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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18504, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914021

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of bacterial coexistence and the coinfection dynamics between bacteria and respiratory viruses among young children. We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from children aged < 5 years hospitalized with a community-acquired single respiratory viral infection of influenza, adenovirus, or RSV during 2 recent consecutive influenza seasons. Remnant respiratory specimens were used for bacterial PCR targeting Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus.A total of 102 children were included; median age was 0.8 years and 44.1% had underlying comorbidities. Overall, 6.8% (7/102) of cases were classified as severe diseases requiring intensive care unit admission and/or mechanical ventilation and ranged from 8.8% for a patient with RSV and 7.6% for those with adenovirus to 0% for those with influenza viruses. The overall viral-bacterial codetection rate was 59.8% (61/102); M catarrhalis was the most frequent (33.3%), followed by H influenzae (31.4%). Influenza cases showed higher bacterial codetection rates (80.0%; 8/10) compared with those with adenoviruses (69.2%; 9/13) and RSV (55.7%; 44/79). S pneumoniae and H influenzae codetections were associated with reduced severity (aOR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.89), and reduced risk of wheezing (aOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.13-0.98), respectively.We observed the interactions between respiratory viruses and bacteria and the clinical significance of viral-bacterial coexistence in upper airway on disease severity. Future study will be necessary to elucidate the active interactions between different viruses and bacteria and give clues to risk stratified strategy in the management of respiratory infections among young children.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Bactérias/genética , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Sons Respiratórios/etiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/virologia , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/genética
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 988, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute public health problems in Cameroon including the South West Region (SWR). This study determined the prevalence of malaria parasites and haematological abnormalities in HIV positive patients in Limbe, Cameroon from April-July 2014. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and involved 411 participants who were administered structured questionnaires to record socio-demographic and clinical data. Three hundred and nine (309) HIV positive patients and one hundred and two (102) HIV negative individuals were examined clinically and venous blood collected for malaria parasite detection, HIV infection diagnosis and full blood count analysis. RESULTS: Overall malaria parasite prevalence was 14.1% (58/411). This prevalence was significantly higher (P <  0.001) in the HIV negative participants (33.3%, 34/102) compared to the HIV positive patients (7.8%, 24/309). Amongst HIV positive participants, malaria parasite prevalence was significantly higher in female patients (P = 0.003), febrile patients (P <  0.001), anaemic patients (P = 0.015) and in patients who were not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (P = 0.03) when compared with their respective counterparts. Among the HIV negative group, though not significant, malaria parasite prevalence was higher in females, febrile and anaemic patients when compared with their respective counterparts. Overall anaemia prevalence was 52.1% (214/309) and was significantly higher (P = 0.004) in HIV positive patients (56%, 173) than in HIV negative participants (40.2%, 41). Malaria/HIV co-infected patients had a significantly lower mean value of Hb (P = 0.002), RBC (P = 0.002) and Hct (P = 0.001) when compared with HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: HIV negative participants had a higher prevalence of malaria parasites than their HIV positive counterparts. Anaemia prevalence was higher in HIV positive patients than in HIV negative participants. Malaria/HIV co-infected patients presented with more red blood cell abnormalities than HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 982, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) share common risk factors for exposure. Co-infected patients have an increased liver-related mortality risk and may have accelerated HIV progression. The epidemiology and demographic characteristics of HIV-HBV co-infection in Canada remain poorly defined. We compared the demographic and clinical characteristics and factors associated with advanced hepatic fibrosis between HIV and HIV-HBV co-infected patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using data from the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) Collaboration, including eight sites from British Columbia, Quebec, and Ontario. Eligible participants were HIV-infected patients who initiated combination ARV between January 1, 2000 and December 14, 2014. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared between HIV-HBV co-infected and HIV-infected groups using chi-square or Fisher exact tests for categorical variables, and Wilcoxon's Rank Sum test for continuous variables. Liver fibrosis was estimated by the AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI). RESULTS: HBV status and APRI values were available for 2419 cohort participants. 199 (8%) were HBV co-infected. Compared to HIV-infected participants, HIV-HBV co-infected participants were more likely to use injection drugs (28% vs. 21%, p = 0.03) and be HCV-positive (31%, vs. 23%, p = 0.02). HIV-HBV co-infected participants had lower baseline CD4 T cell counts (188 cells/mm3, IQR: 120-360) compared to 235 cells/mm3 in HIV-infected participants (IQR: 85-294) (p = 0.0002) and higher baseline median APRI scores (0.50 vs. 0.37, p < 0.0001). This difference in APRI was no longer clinically significant at follow-up (0.32 vs. 0.30, p = 0.03). HIV-HBV co-infected participants had a higher mortality rate compared to HIV-infected participants (11% vs. 7%, p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics of the HIV-HBV co-infected population in Canada is described. HIV-HBV co-infected patients have higher mortality, more advanced CD4 T cell depletion, and liver fibrosis that improves in conjunction with ARV therapy. The high prevalence of unknown HBV status demonstrates a need for increased screening among HIV-infected patients in Canada.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 978, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children particularly in developing countries of Asia and Africa. The present study was conducted to detect the two most important pathogens, rotavirus and Campylobacter Jejuni in children suffering with diarrhea in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. The clinical and epidemiological aspects of the disease were also investigated. METHODS: A total of 500 stool samples were collected from children presented with clinical signs and symptoms of acute diarrhea. The samples were initially screened for the presence of rotavirus A (RVA) via ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase PCR) and then were analysed for C. jejuni by using species specific PCR assay. RESULTS: The detection rate of RVA was 26.4% (132/500) while, Campylobacter was detected in 52% (260/500) of samples with C. jejuni accounted for 48.2% (241/500) of all study cases. Co-infection of C. jejuni with RVA was identified in 21.8% of all cases. Children with RVA and C. jejuni co-infection showed a higher probability (p = 0.01) to be dehydrated. A significant association (p = 0.02) was found between C. jejuni positive status and fever in children. The median age of children with both RVA and C. jejuni infection was 6-11 months. The RVA detection rate was high in winter months of the year while, C. jejuni infections were documented high in summer over 1 year study period. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results have demonstrated the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Pakistan in 2014. The results of present study will not only help to calculate disease burden caused by C. jejuni and rotavirus but also will provide critical information to health authorities in planning public health care strategies against these pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cidades , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 966, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among pediatric patients hospitalized for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), the risk factors for 90-day readmission after discharge is undefined. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients <14 years of age who were discharged with a diagnosis of MPP between January 2016 and February 2017. We collected clinical, laboratory and radiographic variables at the time of initial admission. We assessed pneumonia-related readmission within 90-day after discharge. Risk factors independently associated with rehospitalization were identified using multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of the 424 MPP hospitalizations, 48 (11.3%) were readmitted within 90 days and were mainly diagnosed with pneumonia. Patients with younger age or coinfection with influenza A were more likely to be readmitted. In addition, compared with children without readmission, the readmission ones showed different clinical and laboratory characteristics at the index hospital admission. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age (OR 0.815, 95%CI 0.706-0.940) and body temperature (OR 0.659, 95%CI 0.518-0.839) were significantly associated with lower risk of 90-day readmission. Coinfection with influenza was independently associated with a greater likelihood of 90-day readmission (OR 4.746, 95%CI 1.191-18.913). CONCLUSIONS: Readmission after MPP are common and is related to patients' age, body temperature and influenza A coinfection during initial hospital stay, indicating potential targets could be noticed to reduce the rehospitalization after pediatric MPP.


