > 45 % as well as the effects on blood pressure, renal or cognitive functions are presented.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Enalapril/farmacologia , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Neprilisina/metabolismo , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1715-1722, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Cognitive limitations are a serious health and social problem, which concerns elderly people. Effective prevention and treatment of cognitive dysfunction is one of the challenges of modern medicine. There is not enough consistent data in the literature to indicate to indicate the relationship between various clinical and demographic factors with cognitive functioning in different age ranges. The aim: To analyze clinical and demographic predictors of mild cognitive impairment by age group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The analysis included 817 participants (669 with normal cognitive function and 148 people with MCI). The evaluation of the level of depressive symptoms was measured by the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. All participants were screened for cognitive functioning using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III. Different cognitive domains were evaluated with different neuropsychological tools: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, Clock Drawing test, Verbal Fluency test, Digit Span Test and Trail Making test. RESULTS: Results: It has been shown that independently associated with MCI ware age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13) and level of education (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.69-0.81). Depending on the age, it turned out that in the younger MCI group, age, education and depression were significant, and the age and level of education were significant in the older MCI group. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The identification of cognitive dysfunctions is an important element of the diagnostic and therapeutic process.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Humanos
18.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602292

RESUMO

Cognitive control, the ability to regulate one's cognition and actions on the basis of over-riding goals, is impaired in many psychiatric conditions. Although control requires the coordinated function of several prefrontal cortical regions, it has been challenging to determine how they work together, in part because doing so requires simultaneous recordings from multiple regions. Here, we provide a précis of cognitive control and describe the beneficial consequences of recent advances in neurosurgical practice that make large-scale prefrontal cortical network recordings possible in humans. Such recordings implicate inter-regional theta (5-8 Hz) local field potential (LFP) synchrony as a key element in cognitive control. Major open questions include how theta might influence other oscillations within these networks, the precise timing of information flow between these regions, and how perturbations such as brain stimulation might demonstrate the causal role of LFP phenomena. We propose that an increased focus on human electrophysiology is essential for an understanding of the neural basis of cognitive control.


Assuntos
Cognição , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Humanos
19.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46810

RESUMO

Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Cognição
20.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(4): 529-535, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484617

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of N-acetylcysteine(NAC)on cognitive function and nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2/ heme oxygenase-1(Nrf2/HO-1)pathway in mouse models of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Methods Fifty-four male C57BL/6J mice(3-4 months old)were randomly divided into control group,surgery group,and surgery+NAC group by block randomization.The intramedullary fixation for left tibial fracture surgery was performed to establish postoperative cognitive dysfunction models.NAC(150 mg/kg)was administered intraperitoneally in group surgery+NAC 30 minutes before and 3 hours,6 hours after surgery,while saline was given in control group and surgery group.Six mice in each group were selected randomly underwent Morris water maze test on the third day after surgery.Animals were sacrificed at the first and third postoperative days,and the hippocampus was harvested.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify the levels of interleukin-6(IL-6)and malondialdehyde(MDA)in hippocampus.Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to measure the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus. Results There was no significant difference in swimming speed among three groups(F=2.135,P=0.114).Compared with control group and surgery+NAC group,the surgery group had prolonged escape latency(P<0.01),reduced platform crossing times(P<0.01),and shortened time spent in the target quadrant(P<0.01).Compared with the control group,the surgery group and the surgery+NAC group had significantly increased levels of IL-6 and MDA in hippocampus at the first postoperative day(all P=0.000).On the third postoperative day,there was no significant difference in the levels of IL-6(P=0.251)and MDA(P=0.103)between control group and surgery+NAC group.The protein expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus were significantly higher in surgery group and surgery+NAC group than in control group and significantly higher in surgery+NAC group than in surgery group(all P=0.000).The mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 in hippocampus were significantly higher in surgery group and surgery+NAC group than in control group and significantly higher in surgery+NAC group than in surgery group (all P=0.000). Conclusions NAC pretreatment may reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in hippocampus and improve cognitive function.Such effect may be relate to the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Distribuição Aleatória
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