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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 744, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The triple burden of COVID-19, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus is one of the major global health challenges of the twenty-first century. In high burden HIV/TB countries, the spread of COVID-19 among people living with HIV is a well-founded concern. A thorough understanding of HIV/TB and COVID-19 pandemics is important as the three diseases interact. This may clarify HIV/TB/COVID-19 as a newly related field. However, several gaps remain in the knowledge of the burden of COVID-19 on patients with TB and HIV. This study was conducted to review different studies on SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV or COVID-19 associated with HIV/TB co-infection or only TB, to understand the interactions between HIV, TB and COVID-19 and its implications on the burden of the COVID-19 among HIV/TB co-infected or TB patients, screening algorithm and clinical management. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search of potentially eligible studies published in English in the Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, PubMed, Medrxiv, Google scholar and Clinical Trials Registry databases. We included case studies, case series and observational studies published between January, 2002 and July, 2020 in which SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and COVID-19 co-infected to HIV/TB or TB in adults. We screened titles, abstracts and full articles for eligibility. Descriptive and meta-analysis were done and results have been presented in graphs and tables. RESULTS: After removing 95 duplicates, 58 out of 437 articles were assessed for eligibility, of which 14 studies were included for descriptive analysis and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to the descriptive analysis, the meta-analysis showed strong evidence that current TB exposure was high-risk COVID-19 group (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.06-2.65, P = 0.03). The pooled of COVID-19/TB severity rate increased from OR 4.50 (95% CI 1.12-18.10, P = 0.03), the recovery rate was high among COVID-19 compared to COVID-19/TB irrespective of HIV status (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.83-2.74, P < 0.001) and the mortality was reduced among non-TB group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In summary, TB was a risk factor for COVID-19 both in terms of severity and mortality irrespective of HIV status. Structured diagnostic algorithms and clinical management are suggested to improve COVID-19/HIV/TB or COVID-19/TB co-infections outcomes.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prevalência , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
2.
Can Respir J ; 2020: 1401053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934758

RESUMO

Background: The threat of contagious infectious diseases is constantly evolving as demographic explosion, travel globalization, and changes in human lifestyle increase the risk of spreading pathogens, leading to accelerated changes in disease landscape. Of particular interest is the aftermath of superimposing viral epidemics (especially SARS-CoV-2) over long-standing diseases, such as tuberculosis (TB), which remains a significant disease for public health worldwide and especially in emerging economies. Methods and Results: The PubMed electronic database was systematically searched for relevant articles linking TB, influenza, and SARS-CoV viruses and subsequently assessed eligibility according to inclusion criteria. Using a data mining approach, we also queried the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). We aimed to answer the following questions: What can be learned from other coronavirus outbreaks (focusing on TB patients)? Is coinfection (TB and SARS-CoV-2) more severe? Is there a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2? How does the TB vaccine affect COVID-19? How does one diagnosis affect the other? Discussions. Few essential elements about TB and SARS-CoV coinfections were discussed. First, lessons from past outbreaks (other coronaviruses) and influenza pandemic/seasonal outbreaks have taught the importance of infection control to avoid the severe impact on TB patients. Second, although challenging due to data scarcity, investigating the pathological pathways linking TB and SARS-CoV-2 leads to the idea that their coexistence might yield a more severe clinical evolution. Finally, we addressed the issues of vaccination and diagnostic reliability in the context of coinfection. Conclusions: Because viral respiratory infections and TB impede the host's immune responses, it can be assumed that their lethal synergism may contribute to more severe clinical evolution. Despite the rapidly growing number of cases, the data needed to predict the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with latent TB and TB sequelae still lies ahead. The trial is registered with NCT04327206, NCT01829490, and NCT04121494.