Assuntos
Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Alta do Paciente , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(5): 1437-1449, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637902

RESUMO

Influenza has frequently been epidemic in recent years. However, the mechanisms of severe pneumonia with postinfluenza Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) secondary infection have not been fully understood. In this study, we explored the mechanisms of pneumonia in postinfluenza A virus (IAV) infection via a mouse model. Mice were intranasally inoculated with SP three days after IAV inoculation. We then collected samples at three time points to dynamically observe the pathological progression. In IAV infection alone, lymphocyte infiltration and widened alveolar intervals were observed. In the blood, levels of the CD19+, CD19+CD21+ and CD19+CD79ß+B lymphocyte subpopulations were reduced, and IFN-γ and IL-10 were elevated. Slight atrophy was seen in the spleen, which was due to splenic B lymphocyteinitiated apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. When SP infection occurred after IAV infection, the pulmonary inflammation was significantly aggravated; a fair number of lymphocytes and neutrophils infiltrated simultaneously with exfoliated bronchial epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells, widened alveolar septum and hemorrhaging. Increasing edema fluid and bacteria accumulated in the alveolar cavity. Decreased CD19+, CD19+CD21+ and CD19+CD79ß+B lymphocyte subpopulations and increased interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or interleukin 10 (IL-10) were more prominent compared to those with viral infection alone. Spleen atrophy resulting from coinfection was more obvious because of massive splenic B lymphocyte apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway compared to viral infection alone. This study shows that although inflammation caused by SP infection alone was temporary, preceding IAV infection provided favorable conditions for SP colonization and multiplication by destroying lung structure and suppressing humoral immunity. Synergistic IAV-SP coinfection is likely to facilitate more SP colonization and promote B lymphocyte-suppression and reduction. Eventually, the pneumonia worsened.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose , Linfócitos B/citologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Células Endoteliais , Vírus da Influenza A , Pulmão , Camundongos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/microbiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/virologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108418, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585637

