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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4783, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963219

RESUMO

Relations between task elements often follow hidden underlying structural forms such as periodicities or hierarchies, whose inferences fosters performance. However, transferring structural knowledge to novel environments requires flexible representations that are generalizable over particularities of the current environment, such as its stimuli and size. We suggest that humans represent structural forms as abstract basis sets and that in novel tasks, the structural form is inferred and the relevant basis set is transferred. Using a computational model, we show that such representation allows inference of the underlying structural form, important task states, effective behavioural policies and the existence of unobserved state-trajectories. In two experiments, participants learned three abstract graphs during two successive days. We tested how structural knowledge acquired on Day-1 affected Day-2 performance. In line with our model, participants who had a correct structural prior were able to infer the existence of unobserved state-trajectories and appropriate behavioural policies.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Modelos Teóricos
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21950, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925728

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common clinical label for medically unexplained gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, recently described as a disturbance of the brain-gut-microbiota (BGM) axis. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the poorly understood etiology of IBS, we have designed a multifaceted study that aim to stratify the complex interaction and dysfunction between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota in patients with IBS. METHODS: Deep phenotyping data from patients with IBS (n = 100) and healthy age- (between 18 and 65) and gender-matched controls (n = 40) will be collected between May 2019 and December 2021. Psychometric tests, questionnaires, human biological tissue/samples (blood, faeces, saliva, and GI biopsies from antrum, duodenum, and sigmoid colon), assessment of gastric accommodation and emptying using transabdominal ultrasound, vagal activity, and functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, are included in the investigation of each participant. A subgroup of 60 patients with IBS-D will be further included in a 12-week low FODMAP dietary intervention-study to determine short and long-term effects of diet on GI symptoms, microbiota composition and functions, molecular GI signatures, cognitive, emotional and social functions, and structural and functional brain signatures. Deep machine learning, prediction tools, and big data analyses will be used for multivariate analyses allowing disease stratification and diagnostic biomarker detection. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to employ unsupervised machine learning techniques and incorporate systems-based interactions between the central and the peripheral components of the brain-gut-microbiota axis at the levels of the multiomics, microbiota profiles, and brain connectome of a cohort of 100 patients with IBS and matched controls; study long-term safety and efficacy of the low-FODMAP diet on changes in nutritional status, gut microbiota composition, and metabolites; and to investigate changes in the brain and gut connectome after 12 weeks strict low-FODMAP-diet in patients with IBS. However, there are also limitations to the study. As a restrictive diet, the low-FODMAP diet carries risks of nutritional inadequacy and may foster disordered eating patterns. Strict FODMAP restriction induces a potentially unfavourable gut microbiota, although the health effects are unknown. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04296552 (ClinicalTrials.gov).


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/dietoterapia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4715, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948772

RESUMO

Animal-fMRI is a powerful method to understand neural mechanisms of cognition, but it remains a major challenge to scan actively participating small animals under low-stress conditions. Here, we present an event-related functional MRI platform in awake pigeons using single-shot RARE fMRI to investigate the neural fundaments for visually-guided decision making. We established a head-fixated Go/NoGo paradigm, which the animals quickly learned under low-stress conditions. The animals were motivated by water reward and behavior was assessed by logging mandibulations during the fMRI experiment with close to zero motion artifacts over hundreds of repeats. To achieve optimal results, we characterized the species-specific hemodynamic response function. As a proof-of-principle, we run a color discrimination task and discovered differential neural networks for Go-, NoGo-, and response execution-phases. Our findings open the door to visualize the neural fundaments of perceptual and cognitive functions in birds-a vertebrate class of which some clades are cognitively on par with primates.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Vigília , Animais , Artefatos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Columbidae , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Movimento (Física) , Redes Neurais de Computação , Recompensa
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22068, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nearly 20% of night shift nurses will cause shift work disorder (SWD) due to the disruption of sleep-wake cycle, which not only affects the daily work efficiency, but also brings a huge burden on physical and mental health. Acupuncture is a safe and effective intervention on SWD. This trial will combine with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the clinical effects and potential mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of SWD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomized controlled neuroimaging trial, with enrolled participants, outcome assessors, and data statisticians blinded. 60 patients with SWD and 30 healthy controls who sleep regularly will be recruited and divided into divided into a control group, a true acupoints treatment group (TATG) and a sham acupoints treatment group (SATG) by the ratio of 1:1:1. The TATG and SATG will receive 8 sessions of acupuncture treatment in 4 weeks. Cognitive function scales and MRI scanning will be performed before and after 4-week acupuncture treatment. The control group will receive no intervention. Functional connectivity of intra-network and inter-network will be the primary outcome and effect indicator. The secondary outcomes included Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Attentional Network Test, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale and needle sensation assessment scale. Neuroimage indicators will be correlated with clinical data and scores of cognitive function assessment to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the changes of brain activity caused by acupuncture treatment. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will enable us to verify the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on SWD and explore the potential central mechanism of acupuncture on SWD from the change of brain activity.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/psicologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4523, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908125

