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2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 225: 112763, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544025

RESUMO

In this research, micro Coix lacryma-jobi L. vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) were set up using domestic sewage (DWS) and 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution (HNS) as VFCWs water sources. 0, 20 mg L-1 and 40 mg L-1 of Cr6+ (in the form of K2Cr7O2) were added into the water sources separately in order to study the response of Coix lacryma-jobi L. under Cr6+ stress. The results showed that the inhibition rates of Cr6 + on plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight treated with HNS were 2.88~10.16%, 5.12~11.86%, 3.53~6.51% and 2.89~6.34% higher than those in DWS treatment. SEM analysis showed that the nuclear bilayer membrane was slightly damaged, the chromatin decreased and the number of mitochondrial cristae decreased when treated with 20 mg L-1 of Cr6+, however, organelle damage was more severe under 40 mg L-1 of Cr6+exposure. The X-ray energy spectrum analysis results indicated that the accumulation of chromium in epidermis and endodermis were higher than those in stele. The contents of total Cr in roots, stems and leaves treated with HNS were higher than those of DWS treatment. The highest content of Cr was observed in cell wall (32.12-188.1 mg kg-1), followed by vacuole (5.0-38.14 mg kg-1). The contents of Cr in each subcellular component in roots, stems, and leaves treated with HNS were higher than those of DWS, except for organelle components in the 14th week. DWS was used as water influent, the contents of easily migrated combined Cr (ETM) in roots, stems and leaves were significantly lower than those in HNS treatment. Improving the nutritional conditions of constructed wetlands might be beneficial to the improvement of their ability to purify chrome-containing waste water.


Assuntos
Coix , Cromo/toxicidade , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Áreas Alagadas
3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 205: 114350, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507270

RESUMO

Coix seed (CS) is the dry mature seed kernel of Coix lacrma-jobi L. var. mayuen (Roman.) Stapf, which has the effect of spleen-invigorating and anti-swelling. However, research reports on the main active ingredients of CS were minimal. The purpose of this study was to find the main active ingredients that affect the efficacy of CS to invigorate the spleen and reduce swelling through the spectrum-effect relationship, combined with chemometrics, grey relational analysis (GRA) and entropy method, and to compare the differences between the effects of crude and processed CS. First of all, the HPLC-ELSD method was used to establish the chromatographic fingerprint of CS, and 12 batches of CS samples were analyzed through chemometrics in this study. Then, we studied the effect of spleen-invigorating and anti-swelling in CS. Finally, through grey relational analysis and entropy method, the spectrum-effect relationship between the chromatographic fingerprint and the seven pharmacodynamic effect indexes was studied. The results showed that the main pharmacologically active ingredients were 1,3-Dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (peak 8), 1,2-dilinoleoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol (peak 2), 1,3-Dipalmitoyl-2-Linolein (peak 5), 1,2-Dilinoleoyl-3-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol (peak 3), 1,2-Dioleoyl-3-linoleoyl-rac-glycerol (peak 4), and glycerol trioleate (peak 7), and the comprehensive efficacy of bran-fried CS was better than that of raw CS. In summary, we have identified the main active ingredients related to the efficacy of CS. As far as we know, this is the first time that the crude and processed CS spectrum-effect relationship has been established and compared, which provides a theoretical basis for subsequent studies on the material basis and molecular mechanism of CS pharmacodynamics.


Assuntos
Coix , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Entropia , Sementes , Baço
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256875, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478459

RESUMO

Coix lacryma-jobi L. is a very important economic crop widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. Drought affects more than four million square kilometers every year, and is a significant factor limiting agricultural productivity. However, relatively little is known about how Coix lacryma-jobi L. responds to drought treatments. To obtain a detailed and comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating the transcriptional responses of Coix lacryma-jobi L. to drought treatment, we employed high throughput short-read sequencing of cDNA prepared from polyadenylated RNA to explore global gene expression after a seven-day drought treatment. We generated a de novo assembled transcriptome comprising 65,480 unique sequences. Differential expression analysis based on RSEM-estimated transcript abundances identified 5,315 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing samples from plants following drought-treatment and from the appropriate controls. Among these, the transcripts for 3,460 genes were increased in abundance, whereas 1,855 were decreased. Real-time quantitative PCR for 5 transcripts confirmed the changes identified by RNA-Seq. The results provide a transcriptional overview of the changes in Coix lacryma-jobi L. in response to drought, and will be very useful for studying the function of associated genes and selection of molecular marker of Coix lacryma-jobi L in the future.