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/fisiopatologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/fisiopatologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 688, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the peak season of common respiratory viral infections. However, the clinical symptoms of most SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are not significantly different from those of common respiratory viral infections. Therefore, knowing the epidemiological patterns of common respiratory viruses may be valuable to improve the diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy of patients with suspected COVID-19, especially in Southwest China (a mild epidemic area). METHODS: A total of 2188 patients with clinically suspected of COVID-19 in Southwest China were recruited from January 21 to February 29, 2020. Nasopharyngeal swabs, throat swabs and sputum specimens were collected to detect SARS-CoV-2 by using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and other 12 viruses via PCR fragment analysis combined with capillary electrophoresis. Clinical characteristics and laboratory test findings were acquired from electronic medical records. All data were analyzed to unravel the epidemiological patterns. RESULTS: Only 1.1% (24/2188) patients with suspected COVID-19 were eventually confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the most frequently observed symptoms were fever (75.0%, 18/24) and cough (20.8%, 5/24). The overall detection rate of other respiratory pathogens was 10.3% (226/2188). Among them, human rhinovirus (3.2%, 71/2188), human parainfluenza viruses (1.6%, 35/2188), influenza B virus (1.2%, 26/2188) and mycoplasma pneumonia (1.2%, 26/2188) were the predominantly detected pathogens in this study. Moreover, the co-infection was observed in 22 specimens. Notably, one COVID-19 case had a coexisting infection with human parainfluenza virus (4.2%, 1/24) and bocavirus was the most common virus tending to occur in co-infection with other respiratory pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the epidemiological features of common respiratory viruses and their clinical impact during the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 in a mild epidemic area. The findings highlight the importance of understanding the transmission patterns of the common respiratory virus in COVID-19 regions, which can provide information support for the development of appropriate treatment plans and health policies, while eliminating unnecessary fear and tension.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Tosse/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 56(3): 359-364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959802

RESUMO

Current literature shows that secondary bacterial infections, although less frequent than in previous influenza pandemics, affect COVID-19 patients. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Legionella pneumophila, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus and Klebsiella spp. are the main species isolated. Of note, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-COVID-19 coinfections are also reported. However, bacterial coinfection rates increase in patients admitted in the intensive care units, and those diseases can be due to super-infections by nosocomial antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This highlights the urgency to revise frequent and empiric prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics in COVID-19 patients, with more attention to evidence-based studies and respect for the antimicrobial stewardship principles.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
8.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 10(3): 214-221, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) reported 170,639 cases and 1430 deaths from COVID-19 since the first case emerged in the country on March 2 through June 25, 2020. The objective of this report is to describe the characteristics and outcome observed among 99 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the largest academic hospital in KSA, and assess co-infection with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). METHODS: This single-center case series data included select epidemiological, clinical, radiological features and laboratory findings of all confirmed hospitalized cases of COVID-19 in King Saud University Medical City (KSUMC), Riyadh, KSA, from March 22 until May 31, 2020, followed through June 6, 2020. We conducted retrospective analysis of listed data from 99 hospitalized patients and present characteristics and factors associated with severity in percentages and univariate odds ratios. Cases were confirmed using nasopharyngeal or throat swab by real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and MERS-CoV by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The 99 hospitalized COVID-19 patients included in this analysis constitute 16% of 632 positive SARS-CoV-2 among 6633 persons who were tested at the KSUMC (positivity rate, 9.4%). MERS-CoV PCR was negative in all 99 patients tested. The majority of these 99 hospitalized patients were males (66%), had a mean age of 44 years (range, 19-87), and a quarter (25.3%) were health care workers. Patients with comorbid conditions accounted for 52.5% of patients including the 8.1% who were asymptomatic; diabetes mellitus being the most frequent (31.3%), followed by hypertension (22.2%). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (67.7%), cough (60.6%), dyspnea (43.4%), upper respiratory symptoms (27.3%), fatigue (26.3%), diarrhea (19.2%) and loss of smell (9.1%). The clinical conditions among these 99 patients included upper respiratory tract infection (47.5%), abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers a fifth (21%) of patients had moderate pneumonia, while 7% had severe pneumonia with 22.2% requiring admission to the intensive care unit and 12.1% died. Late presentation with severe disease, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin), and end organ damage (high creatinine or high aspartate aminotransferase) were predictors for admission to critical care unit or died. CONCLUSION: We observed no MERS-CoV co-infection in this early cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were relatively young, more than half had comorbid conditions, presented with fever and/or cough, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, and high inflammatory markers. Given MERS-CoV endemicity in the country, co-monitoring of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection is critical.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 661-666, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South African guidelines recommend a syndromic approach for the management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), based on the presence of genital symptoms. However, the guidelines do not prescribe specific indications for microbiology testing for patients presenting with or without repeat genital symptoms. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of and factors associated with repeat genital symptoms among STI service attendees at primary care facilities. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study at 7 STI primary care facilities participating in the aetiological surveillance of STIs between January 2015 and December 2016. Demographic and clinical information and appropriate genital specimens were collected from participants presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS), male urethral syndrome (MUS) and/or genital ulcer syndrome (GUS). Repeat genital symptoms were defined as self-reported history of the same STI-related genital symptoms in the preceding 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with repeat genital symptoms. RESULTS: Of 1 822 eligible participants, 480 (30%) had repeat genital symptoms (25% and 75% in the preceding 3 months and 12 months, respectively). Of those with repeat genital symptoms, the median age was 28 (interquartile range (IQR) 24 - 32) years, and 54% were females. The most common aetiological agents among participants with VDS, MUS and GUS were bacterial vaginosis (n=132; 55%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n=172; 81%) and ulcers (n=67; 63%), respectively. One hundred and seven (20%) participants had no detectable common STI aetiology. In the multivariable analysis, repeat genital symptoms were associated with HIV co-infection (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 - 1.78), VDS diagnosis (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.10 - 1.76), self-reported condom use (aOR 1.56; 95% CI 1.20 - 2.03) and age 25 - 34 years (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03 - 1.71). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a high prevalence of repeat genital symptoms ‒ a significant proportion without STI aetiology. Identified factors of repeat genital symptoms highlight the need for improved integration of HIV and STI prevention and management. Further research is needed to determine the aetiology of repeat genital symptoms and the contribution of non-STI causes.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Masculinos/epidemiologia , Úlcera/epidemiologia , Descarga Vaginal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , África do Sul/epidemiologia
10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 153, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acquired secondary bacterial infections (SBIs). The etiology and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria were reported and used to provide a theoretical basis for appropriate infection therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed electronic medical records of all the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the Wuhan Union Hospital between January 27 and March 17, 2020. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients who acquired SBIs were enrolled. Demographic, clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance data of the SBIs were collected. Outcomes were also compared between patients who were classified as severe and critical on admission. RESULTS: Among 1495 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 102 (6.8%) patients had acquired SBIs, and almost half of them (49.0%, 50/102) died during hospitalization. Compared with severe patients, critical patients had a higher chance of SBIs. Among the 159 strains of bacteria isolated from the SBIs, 136 strains (85.5%) were Gram-negative bacteria. The top three bacteria of SBIs were A. baumannii (35.8%, 57/159), K. pneumoniae (30.8%, 49/159), and S. maltophilia (6.3%, 10/159). The isolation rates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were 91.2 and 75.5%, respectively. Meticillin resistance was present in 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative staphylococci, and vancomycin resistance was not found. CONCLUSIONS: SBIs may occur in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lead to high mortality. The incidence of SBIs was associated with the severity of illness on admission. Gram-negative bacteria, especially A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, were the main bacteria, and the resistance rates of the major isolated bacteria were generally high. This was a single-center study; thus, our results should be externally examined when applied in other institutions.