RESUMO

The prevalence of Marek's disease (MD) caused by Gallid herpesvirus-2 (GaHV-2) has been increasing in chickens in China despite universal vaccination. Among the possible reasons for this trend, of Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) contamination in vaccines could lead to co-infection and reduce the vaccine efficacy. Here, we report the epidemiological findings of our continuous surveillance of MD, and an examination of the effects of REV and/or GaHV-2 co-infection. A total of 1230 samples were collected between 2011 and 2015 from 305 flocks covering many of the chicken-raising regions of China. Among these, 606 samples were determined to be GaHV-2-positive, 13.0% of which were found to be co-infected with REV from 18.8% of the flocks. One GaHV-2 strain (HS/1412), a REV strain (HS/1412R), and a GaHV-2 and REV-co-infected strain (HS/1412 GR) were isolated from different chickens of a GaHV-2 and REV co-infected flock. Pathogenicity tests showed that HS/1412 and HS/1412 GR caused disease in all chickens and that HS/1412R induced morbidity in 84.6% of the infected chickens. HS/1412 GR induced 100% mortality and 76.9% tumor formation, which were significantly higher frequencies than those observed with strain HS/1412 (38.5% and 15.4%, respectively) and HS/1412R (0% and 0%). These results indicate that co-infection with GaHV-2 and REV might explain the persistent, sporadic outbreaks of neoplastic disease in some commercial flocks, resulting in a significant economic burden to the poultry industry of China.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coinfecção/veterinária , Doença de Marek/complicações , Neoplasias/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Marek/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/virologia , Vírus da Reticuloendoteliose/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Retroviridae/complicações , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
8.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 8(3): 244-251, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512600

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is the highest clinical epidemiology and public health issue. Despite many programs established to tackle the epidemic, TB target controls have not been reached. One of the many factors attributed to the failure in TB treatment is HIV coinfection. The aim of this study is to assess the survival rate of HIV infection among TB patients and the risk factors of death among the TB patients with HIV coinfection during the retro of directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) program. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort conducted to compare the survivorship between TB/HIV patients for 8 months DOTS. Death among TB patients was considered as failures and those defaulted or survived were censored. The Cox proportional-hazards regression and log-linear model were used to establish the hazard ratio (HR) of death for each variable at baseline and estimate the risk factors effect among TB patients. Results: The findings revealed that 50% of death from TB/HIV patients were from HIV coinfection (advanced HR = 2.01, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-3.17). The risk of death was significantly higher in HIV-positive TB patients (P = 0.000) during the extension care phase. TB/HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy have decreased survival rate (log-rank test = 14.88, df = 2, P = 0.0001). The probability of TB patients surviving is significantly decreased in HIV positive with some factors such as age, weight, smoking, and alcohol found significant. Conclusion: The probability of survival in HIV-positive TB patients was significantly lower during the TB treatment. Weight loss, age, alcohol, smoking, and pregnancy were showed to affect the survival probability of TB/HIV patients' coinfection significantly.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Tuberculose/mortalidade
9.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2735-2745, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486907