RESUMO

Thousands of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have provided important insight into the human brain. However, only a handful of these studies tested infants while they were awake, because of the significant and unique methodological challenges involved. We report our efforts to address these challenges, with the goal of creating methods for awake infant fMRI that can reveal the inner workings of the developing, preverbal mind. We use these methods to collect and analyze two fMRI datasets obtained from infants during cognitive tasks, released publicly with this paper. In these datasets, we explore and evaluate data quantity and quality, task-evoked activity, and preprocessing decisions. We disseminate these methods by sharing two software packages that integrate infant-friendly cognitive tasks and eye-gaze monitoring with fMRI acquisition and analysis. These resources make fMRI a feasible and accessible technique for cognitive neuroscience in awake and behaving human infants.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Vigília/fisiologia , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866181

RESUMO

After perceiving cognitive conflicts or errors, children as well as adults adjust their performance in terms of reaction time slowing on subsequent actions, resulting in the so called post-conflict slowing and post-error slowing, respectively. The development of these phenomena has been studied separately and with different methods yielding inconsistent findings. We aimed to assess the temporal dynamics of these two slowing phenomena within a single behavioral task. To do so, 9-13-year-old children and young adults performed a Simon task in which every fifth trial was incongruent and thus induced cognitive conflict and, frequently, also errors. We compared the reaction times on four trials following a conflict or an error. Both age groups slowed down after conflicts and did so even more strongly after errors. Disproportionally high reaction times on the first post-error trial were followed by a steady flattening of the slowing. Generally, children slowed down more than adults. In addition to highlighting the phenomenal and developmental robustness of post-conflict and post-error slowing these findings strongly suggest increasingly efficient performance adjustment through fine-tuning of cognitive control in the course of development.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Conflito Psicológico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(2): 47-53, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193246

RESUMO

En la actualidad se defiende la interacción entre la cognición, la emoción y la motivación en el desarrollo de la alta capacidad intelectual; sin embargo, pocos son los estudios que describen los niveles de función corticales y subcorticales superpuestos para explicar su manifestación. Esta revisión pretende integrar los mecanismos neurobiológicos que facilitan la motivación y la práctica en los niños con altas capacidades durante las primeras fases de su aprendizaje. La alta sensibilidad al entorno parece estar relacionada con unas neuronas piramidales y espinosas más rápidas y eficientes, la detección y la búsqueda de la novedad con la actividad de los sistemas neuromoduladores dopaminérgicos, noradrenérgicos y glutamatérgicos en el hipocampo y el sistema mesolímbico, la mayor predisposición al desafío con un mayor número de conexiones en la corteza cingulada anterior, la motivación intrínseca y la perseverancia con la maduración precoz y la mayor plasticidad de las vías frontoparietales, frontoestriales y mesolímbicas