Assuntos
Coix , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Coix/genética , Coix/metabolismo
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371815

RESUMO

High blood pressure is a crucial risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases, and a diet rich in whole-grain foods may modulate blood pressure. This study investigated the effects of dehulled adlay consumption on blood pressure in vivo. We initially fed spontaneous hypertensive rats diets without (SHR group) or with 12 or 24% dehulled adlay (SHR + LA and SHR + HA groups), and discovered that it could limit blood pressure increases over a 12-week experimental period. Although we found no significant changes in plasma, heart, and kidney angiotensin-converting enzyme activities, both adlay-consuming groups had lower endothelin-1 and creatinine concentrations than the SHR group; the SHR + HA group also had lower aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid levels than the SHR group did. We later recruited 23 participants with overweight and obesity, and they consumed 60 g of dehulled adlay daily for a six-week experimental period. At the end of the study, we observed a significant decrease in the group's systolic blood pressure (SBP), and the change in SBP was even more evident in participants with high baseline SBP. In conclusion, our results suggested that daily intake of dehulled adlay had beneficial effects in blood-pressure management. Future studies may further clarify the possible underlying mechanisms for the consuming of dehulled adlay as a beneficial dietary approach for people at risk of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Coix , Dieta/métodos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Grãos Integrais , Adulto , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203783

RESUMO

Dysmenorrhea is one of the most prevalent disorders in gynecology. Historically, adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf.) has been explored for its anti-tumor, pain relief, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adlay seeds on the inhibition of uterine contraction and thus dysmenorrhea relief, in vitro and in vivo. HPLC-MS and GC were used to elucidate the ethyl acetate fraction of adlay testa ethanolic extract (ATE-EA) and ethyl acetate fraction of adlay hull ethanolic extract (AHE-EA). Elucidation yielded flavonoids, phytosterols, and fatty acids. Uterine leiomyomas and normal adjacent myometrial tissue were evaluated by oxytocin- and PG-induced uterine contractility. ATE-EA and AHE-EA suppressed uterine contraction induced by prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α), oxytocin, carbachol, and high-KCl solution ex vivo. In addition, the external calcium (Ca2+) influx induced contraction, and increased Ca2+ concentration was inhibited by ATE-EA and AHE-EA on the uterine smooth muscle of rats. Furthermore, ATE-EA and AHE-EA effectively attenuated the contraction of normal human myometrium tissues more than adjacent uterine leiomyoma in response to PGF2α. 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-Heptamethoxyflavone and chrysoeriol produced a remarkable inhibition with values of IC50 = 24.91 and 25.59 µM, respectively. The experimental results showed that treatment with ATE-EA at 30 mg/day effectively decreased the writhing frequency both on the oxytocin-induced writhing test and acetic acid writhing test of the ICR mouse.


Assuntos
Coix/química , Endométrio/metabolismo , Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Etanol/química , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1948-1958, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051256

RESUMO

Aflatoxin contamination is one of the most important factors jeopardizing the quality of traditional Chinese health food (TCHF) during storage. Based on our previous work, we investigated the stability of chitosan (CH) films containing turmeric essential oil (TEO) and employed CH-TEO films as inner pouches, then stored them with inoculated Coix seed, nutmeg, and Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS). We found that the stability of CH-TEO was most affected by high temperature, and these pouches dramatically decreased aflatoxin accumulation and maintained levels of marker components of each TCHF. We found that glycerol tristearat in Coix seed and jujuboside A and spinosin in ZSS were negatively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation. After three months of storage with a CH-TEO pouch, we found little change in marker components contents, but observed that Coix seed had the relative lower sensory characteristics score. In addition, acute and 90-day subchronic toxicity test in Coix seed stored with the largest amount of TEO showed no significant signs of toxicity or treatment-related changes in animals. The present study is the first report on the study of a green, efficient, and low toxicity solution for aflatoxic contamination in TCHF, and provides strong support for its future use.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Quitosana/química , Curcuma/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ziziphus/química , Animais , Coix/química , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Camundongos , Myristica/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica , Triglicerídeos/química
8.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 260: 119969, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051636