RESUMO

Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is unique among endogenous retroviruses because its endogenization is still active. Two major KoRV subtypes, KoRV-A and B, have been described, and KoRV-B is associated with disease and poses a health threat to koalas. Here, we investigated the co-prevalence of KoRV-A and KoRV-B, detected by type-specific PCR and sequencing, and their impact on the health of koalas in three Japanese zoos. We also investigated KoRV proviral loads and found varying amounts of genomic DNA (gDNA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that 100% of the koalas examined were infected with KoRV-A and 60% (12/20) were coinfected with KoRV-B. The KoRV-A sequence was highly conserved, whereas the KoRV-B sequence varied among individuals. Interestingly, we observed possible vertical transmission of KoRV-B in one offspring in which the KoRV-B sequence was similar to that of the father but not the mother. Moreover, we characterized the KoRV growth patterns in concanavalin-A-stimulated PBMCs isolated from KoRV-B-coinfected or KoRV-B-uninfected koalas. We quantified the KoRV provirus in gDNA and the KoRV RNA copy numbers in cells and culture supernatants by real-time PCR at days 4, 7, and 14 post-seeding. As the study population is housed in captivity, a longitudinal study of these koalas may provide an opportunity to study the transmission mode of KoRV-B. In addition, we characterized KoRV isolates by infecting tupaia cells. The results suggested that tupaia may be used as an infection model for KoRV. Thus, this study may enhance our understanding of KoRV-B coinfection and transmission in the captive koalas.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Gammaretrovirus/patogenicidade , Phascolarctidae/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Linhagem Celular , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Retrovirus Endógenos/classificação , Retrovirus Endógenos/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Gammaretrovirus/classificação , Gammaretrovirus/genética , Gammaretrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Provírus/genética , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Tupaia/virologia , Carga Viral
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500303

RESUMO

Viral infections are associated with increased incidence of severe sepsis. Particularly during the early stages, type I interferons (IFNs) are known mediators of detrimental effects. However, the functional role of early interferon ß (IFNß) and its cellular source during sepsis in the context of preexisting viral infections has not been defined. Using the colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) model, we demonstrate that IFNß-/- and type I IFN receptor (IFNAR1)-/- mice were less susceptible to sepsis after pre-stimulation with the viral mimetic poly(I:C). Wild type (WT) mice treated with poly(I:C) exhibited altered expression patterns of TNF and IL-12p40 during CASP which were dependent on IFNß or IFNAR1, suggesting a mechanism for the increased sepsis susceptibility of WT mice. Using a double cytokine reporter mouse model, we present novel data on the simultaneous expression of IFNß and IL-12p40 on a single cell level during polymicrobial sepsis in vivo. Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) were identified as primary source of IFNß and the protective cytokine IL-12p40 after CASP surgery irrespective of poly(I:C) pre-stimulation. These data demonstrated that if polymicrobial sepsis is preceded by a viral infection, IFNß and IL-12p40 are expressed by polyfunctional cDCs suggesting that these cells can play both detrimental and beneficial roles during sepsis development.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Interferon beta/genética , Poli I-C/administração & dosagem , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Sepse/imunologia , Animais , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Interferon beta/metabolismo , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Poli I-C/imunologia , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Sepse/virologia , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1314-1323, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495335