The interaction between cognition, emotion and motivation in giftedness development is currently advocated; however, few studies describe the levels of cortical and subcortical functions superimposed to explain their manifestation. This review aims to integrate neurobiological mechanisms that facilitate motivation and practice in giftedness children during the early stages of their learning. High sensitivity to the environment seems to be related to faster and more efficient pyramidal and spiny neurons, detection and search for novelty with the activity of the dopaminergic and noradrenergic neuromodulator systems in the hippocampus and the mesolimbic system, the greater predisposition to the challenge with a greater number of connections in the anterior cingulate cortex, the intrinsic motivation and the perseverance with the early maturation and greater plasticity of the frontoparietal, frontostriatal and mesolimbic net


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Motivação , Propriedade Intelectual , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Neurobiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Criança Superdotada/psicologia
10.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 614-626, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744845

RESUMO

Capacity-limited working memory (WM) systems have been known to degrade in older age. In line with inhibition-deficit theories of aging, WM deficits in older individuals have been attributed to failures in the ability to suppress the processing of task irrelevant, distracting information. Yet, other cognitive mechanisms underlying age-related WM deficits have been observed, including failures in WM with increasing memory load. Moreover, both distracting information and high memory load have been shown to trigger adjustments in cognitive control leading to subsequent performance benefits on later trials. However, no studies have characterized these dynamic adjustments across the life span or examined their contribution to WM deficits in older adults. We investigated the contribution of distracter interference, memory load, and dynamic adjustments in cognitive control on WM performance in 505 individuals with ages ranging from adolescence to older adulthood. Distracter interference and memory load were parametrically manipulated (high vs. low) in a delayed-recognition WM task, and accuracy was examined as a function of current (N) and previous (N-1) trial demands. Curvilinear models revealed that performance differs over the life span depending on specific WM task demands. Specifically, the ability to suppress task irrelevant distracters was greater in adulthood compared with adolescence, but worse in later life. In contrast, memory load resulted in performance deficits with increasing age, which were exacerbated when high load and interference demands combined. Dynamic adjustments in cognitive control was spared, in part, with memory-load triggered sequential trial effects maintained across the life span, but interference-triggered benefits observable up to middle age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between education and dementia is well-established but it is unclear whether education is associated with dementia after accounting for early life cognitive ability and whether there is a joint effect, such that the risk associated with one of the exposures depends on the value of the other. We examined separate and joint associations of adolescent cognitive ability and educational attainment with risk of dementia among Danish men born between 1939 and 1959. METHODS: Men (N = 477,421) from the Danish Conscription Database were followed for dementia from the age 60 for up to 17 years via patient and prescription registry linkages. Exposure measures included cognitive ability assessed at the conscript board examination around age 18 and highest educational level (low: 0-10 year, medium: 10-13 years, high: ≥13 years) at age 30 from registry records. Associations with dementia diagnosis were estimated in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for birth year and age at conscript board examination. Interaction was assessed on the multiplicative scale by including a product term between the two exposure measures and on the additive scale by calculating relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) between different levels of the exposure measures. RESULTS: Compared to men in the high education group hazard ratio [HR] for men in the medium and low group were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13, 1.30) and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.45), respectively when not adjusting for cognitive ability. Additional adjustment for cognitive ability attenuated the magnitude of the associations, but they remained significant (education medium: HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.19 and education low: HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.22). A 10% higher cognitive ability score was associated with a 3.8% lower hazard of dementia (HR = 0.962; 95% CI: 0.957, 0.967), and the magnitude of the association only changed marginally after adjustment for education. Men in the low education group with relatively low cognitive ability were identified as a high-risk subgroup for dementia. The increased risk associated with exposure to both risk factors did, however, not significantly depart from the sum of risk experienced by men only exposed to one of the risk factors (estimates of RERI were not significantly different from 0) and no significant evidence of either additive or multiplicative interactions was found. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results suggest that education and cognitive ability protect against the risk of dementia independently of one another and that increases in educational attainment may at least partially offset dementia risk due to low cognitive ability.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Adolescente , Idoso , Demência/fisiopatologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
12.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple factors constrain the trajectories of child cognitive development, but the drivers that differentiate the trajectories are unknown. We examine how multiple early life experiences differentiate patterns of cognitive development over the first 5 years of life in low-and middle-income settings. METHODS: Cognitive development of 835 children from the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) multisite observational cohort study was assessed at 6, 15, 24 (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development), and 60 months (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence). Markers of socioeconomic status, infection, illness, dietary intake and status, anthropometry, and maternal factors were also assessed. Trajectories of development were determined by latent class-mixed models, and factors associated with class membership were examined by discriminant analysis. RESULTS: Five trajectory groups of cognitive development are described. The variables that best discriminated between trajectories included presence of stimulating and learning resources in the home, emotional or verbal responsivity of caregiver and the safety of the home environment (especially at 24 and 60 months), proportion of days (0-24 months) for which the child had diarrhea, acute lower respiratory infection, fever or vomiting, maternal reasoning ability, mean nutrient densities of zinc and phytate, and total energy from complementary foods (9-24 months). CONCLUSIONS: A supporting and nurturing environment was the variable most strongly differentiating the most and least preferable trajectories of cognitive development. In addition, a higher quality diet promoted cognitive development while prolonged illness was indicative of less favorable patterns of development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(5): 651-654, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796168