RESUMO

In this work, blue emission fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were fabricated by using the hydrothermal strategy from coix seed for the first time. We found that the prepared CDs possessed many excellent characteristics including excitation-dependent properties, good solubility and strong photostability. The optimal excitation and emission wavelength of CDs were 363 and 435 nm, respectively. Unbelievably, the fluorescence of CDs was selectively and effectively quenched with the addition of furazolidone (Fu). The quenching mechanisms might be assumed to the static quenching and inner filter effect (IFE). Based on this principle, a novel fluorescence probe was developed for the determination of Fu. At the same time, the proposed probe showed excellent sensitivity and selectivity towards Fu with a wide linear range from 0.5 to 100 µM, and the corresponding detection limit was 0.096 µM. Moreover, the CDs also could be applied for the sensing of temperature. The practical application of the CDs for Fu detection in real samples was also confirmed with the satisfactory recoveries changing from 96.6% to 108.5%, which provided huge possibility in the field of medical analysis.


Assuntos
Coix , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Corantes Fluorescentes , Furazolidona , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Temperatura
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2617-2622, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047111

RESUMO

The origins of 9 species of the Chinese medicinal materials in the 2015 edition of the Chinese pharmacopoeia(ChP) has revised in the 2020 edition of ChP. The revision is based on the investigation and textual research on the problems found after screening the original plants, animals or minerals of all the Chinese medicinal materials in the 2015 edition. Among them the Chinese names of Alismatis Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Coicis Semen, Corydalis Bungeanae Herba and Echinopsis Radix all do not match to the Latin scientific names, and also do not match the name of the actual medicinal origins. In addition, Alismatis Rhizoma has the omission of original plant. There is confusion about the Chinese name and the family name of the original insect of Cera Chinensis. The original mineral of Gypsum Fibrosum has the wrong group names. Alumstone and melanterite, the original mineral of Alumen and Melanteritum respectively, of which the group names are missing. To solve these problems, field survey and literature research were conducted on the medicinal materials and their origins. The source of these problems are explored. The correct origins and the Chinese names or Latin names are all determined according to the research results to the situation, in which the Chinese and Latin names of the original plants of the medicinal materials do not match. The correct family name and group name are obtained through textual research by taxonomy if the names are confused or mis-sing. The scientific evidence and correct results of revision in the 2020 edition of ChP are determined at last.


Assuntos
Coix , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Rizoma
10.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(5): 685-696, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840662

RESUMO

The lipid metabolism disorder is the key role of Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Selenoprotein P plays an important role in the pathological process of lipid accumulation. Coix lacryma-jboi seed oil (CLSO) is an active component extracted from Coix lacryma-jobi seed (CLS) which has been found to be effective of reducing blood fat and antioxidative. But the effect and mechanism of CLSO on NAFLD are not clear. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect and mechanism of CLSO in the treatment of NAFLD. Our result showed that CLSO decreased the liver/body weight ratio, lowered the total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerol (TG), and elevated the high density lipoprotein (HDL) in serum. CLSO reduced the lipid deposition in the liver of NAFLD rats. In addition, CLSO could bring down the abnormal expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, CLSO significantly declined the liver apolipoprotein E (apoE), apolipoprotein E receptor (apoER) and selenoprotein P 1 (SePP1) expression. In vivo, CLSO decreased the lipid droplets and TG level, reduced the protein expression of SePP1, apoER, phosphor-adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid and palmitic acid (OP). At the same time, lipid accumulation was observed in the Sepp1 high expression cells induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activator tunicamycin (Tm). CLSO could identically reduce the protein expression of SePP1, apoER, p-AMPK in the cytoplasm of HepG2 cells induced by Tm. This result not only proved the CLSO had therapeutic effect on NAFLD, but also confirmed its mechanism associated with degrading the phosphorylation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) which led to the decrease of the expression SePP1/apoER2 in order to reduce lipid accumulation. The study suggests CLSO has great medicinal value in treating NAFLD besides its edibility.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Antioxidantes , Coix/química , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Selenoproteína P/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Animais , Depressão Química , Masculino , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807346