RESUMO

Within host-parasite communities, viral co-circulation and co-infections of hosts are the norm, yet studies of significant emerging zoonoses tend to focus on a single parasite species within the host. Using a multiplexed paramyxovirus bead-based PCR on urine samples from Australian flying foxes, we show that multi-viral shedding from flying fox populations is common. We detected up to nine bat paramyxoviruses shed synchronously. Multi-viral shedding infrequently coalesced into an extreme, brief and spatially restricted shedding pulse, coinciding with peak spillover of Hendra virus, an emerging fatal zoonotic pathogen of high interest. Such extreme pulses of multi-viral shedding could easily be missed during routine surveillance yet have potentially serious consequences for spillover of novel pathogens to humans and domestic animal hosts. We also detected co-occurrence patterns suggestive of the presence of interactions among viruses, such as facilitation and cross-immunity. We propose that multiple viruses may be interacting, influencing the shedding and spillover of zoonotic pathogens. Understanding these interactions in the context of broader scale drivers, such as habitat loss, may help predict shedding pulses of Hendra virus and other fatal zoonoses.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/veterinária , Paramyxovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Urina/virologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Quirópteros , Coinfecção/transmissão , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Paramyxovirinae/classificação , Zoonoses/transmissão
12.
Virol J ; 16(1): 111, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory tract infections are common during early childhood. How they impact cystic fibrosis lung disease history in young children is poorly known. The principal aim of our study was to determinate respiratory tract infections frequency in this cystic fibrosis young population. Secondary outcomes were nature of viral agents recovered and impact of such infections. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 25 children affected by cystic fibrosis and aged less than 2 years. Nasal samplings were taken systematically monthly or bimonthly with additional samples taken during respiratory tract infections episodes. Ten pathogens were tested by a combination of five duplex RT-PCRs or PCRs: influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), metapneumovirus (MPV), rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV)), coronavirus (HKU1, NL63, 229E and OC43), parainfluenza virus (1-4), adenovirus and bocavirus (Respiratory Multi-Well System MWS r-gene®, BioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France). Cycle thresholds (CTs) were reported for all positive samples and considered positive for values below 40. Quantitative variables were compared using a nonparametric statistical test (Wilcoxon signed rank for paired comparisons). Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to assess relationships between two variables. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS v9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) or GraphPad Prism V6.00 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA). The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age at inclusion was 9.6 ± 6.7 months. The patients had 3.4 ± 1.7 respiratory tract infections episodes per child per year. Forty-four respiratory tract infections (69%) were associated with virus: rhinovirus and enterovirus (RV/EV) were implied in 61% of them and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 14%. Only one patient required hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections. 86% of the patients were treated by antibiotics for a mean of 13.8 ± 6.2 days. RSV infections (n = 6) were usually of mild severity. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory tract infections in young children with cystic fibrosis were of mild severity, rarely requiring hospitalization. Unsurprisingly, RV/EV were the most frequent agents. RSV-related morbidity seems low in this population. This raises the question of the usefulness of RSV preventive medication in this young population.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/virologia , Fibrose Cística/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estações do Ano , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Feminino , França , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Infecções por Picornaviridae/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 257-264, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383310

RESUMO

Wild birds are known reservoirs of bacterial and viral pathogens, some of which have zoonotic potential. This poses a risk to both avian and human health, since spillover into domestic bird populations may occur. In Victoria, wild-caught cockatoos trapped under licence routinely enter commercial trade. The circovirus Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV), herpesviruses, adenoviruses and Chlamydia psittaci have been identified as significant pathogens of parrots globally, with impacts on both aviculture and the conservation efforts of endangered species. In this study, we describe the results of surveillance for psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs), psittacine adenovirus (PsAdV), BFDV and C. psittaci in wild cacatuids in Victoria, Australia. Samples were collected from 55 birds of four species, and tested using genus or family-wide polymerase chain reaction methods coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses for detection and identification of known and novel pathogens. There were no clinically observed signs of illness in most of the live birds in this study (96.3%; n = 53). Beak and Feather Disease Virus was detected with a prevalence of 69.6% (95% CI 55.2-80.9). Low prevalences of PsHV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), PsAdV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), and C. psittaci (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6) was detected. Importantly, a novel avian alphaherpesvirus and a novel avian adenovirus were detected in a little corella (Cacatua sanguinea) co-infected with BFDV and C. psittaci. The presence of multiple potential pathogens detected in a single bird presents an example of the ease with which such infectious agents may enter the pet trade and how novel viruses circulating in wild populations have the potential for transmission into captive birds. Genomic identification of previously undescribed avian viruses is important to further our understanding of their epidemiology, facilitating management of biosecurity aspects of the domestic and international bird trade, and conservation efforts of vulnerable species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Papagaios/virologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Alphaherpesvirinae/patogenicidade , Animais , Aviadenovirus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Papagaios/microbiologia , Prevalência , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
15.
Acta Med Indones ; 51(2): 128-136, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV infection in HCV-infected patients accelerates disease progression and reduces the success rate of Peg-IFN/RBV treatment. HCV mutation in NS5A-ISDR/PKR-BD region improved the outcome in HCV monoinfection treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. SNP-IL28B polymorphism is predicted to have an effect on HCV quasispecies evolution. However, the role of NS5A mutation and SNP IL-28B in HIV-HCV coinfection is still unclear. The aim of the study is to determine the role of HCV NS5A-ISDR/PKR-BD mutation and SNP IL-28 polymorphism on the successfulness of Peg-IFN/RBV therapy in HCV-HIV coinfection. METHODS: prospective cohort was performed in this study. Plasma sample were obtained from 30 and 8 patients with HCV-HIV coinfection and HCV monoinfection, respectively. PCR nucleotide sequencing was performed after RNA virus extraction and cDNA synthesis. Protein secondary structure and prediction of mutation function were analyzed using PredictProtein (PP) program. RESULTS: sixteen HCV-HIV coinfected patients and none from eight HCV patients achieved sustained virological response (SVR). ≥1 non-neutral mutation was found in 24/30 HCV-HIV coinfection and more frequent in SVR group (14 patients). ≥1 non-neutral mutation were found statistically significant for overall SVR achievement (p<0.05) in all patients regardless of coinfection or monoinfection status. Of the 27 HCV-HIV coinfected patients with CC-gene, 21 subjects had non-neutral mutation. The structure which was expected as NS5A binding site structure was different from consensus (wild type) in SVR group, while the structure was similar to consensus in non-SVR group. CONCLUSION: having ≥1 non-neutral mutation was associated with SVR achievement in Peg-IFN/RBV therapy, regardless of monoinfection and coinfection status.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferons/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Coinfecção/virologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polietilenoglicóis , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada
16.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 56(2): 166-169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397393