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 646, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is known as a new viral infection. Viral-bacterial co-infections are one of the biggest medical concerns, resulting in increased mortality rates. To date, few studies have investigated bacterial superinfections in COVID-19 patients. Hence, we designed the current study on COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. METHODS: Nineteen patients admitted to our ICUs were enrolled in this study. To detect COVID-19, reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed. Endotracheal aspirate samples were also collected and cultured on different media to support the growth of the bacteria. After incubation, formed colonies on the media were identified using Gram staining and other biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out based on the CLSI recommendations. RESULTS: Of nineteen COVID-19 patients, 11 (58%) patients were male and 8 (42%) were female, with a mean age of ~ 67 years old. The average ICU length of stay was ~ 15 days and at the end of the study, 18 cases (95%) expired and only was 1 case (5%) discharged. In total, all patients were found positive for bacterial infections, including seventeen Acinetobacter baumannii (90%) and two Staphylococcus aureus (10%) strains. There was no difference in the bacteria species detected in any of the sampling points. Seventeen of 17 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were resistant to the evaluated antibiotics. No metallo-beta-lactamases -producing Acinetobacter baumannii strain was found. One of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates was detected as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and isolated from the patient who died, while another Staphylococcus aureus strain was susceptible to tested drugs and identified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings emphasize the concern of superinfection in COVID-19 patients due to Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Consequently, it is important to pay attention to bacterial co-infections in critical patients positive for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/complicações , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Top Antivir Med ; 28(2): 455-458, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886465

RESUMO

Due to COVID-19, this year marked the first virtual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in the conference's 27-year history. There were important studies presented that provided new insights into the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and other HIV coinfections. Highlights related to TB and HIV coinfections from this year's meeting are reviewed below.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Congressos como Assunto , Criptococose/diagnóstico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 588, 2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scale-up of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment for HIV/HCV coinfected individuals is occurring in Spain, the vast majority (> 85%) with a reported history of injecting drug use and a smaller population of co-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). We assess impact of recent treatment scale-up to people living with HIV (PLWH) and implications for achieving the WHO HCV incidence elimination target (80% reduction 2015-2030) among PLWH and overall in Andalusia, Spain, using dynamic modeling. METHODS: A dynamic transmission model of HCV/HIV coinfection was developed. The model was stratified by people who inject drugs (PWID) and MSM. The PWID component included dynamic HCV transmission from the HCV-monoinfected population. The model was calibrated to Andalusia based on published data and the HERACLES cohort (prospective cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected individuals representing > 99% coinfected individuals in care in Andalusia). From HERACLES, we incorporated HCV treatment among diagnosed PLWH of 10.5%/year from 2004 to 2014, and DAAs at 33%/year from 2015 with 94.8% SVR. We project the impact of current and scaled-up HCV treatment for PLWH on HCV prevalence and incidence among PLWH and overall. RESULTS: Current treatment rates among PLWH (scaled-up since 2015) could substantially reduce the number of diagnosed coinfected individuals (mean 76% relative reduction from 2015 to 2030), but have little impact on new diagnosed coinfections (12% relative reduction). However, DAA scale-up to PWLH in 2015 would have minimal future impact on new diagnosed coinfections (mean 9% relative decrease from 2015 to 2030). Similarly, new cases of HCV would only reduce by a mean relative 29% among all PWID and MSM due to ongoing infection/reinfection. Diagnosing/treating all PLWH annually from 2020 would increase the number of new HCV infections among PWLH by 28% and reduce the number of new HCV infections by 39% among the broader population by 2030. CONCLUSION: Targeted scale-up of HCV treatment to PLWH can dramatically reduce prevalence among this group but will likely have little impact on the annual number of newly diagnosed HIV/HCV coinfections. HCV microelimination efforts among PWLH in Andalusia and settings where a large proportion of PLWH have a history of injecting drug use will require scaled-up HCV diagnosis and treatment among PLWH and the broader population at risk.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/patologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Modelos Teóricos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/patologia , Resposta Viral Sustentada