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the aging of the population, there are increasing number of aged patients who require surgical interventions. Perioperative covert stroke is emerging as an important health threat and social burden that could affect patients' long-term neurological outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings of the association between perioperative covert stroke with long-term cognitive declines of surgical patients highlighted the significance of the silent cognitive function killer-perioperative covert stroke. Considering the devastating long-term consequence of the asymptomatic covert stroke, early diagnosis and prevention are turning out as crucial problems to tackle. The evolving brain imaging techniques, such as multimodel MRI sequences are not only able to detect early, small and subtle injuries of the acute ischemic lesions, but also quite advantageous in capturing the preexisting brain vascular diseases that are considered as important risk factors of covert stroke. However, effective predictive markers are still lacking to identify high risk patients for perioperative covert stroke, rendering an unmet need of investigations in this regard. SUMMARY: The present review will summarize recent findings in perioperative covert stroke and highlight future perspectives of its early diagnosis and the impact of postoperative cognitive impairments.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/cirurgia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Período Perioperatório , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756578

RESUMO

Dance may help individuals living with Parkinson's disease (PD) improve motor and non-motor symptoms that impact quality of life (QOL). The primary aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the efficacy of dance in improving motor and non-motor symptoms of PD and QOL. The secondary aims of this review were to evaluate the methodological quality of included studies by assessing risk of bias across nine categories and to inform the direction of future research. Peer-reviewed RCTs that included people living with PD at all disease stages and ages and measured the effects of a dance intervention longer than one day were included. Sixteen RCTs involving 636 participants with mild to moderate PD were eligible for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis and nine in the meta-analysis. Overall, the reviewed evidence demonstrated that dance can improve motor impairments, specifically balance and motor symptom severity in individuals with mild to moderate PD, and that more research is needed to determine its effects on non-motor symptoms and QOL. RCTs that use a mixed-methods approach and include larger sample sizes will be beneficial in fully characterizing effects and in determining which program elements are most important in bringing about positive, clinically meaningful changes in people with PD.