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most common malignant tumors of gynecologic neoplasms in Western society. In recent years, the incidence of endometrial cancer has increased, and it has become the third most common female gynecological cancer (after ovarian and cervical cancer) in Taiwan. Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. Ma-yuen Stapf.) has been demonstrated to have bioactive polyphenols, flavonoids, phytosterols, and essential nutrients for health benefits, including anticancer effects in humans. However, little is known about the effect of adlay seeds on endometrial cancer. Our study aimed to investigate the potential growth inhibitory effects of several adlay seed fractions, including ethyl acetate (ATE-EA) and its bioactive constituents, separately on endometrial cancer cells-HEC-1A (phosphatase and tensin homolog-positive) and RL95-2 (phosphatase and tensin homolog-negative)-and identify related active ingredients. In addition, the potential active fractions and the phytochemical compounds were elucidated. The results demonstrate superior activity of ATE-EA with significant in vitro cell proliferation inhibitory capacity, particularly its C.D.E.F-subfraction. Moreover, HPLC- and GC/FID-based quantification of ATE-EA subfractions showed that phenolic compounds (caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid, and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde), flavonoids, steroids, and fatty acid compounds exert anti-proliferative effects in the cell model. Finally, it was shown that cell growth and cell cycle arrest most significantly occurred in the in G1 or G2/M phase under ATE-EA treatment. Collectively, our results demonstrate an antiproliferative effect of ATE-EA on endometrial cancer cells that suggest a positive health outcome for women from consumption of these compounds.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Coix/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Esteroides/farmacologia
12.
Food Chem ; 347: 128977, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497872

RESUMO

A multi-channel magnetic bead micro-probes assay (MBPA) based on indirect competitive principle was developed for high-throughput detection of zearalenone (ZEA) in edible and medicinal Coix seed. This strategy introduced magnetic beads as the carriers, the specific primary antibodies as the capture probes for targets and the secondary antibodies functionalized goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G labeled fluorescein isothiocyanate as the fluorescence signal probes. Through the competitive reaction of ZEA in Coix seed samples and that covalently coupled on the surface of MBs with their specific antibodies, as well as fast magnetic separation and sensitive fluorescence detection, the developed MBPA strategy allowed low limit of detection (2.03 ng/mL) with broad dynamic range (2.03-440.67 ng/mL), as well as excellent accuracy with the average recovery rate of 96.39% and relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.48% for ZEA. 36 samples could realize simultaneous analysis in one operation within less than 20 min only needing 50 µL of solution and 30 s of sampling, avoiding large consumption of time and organic solvents. Multiple centrifugation and cleanup steps were omitted because of magnetic separation, avoiding the loss of targets. Diverse capture and fluorescent probes can be randomly bound onto the surface of MBs, making the MBPA strategy a promising tool for on-site high-throughput monitoring of various trace hazard factors in food safety, and environmental monitoring.


Assuntos
Coix/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Zearalenona/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Imobilizados/química , Anticorpos Imobilizados/imunologia , Coix/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Separação Imunomagnética , Limite de Detecção , Camundongos , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Zearalenona/imunologia , Zearalenona/isolamento & purificação
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166220