RESUMO

During zika and dengue viruse (ZIKV and DENV) outbreaks, the majority of the infected individuals remain clinically asymptomatic. Such asymptomatic individuals may occasionally acquire both arboviruses, donate blood, and contaminate haemoderivatives. The aim of this study was to characterize a ZIKV/DENV-4 coinfection in asymptomatic blood donor who donated blood during a large mixed ZIKV/DENV outbreak in the Säo Paulo State, Brazil. On the basis of post-donation information, one blood donor sample was found positive for ZIKV and DENV RNA. The DENV molecular serotyping was performed by molecular testing. The sample was also titrated on VERO E6 cells in order to define the presence of infectious arboviruses. The real-time PCR testing of the blood donor sample demonstrated very high viral load for both ZIKV and DENV. Further, molecular serotyping of DENV showed that the presence of DENV-4. The viral titration in cell culture indicated a titre of 2.75x10[6] PFU/ml which was concordant with the presence of infectious viruses in the blood donation. This is an interesting report for the simultaneous presence of infectious ZIKV and DENV-4 in asymptomatic blood sample. Special attention must be paid during mixed arboviral outbreaks for the possibility of transfusion-transmission of multiple arboviral agents.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Tipagem Molecular , RNA Viral/genética , Sorogrupo , Testes Sorológicos , Carga Viral
17.
Virus Genes ; 55(5): 673-681, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372920

RESUMO

Astroviruses (AstV) are associated with enteric and systemic disease in mammals and birds. Astroviruses have received increased attention recently as they have been found to be associated with sporadic neurologic disease in mammals including humans. In pigs, porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) can be widely detected and has been grouped in five genotypes (PoAstV1 to PoAstV5). In the present study, we detected multiple PoAstVs in serum samples, nasal swabs, and fecal swabs collected from pigs suffering from respiratory disease or diarrhea but also from asymptomatic pigs, indicating a wide tissue tropism of the identified PoAstV genotypes. Coinfection of different genotypes in the same pig was commonly observed, and within an individual pig a high genetic diversity was observed for viruses belonging to the same PoAstV genotype. Two complete genomes of PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 and PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 were successfully obtained and characterized, with genome sizes of 6396 and 6643 nucleotides, respectively. The PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 genome showed identities of 67.2-77.4% to other known PoAstV2 genomes, and the PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 genome showed identities of 72.8-80.5% to other known PoAstV4 genomes. The predicted spike domain of open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of these strains showed the highest genetic heterogeneity, with amino acid identities of 13.7-70.9% for PoAstV2-WG-R2/2017 to other known PoAstV2 strains, and identities of 24.4-63.3% for the PoAstV4-WG-R2/2017 to other known PoAstV4 strains. Possible recombination events were identified in each of the two sequences. Two subclades of PoAstV2 and three subclades of PoAstV4 were defined in the present analyses. The obtained data provide further evidence for extraintestinal infectivity of PoAstVs, and confirmed the high genetic diversity of PoAstVs and the coinfection potential of different PoAstV types in a single pig.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Variação Genética , Mamastrovirus/classificação , Mamastrovirus/genética , Recombinação Genética , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Portador Sadio/veterinária , Portador Sadio/virologia , China , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Mamastrovirus/isolamento & purificação , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soro/virologia , Suínos
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16861, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464913