Assuntos
Dança , Transtornos Motores/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Cognição/fisiologia , Marcha , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Equilíbrio Postural
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785237

RESUMO

While we are performing a demanding cognitive task, not only do we have a sense of cognitive effort, we are also subjectively aware that we are initiating, executing and controlling our thoughts and actions (i.e., sense of agency). Previous studies have shown that cognitive effort can be both detrimental and facilitative for the experienced sense of agency. We hypothesized that the reason for these contradictory findings might lie in the use of differential time windows in which cognitive effort operates. The current study therefore examined the effect of cognitive effort exerted on the current trial, on the previous trial or across a block of trials on sense of agency, using implicit (Experiment 1) and explicit (Experiment 2) measures of sense of agency. We showed that the exertion of more cognitive control on current trials led to a higher explicit sense of agency. This surprising result was contrasted to previous studies to establish potential reasons for this surprising finding and to formulate recommendations for future studies.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1936-1942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731786

RESUMO

We performed a randomized, controlled trial to analyse the effects of resistance training (RT) on cognitive and physical function among older adults. Fifty participants (mean age 67 years, ~60% woman) were randomly assigned to an RT program or a control group. Participants allocated to RT performed three sets of 10-15RM in nine exercises, three times per week, for 12-weeks. Control group did not perform any exercise. Variables included cognitive (global and executive function) and physical function (gait, mobility and strength) outcomes. At completion of the intervention, RT was shown to have significantly mitigated the drop in selective attention and conflict resolution performance (Stroop test: -494.6; 95%CI: -883.1; -106.1) and promoted a significant improvement in working memory (digit span forward: -0.6; 95%CI: -1.0; -0.1 and forward minus backward: -0.9; 95% CI: -1.6; -0.2) and verbal fluency (animal naming: +1.4, 95%CI 0.3, 2.5). No significant between-group differences were observed for other cognitive outcomes. Regarding physical function, at completion of the intervention, the RT group demonstrated improved fast-pace gait performance (-0.3; 95% CI: -0.6; -0.0) and 1-RM (+21.4 kg; 95%CI: 16.6; 26.2). No significant between-group differences were observed for other mobility-related outcomes. In conclusion, RT improves cognitive and physical function of older adults.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845925

RESUMO

In addition to quantitative individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity, qualitative aspects, such as enhanced sensory modality (modality dominance), can characterize individual WM ability. This study aimed to examine the neurological basis underlying the individual modality dominance component of WM using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). To quantify the degree of individual WM modality dominance, 24 participants were required to find seven hidden targets and hold their spatial location and appearance order with vibrotactile or visual stimuli aids. In this searching task, eight participants demonstrated higher performance with the tactile condition (tactile-dominant) whereas sixteen demonstrated visual dominance. We then measured prefrontal activity by fNIRS during memorization of visual stimulus numbers while finger tapping as a cognitive-motor dual-task. Individual modality dominance significantly correlated with bilateral frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal activity changes over repeated fNIRS sessions. In particular, individuals with stronger visual dominance showed marked decreases in prefrontal area activity. These results suggest that distinct processing patterns in the prefrontal cortex reflect an individual's qualitative WM characteristics. Considering the individual modality dominance underlying the prefrontal areas could enhance cognitive or motor performance, possibly by optimizing cognitive resources.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 911-916, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820857

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of dual sensory impairment, and to identify its risk factors among community-dwelling older adults in Selangor. METHODS: Secondary analysis was carried out on data collected by the Grand Challenge Project among older adults aged ≥65 years from Selangor. Data on sociodemographic information, medical history, cognitive function and functional performance were obtained through face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart while hearing was assessed using pure-tone audiometry. Descriptive analysis was used to measure the prevalence of the impairments, and logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of dual sensory impairment and hearing impairment were at 10.5% and 76.2% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants with lower cognitive scores were associated with dual sensory impairment (odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.98), while smoking was found associated with hearing impairment (odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-28.65). CONCLUSION: Dual sensory impairment is common among older adults in Selangor. The association between dual sensory impairment and cognitive function suggests the need to have visual and hearing screening on older adults for early detection particularly those at risk of cognitive impairment. The prevalence of hearing impairment was reported high among older adults and smokers appeared to be at higher risk of the impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 911-916.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817680