RESUMO

Coix seed is an important food and traditional Chinese medicine in China and other Asian countries. Notably, coix seed is currently being used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, coix seeds are generally contaminated by mycotoxins, and this risk cannot be ignored. In this paper, we developed a method that involves direct extraction and UHPLC-HRMS analysis for the simultaneous detection of 24 mycotoxins in coix seeds. UHPLC-HRMS instrument and data acquisition parameters, and the sample pretreatment were optimised. One-step extraction showed several advantages compared to the three commercial solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, including ease of use, reduced time of sample preparation, low cost, good recovery, and acceptable matrix effect. The method validation results indicate that all mycotoxins have good linearity and sensitivity. Recoveries were between 74.2-101.1%, and RSD ranged from 0.1-5.8%. The LOQs for 24 mycotoxins were in the range of 0.5-100 µg/kg. To survey the contamination levels of these mycotoxins in commercial coix seeds, more than 70 samples were collected from Chinese markets and were analysed using the newly developed method. Zearalenone (positive ratio: 98.7%, range:1.1-1562 µg/kg), deoxynivalenol (positive ratio: 87%, range: 8.4-382.5 µg/kg), nivalenol (positive ratio: 85.7%, range: 26.8-828.2 µg/kg), fumonisin B1 (positive ratio: 84.4%, range:2.5-314.5 µg/kg), fumonisin B2 (positive ratio: 75.3%, range:1.6-72.8 µg/kg), fumonisin B3 (positive ratio: 48%, range:1.0-203.6 µg/kg), aflatoxin B1 (positive ratio: 29.9%, range: 0.39-14.7 µg/kg), sterigmatocystin (positive ratio: 29.9%, range: 1.4-51.6 µg/kg), and tenuazonic acid (positive ratio: 19.5%, range 36.1-105.7 µg/kg) were the most frequent mycotoxin contaminants. These results highlight the importance of routine monitoring and control of mycotoxins in coix seeds.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Coix/química , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/análise , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/toxicidade , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Sementes/química , Solventes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(6): 2319-2327, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Job's tears possess an exceptionally high amount of fat and the unsaponifiable fraction is a potential source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hydrothermal processing on squalene, α-tocopherol, and fatty acids in the whole-grain, milled fractions, and their storage stability. RESULTS: The highest level of squalene content was found in the bran fractions of native and processed Job's tears (11.54-12.75 mg 100 g-1 ). A remarkably high amount of α-tocopherol was also found in the bran (59.75 ± 0.47 mg 100 g-1 ) and germ (67.05 ± 0.94 mg 100 g-1 ) of the processed grain fractions. The storage stability evaluation of these bioactive compounds in the polished grains revealed no significant difference between 0 and 15 days of storage under elevated temprature of 37 °C and 92% relative humidity (accelarated storage conidition) and retained the bioactive compounds longer in the processed grains. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the processed Job's tears milled fractions with high bioactive compounds and improved shelf life can be used as food ingredients in product development. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Coix/química , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Esqualeno/análise , alfa-Tocoferol/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Sementes/química
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5860704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294448

RESUMO

At present, there is an increasing incidence and mortality of liver cancer. Despite surgery and chemoradiotherapy, there is a lack of effective oral medications with low side effects. In East Asia, Coicis Semen (CS) is used as both food and natural medicine and has a significant impact on the treatment of liver cancer. However, due to its multicomponent and multitarget characteristics, the mechanisms of CS against liver cancer remain unclear. This study collected CS compounds and target proteins in SymMap, then cross-matched with the liver cancer targets in the CTD database to construct an interaction network of CS-liver cancer proteins, and visualized by Cytoscape software. DAVID database was used to perform pathway enrichment analysis to find target proteins in core pathways and the related small molecules in CS. The results showed that a total of 103 common genes shared by CS and liver cancer were obtained, which were enriched for precancerous lesion pathways such as hepatitis B and fatty liver and biological signaling pathways such as HIF-1 and TNF. The combination of sitosterol and CASP3 in CS, acting on "pathways in cancer" and restoring normal cell apoptosis, could be the core mechanisms of CS in the treatment of liver cancer. Based on the system biology analysis, it is speculated that CS may not only participate in multiple mechanisms of action to treat liver cancer synergistically but may also be involved in factors that reduce the incidence of liver cancer.