14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(8): 856-865, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737472

RESUMO

The first case of COVID-19 was detected in Brazil on 25 February 2020. We report and contextualize epidemiological, demographic and clinical findings for COVID-19 cases during the first 3 months of the epidemic. By 31 May 2020, 514,200 COVID-19 cases, including 29,314 deaths, had been reported in 75.3% (4,196 of 5,570) of municipalities across all five administrative regions of Brazil. The R0 value for Brazil was estimated at 3.1 (95% Bayesian credible interval = 2.4-5.5), with a higher median but overlapping credible intervals compared with some other seriously affected countries. A positive association between higher per-capita income and COVID-19 diagnosis was identified. Furthermore, the severe acute respiratory infection cases with unknown aetiology were associated with lower per-capita income. Co-circulation of six respiratory viruses was detected but at very low levels. These findings provide a comprehensive description of the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil and may help to guide subsequent measures to control virus transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Influenza Humana , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 633, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cases of refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia have been increasing recently; however, whether viral coinfection or macrolide-resistant M. infection contribute to the development of refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of viral coinfection and macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae infection on M. pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children and build a model to predict a severe disease course. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs or sputum specimens were collected from patients with community-acquired pneumonia meeting our protocol who were admitted to Shanghai Children's Medical Center from December 1, 2016, to May 31, 2019. The specimens were tested with the FilmArray Respiratory Panel, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay that detects 16 viruses, Bordetella pertussis, M. pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors for adenovirus coinfection and macrolide-resistant mycoplasma infection. RESULTS: Among the 107 M. pneumoniae pneumonia patients, the coinfection rate was 56.07%, and 60 (60/107, 56.07%) patients were infected by drug-resistant M. pneumoniae. Adenovirus was the most prevalent coinfecting organism, accounting for 22.43% (24/107). The classification tree confirmed that viral coinfection was more common in patients younger than 3 years old. Adenovirus coinfection and drug-resistant M. pneumoniae infection occurred more commonly in patients with refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia (P = 0.019; P = 0.001). A prediction model including wheezing, lung consolidation and extrapulmonary complications was used to predict adenovirus coinfection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 0.795 (95% CI 0.679-0.893, P < 0.001). A prolonged fever duration after the application of macrolides for 48 h was found more commonly in patients infected by drug-resistant M. pneumoniae (P = 0.002). A fever duration longer than 7 days was an independent risk factor for drug-resistant Mycoplasma infection (OR = 3.500, 95% CI = 1.310-9.353, P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of refractory M. pneumoniae pneumonia is associated with adenovirus coinfection and infection by drug-resistant M. pneumoniae. A prediction model combining wheezing, extrapulmonary complications and lung consolidation can be used to predict adenovirus coinfection in children with M. pneumoniae pneumonia. A prolonged fever duration indicates drug-resistant M. pneumoniae infection, and a reasonable change in antibiotics is necessary.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/virologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 576, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China ranks second in the world in terms of numbers of tuberculosis (TB) cases and is one of the top three countries with the largest number of multidrug-resistant and rifampicin-resistant TB (MDR/RR-TB). It also has high mortality and low cure rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive TB patients. This study aimed to analyse, under the integrated TB control model, the characteristics of TB patients seeking healthcare in the largest designated TB hospital in Chongqing. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of TB registers in a health facility. Record data of 1827 TB patients who had attended the Chongqing Public Health Medical Center (CPHMC) from 1 January to 31 December 2018 were included. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 18.0; IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA) was used to analyse the data. Counting data were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher' s exact test. Among the results of the univariate analysis, the variables with statistical significance were included in the binomial stepwise logistic regression, with odds ratio and 95% confidence interval calculated. A two-tailed probability level of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The majority of registered patients were men (1197), of Han ethnicity (1670), aged 21-60 years (1331), farmer/unemployed (1075), and living in county/district (1207). Approximately 24.9% of patients (455/1827) contracted DR-TB, 6% (110/1827) were co-infected with HIV, and 41.0% (749/1827) had drug-related hepatotoxicity. Among those patients, DR-TB was more likely to develop among farmers who received retreatment and had drug-related hepatotoxicity (P < 0.05). Women who received retreatment and lived in county/district were less likely to be HIV positive (P < 0.05). Compared with farmers, patients who were unemployed were more likely to be HIV positive, and those aged 21-60 years had a higher risk of being tested as HIV positive (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Farmers who received retreatment and had drug-related hepatotoxicity are more susceptible to DR-TB; young unemployed men have a higher risk of contracting HIV-positive TB. The demographic and clinical characteristics of TB patients should be taken into consideration in DR-TB and HIV-positive TB screening in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/virologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 593, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a serious health risk, for people living with human immune deficiency virus worldwide, and the burden of TB/HIV infection is still high in Ethiopia in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the predictors of tuberculosis infection among adults visiting anti-retroviral treatment center in East and West Gojjam, northwest, Ethiopia. METHODS: Institution based unmatched case-control study was employed to determine the predictors of tuberculosis infection among adults visiting anti-retroviral treatment center in east and west Gojjam, Northwest, Ethiopia from March 7-April 15, 2017. Just about 552 participants were participated in the study (139 Cases and 413 controls). Cases were confirmed with active TB and infected with HIV, and controls were HIV positive adults with non-TB. All cases in each health facility who confirmed by acid-fast bacilli, culture and gene expert were considered as TB positive. However, controls were selected by using simple random sampling technique through the above diagnostic criteria and the data were collected with Face to face interview as well as patient medical record were utilized, and the quality of the data were assured, checked, coded, cleaned and entered in EPI-Data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for the analysis. RESULT: Of the total sample (556), just about 552(99.2%) were participated in the study. 47.5% were females and 58.9% were rural dweller. Behavioral and modifiable biological risk factors: alcohol users (AOR = 2.33; 95%CI:1.34,4.07), BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (AOR = 3.03;95%CI:1.79,5.14), CD4 count ≤200 cells/µl (AOR = 2.34;95%CI:1.89,2.79) and between 201 and 499 cells/µl (AOR = 2.63; 95%CI: 1.01,6.84), bedridden and ambulatory (AOR = 3.3;95%CI:1.70,6.29 and AOR = 8.2;95%CI:4.34,15.64), respectively. TB history in the family (AOR = 3.00; 95%CI: 1.57, 5.74) were predictors for TB infection. Taking CPT (AOR = 0.36; 95%CI: 0.21, 0.62) and having early WHO clinical stage I or II (AOR = 0.34; 95%CI: 0.20, 0.56) had protective effect against TB infection. CONCLUSION: From this study, it has been concluded that alcohol users, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, CD4 count < 499 cells/µl, bedridden and ambulatory and TB history were predictors for TB-HIV co-infected adults. Strengthen screening more frequently, CPT Prophlaxysis and treated promptly important to reduce TB co-morbidity.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/tratamento farmacológico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , HIV , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Prognóstico , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
20.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 48(5): 500-506, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771236

RESUMO

The reasons for the relative resistance of children to certain infections such as that caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV2 are not yet fully clear. Deciphering these differences can provide important information about the pathogenesis of the disease. Regarding the SARS-CoV2 virus, children are at the same risk of infection as the general population of all ages, with the most serious cases being found in infants. However, it has been reported that the disease is much less frequent than in adults and that most cases are benign or moderate (even with high viral loads), provided there are no other risk factors or underlying diseases. It is not clear why they have lower morbidity and virtually no mortality. A series of findings, relationships and behavioral patterns between the infectious agent and the child host may account for the lower incidence and a greatly attenuated clinical presentation of the disease in children.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Portador Sadio/virologia , Criança , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Estilo de Vida , Melatonina/imunologia , Melatonina/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia
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