RESUMO

Recent results have established that masticatory function plays a role not only in the balance of the stomatognathic system and in the central motor control, but also in the trophism of the hippocampus and in the cognitive activity. These implications have been shown in clinical studies and in animal researches as well, by means of histological, biochemical and behavioural techniques. This systematic review describes the effects of three forms of experimentally altered mastication, namely soft-diet feeding, molar extraction and bite-raising, on the trophism and function of the hippocampus in animal models. Through a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, OpenGray and GrayMatters, 645 articles were identified, 33 full text articles were assessed for eligibility and 28 articles were included in the review process. The comprehensiveness of reporting was evaluated with the ARRIVE guidelines and the risk of bias with the SYRCLE RoB tool. The literature reviewed agrees that a disturbed mastication is significantly associated with a reduced number of hippocampal pyramidal neurons in Cornu Ammonis (CA)1 and CA3, downregulation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), reduced synaptic activity, reduced neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus (DG), glial proliferation, and reduced performances in behavioural tests, indicating memory impairment and reduced spatial orientation. Moreover, while the bite-raised condition, characterized by occlusal instability, is known to be a source of stress, soft-diet feeding and molar extractions were not consistently associated with a stress response. More research is needed to clarify this topic. The emerging role of chewing in the preservation of hippocampal trophism, neurogenesis and synaptic activity is worthy of interest and may contribute to the study of neurodegenerative diseases in new and potentially relevant ways.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Hipocampo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mastigação/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Giro Denteado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais , Neurogênese/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability refers to the ability to receive, process, store, and extract information. It is the most important psychological condition for people to successfully complete activities. Previous studies have shown that the design of the human-computer interface of the command and control system cannot exceed the cognitive ability of the operator of the command and control system, and it must match the cognitive ability of the operator in order to reduce the mental load intensity, and improve the accuracy, timeliness and work efficiency. However, previous researchers in the field of cognitive science have not put forward a core index system that can represent the cognitive ability of ship command and control system operators and the importance of each index, and there are few achievements that can be used for reference. OBJECTIVE: To explore the core index system of cognitive ability that affecting the cognitive process of command and control system operators, and to verify the index system. METHODS: Based on the classic O*NET questionnaire, two indexes of O*NET were revised, three indexes of response ability were added, and then a questionnaire on the importance evaluation of cognitive abilities index was formed. The questionnaire includes 24 indexes in six aspects: verbal abilities, idea generation and reasoning abilities, quantitative abilities, visual perception abilities, mnemonic and attentive abilities, and response abilities. The cognitive ability importance evaluation data of 202 people from different positions in the ship command and control system were collected. These data reflect the overall level of cognitive ability of operators in the whole ship command and control field. RESULTS: The data analysis results show that: firstly, the most important cognitive abilities affecting command and control system operators were visual perception abilities, mnemonic and attentive abilities, and response abilities. Secondly, the results of confirmatory factor analysis show that CMIN/DF, GFI, CFI, TLI, RMSEA, RMR and other indicators used in the model test all meet the requirements. The model has a good fitting degree, and the overall index extraction method is feasible. Thirdly, the independence T test results show that for beginners and experienced experts, there is a significant difference in the important evaluation of mnemonic and attentive abilities, while there is no significant difference in the important evaluation of response and visual perception abilities. Fourthly, the results of Bi-group confirmatory factor analysis experiment show that the structural model has good stability and factor invariance. CONCLUSIONS: Through the research of this paper, the index system which can express the core cognitive ability of the commander of command and control system is successfully constructed, and the index system has been fully verified by mathematics. The 3 abilities and 10 indexes in the index system are closely related to the work tasks of operators, which also reflects the correctness of our construction results to a certain extent. According to the results of data analysis, there are differences between assistant commanders and professional commanders in the evaluation of the importance of some indexes, which reflects the importance of working age and experience to the promotion of position skills. The results of this research are of great significance for the subsequent acquisition of cognitive ability data and assessment of post cognitive ability of command and control system operators.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Militares/psicologia , Navios/instrumentação , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
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