RESUMO

Some children hospitalized for severe influenza virus infection require intensive care or die because of disease progression, which may be combined with other complications. The objective of this study was to identify the mortality risk factors in the patients with severe influenza virus infection admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).Seventy-seven pediatric patients with severe influenza virus infection who were admitted in the PICU at Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center between 2013 and 2017 were evaluated. Data were transcribed and analyzed.The patients' median age was 3.0 years (interquartile range, 1.0-4.0 years), with 59.7% of the patients aged <3 years. The mortality was 16.9%, and patients aged >3 years accounted for 69.2% of the cases. Influenza A virus infection was found in 83.1% of the patients. Coinfection was detected in 58.7% of the patients. Haemophilus influenzae (11.7%) and adenovirus (9.1%) were the predominant bacterial and viral pathogens isolated, respectively. Older age, oxygen saturation level of <90% at admission, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumorrhagia, influenza-associated encephalopathy (IEA), septic shock, low ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2, <60 mm Hg) to the fraction concentration of oxygen in inspired air (FiO2; P/F), higher oxygenation index, increased alanine aminotransferase level (>100 IU/L), increased aspartate aminotransferase level (>100 IU/L), increased lactate dehydrogenase level (>500 IU/L), high fraction concentration of oxygen in inspired air (FiO2 > 60%), and positive end-expiratory pressure (>8 cmH2O) were associated with poor outcome. The deceased patients were more likely to have oxygen saturation levels of <90% at admission and IEA than those who survived. Higher P/F ratio was a protective factor against death in patients.The children with severe influenza virus infection who were admitted in the PICU were mainly aged <3 years. The presence of an oxygen saturation level of <90% at admission and IEA were the prognostic variables independently associated with mortality. Higher P/F ratio was a protective factor against death in patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(8): e1007766, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369649

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are genetically and antigenically related flaviviruses that now co-circulate in much of the tropical and subtropical world. The rapid emergence of ZIKV in the Americas in 2015 and 2016, and its recent associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome, birth defects, and fetal loss have led to the hypothesis that DENV infection induces cross-reactive antibodies that influence the severity of secondary ZIKV infections. It has also been proposed that pre-existing ZIKV immunity could affect DENV pathogenesis. We examined outcomes of secondary ZIKV infections in three rhesus and fifteen cynomolgus macaques, as well as secondary DENV-2 infections in three additional rhesus macaques up to a year post-primary ZIKV infection. Although cross-binding antibodies were detected prior to secondary infection for all animals and cross-neutralizing antibodies were detected for some animals, previous DENV or ZIKV infection had no apparent effect on the clinical course of heterotypic secondary infections in these animals. All animals had asymptomatic infections and, when compared to controls, did not have significantly perturbed hematological parameters. Rhesus macaques infected with DENV-2 approximately one year after primary ZIKV infection had higher vRNA loads in plasma when compared with serum vRNA loads from ZIKV-naive animals infected with DENV-2, but a differential effect of sample type could not be ruled out. In cynomolgus macaques, the serotype of primary DENV infection did not affect the outcome of secondary ZIKV infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/complicações , Reações Cruzadas , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/complicações , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações
20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 761-765, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378167

RESUMO

We investigated the histologic findings and viral antigen distribution in 3 cases of natural coinfection of layer hens with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J), Marek's disease virus (MDV), and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in hens. At autopsy, diseased hens were found to have hepatosplenomegaly and thickened proventriculi, with white tumor nodules in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and ovary. Microscopically, most tissues had been infiltrated by neoplastic lymphocytes; the spleen, lung, proventriculus, heart, and liver had been infiltrated by both neoplastic lymphocytes and myeloblastic cells and/or primitive reticular cells. Fluorescence multiplex immunohistochemistry staining revealed ALV-J, MDV, and REV antigens co-expressed in the same tissue, even the same cell.


Assuntos
Leucose Aviária/virologia , Galinhas , Coinfecção/veterinária , Doença de Marek/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Leucose Aviária/imunologia , Leucose Aviária/patologia , Vírus da Leucose Aviária/fisiologia , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/fisiologia , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Doença de Marek/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Vírus da Reticuloendoteliose/fisiologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/patologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/imunologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/patologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
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