Assuntos
Coix/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Sitosteroides/química , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Sitosteroides/uso terapêutico , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/uso terapêutico , Sorafenibe/química , Sorafenibe/farmacologia , Sorafenibe/uso terapêutico
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(1): 877-893, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease that causes long-term disability. However, its pathogenesis is unclear, and treatments for ischemic stroke are limited. Recent studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the pathological progression of ischemic stroke and that angiogenesis participates in recovery from ischemic stroke. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that Coicis Semen has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether Coicis Semen has a protective effect against ischemic stroke and the mechanism of this protective effect. RESULTS: Coicis Semen administration significantly decreased the infarct volume and mortality and alleviated neurological deficits at 3, 7 and 14 days after MCAO. In addition, cerebral edema at 3 days poststroke was ameliorated by Coicis Semen treatment. DHE staining showed that ROS levels in the vehicle group were increased at 3 days after reperfusion and then gradually declined, but Coicis Semen treatment reduced ROS levels. The levels of GSH and SOD in the brain were increased by Coicis Semen treatment, while MDA levels were reduced. Furthermore, Coicis Semen treatment decreased the extravasation of EB dye in MCAO mouse brains and elevated expression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and Occludin. Double immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis showed that the expression of angiogenesis markers and TGFß pathway-related proteins was increased by Coicis Semen administration. Consistent with the in vivo results, cytotoxicity assays showed that Coicis Semen substantially promoted HUVEC survival following OGD/RX in vitro. Additionally, though LY2109761 inhibited the activation of TGFß signaling in OGD/RX model animals, Coicis Semen cotreatment markedly reversed the downregulation of TGFß pathway-related proteins and increased VEGF levels. METHODS: Adult male wild-type C57BL/6J mice were used to develop a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) stroke model. Infarct size, neurological deficits and behavior were evaluated on days 3, 7 and 14 after staining. In addition, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were detected with a commercial kit. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability was assessed with Evans blue (EB) dye. Western blotting was also performed to measure the levels of tight junction proteins of the BBB. Additionally, ELISA was performed to measure the level of VEGF in the brain. The colocalization of CD31, angiogenesis markers, and Smad1/5 was assessed by double immunofluorescent staining. TGFß pathway-related proteins were measured by western blotting. Furthermore, the cell viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) following oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/RX) was measured by Cell Counting Kit (CCK)-8 assay. CONCLUSIONS: Coicis Semen treatment alleviates brain damage induced by ischemic stroke through inhibiting oxidative stress and promoting angiogenesis by activating the TGFß/ALK1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Coix , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Sementes , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Edema Encefálico , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad1/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad1/metabolismo , Proteína Smad5/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad5/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
17.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(6): 589-596, nov.-dic. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199247

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Wheat and cereal grains have a broad range of cross-reactivity, but the clinical relevance of this cross-reactivity is uncertain. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and in vitro cross-reactivity with barley, oat, and Job's tears among wheat-allergic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients aged 5 to 15 years with IgE-mediated wheat allergy were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to wheat, barley, and oat, and SPT to Job's tears were performed. Oral food challenge (OFC) was conducted if the SPT was ≤5 mm in size and there was no history of anaphylaxis to each grain. Profiles of sIgE bound allergens of wheat, barley, and oat, and inhibition ELISA of IgE binding to barley and oat with wheat were performed. RESULTS: Ten patients with a median age of 8 years were enrolled. Nine of those patients had a history of wheat anaphylaxis. The median SPT size and sIgE level to wheat was 7.3 mm and 146.5 kUA/l, respectively. The cross-reactivity rate for barley, oat, and Job's tears was 60.0%, 33.3%, and 20.0%, respectively. Significantly larger SPT size and higher sIgE level were observed in patients with positive cross-reactivity to barley and oat when compared to patients without cross-reactivity. Barley and oat extracts inhibited 59% and 16% of sIgE bound to wheat gliadins and glutenins, respectively. CONCLUSION: The cross-reactivity rate was quite low for oat and Job's tears compared to that of barley; therefore, avoidance of all cereal grains may be unnecessary in patients with severe wheat allergy


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/imunologia , Grão Comestível/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Análise de Variância , Fatores de Tempo , Coix/imunologia , Hordeum/imunologia , Avena/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia
18.
Drug Deliv ; 27(1): 1608-1624, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179521

RESUMO

The accumulation and penetration of antitumor drugs in tumor tissues are directly related to their antitumor effects. The particle size of the nanodrug delivery system is one of the most important factors for the accumulation and penetration of antitumor drugs within tumor tissues. Generally, nanodelivery systems of intermediate size (100-120 nm) are capable of efficient accumulation owing to prolonged circulation and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect; however, smaller ones (20-40 nm) are effective for deep penetration within tumor tissue. Currently a conventional drug delivery system cannot possess two types of optimal sizes, simultaneously. To solve this and to enhance cervical cancer treatment, a furin-responsive triterpenine-based liposomal complex (PEGcleavable Tf-CTM/L), with Tf-CTM (transferrin-modified tripterine-loaded coix seed oil microemulsion) in core, coated with a thermo-sensitive lipid and a kind of PEG shell modified with a furin-cleavable peptide was developed to improve tumor-specific accumulation and penetration. Herein, PEGcleavable Tf-CTM/L was capable of efficient accumulation because of EPR effect. The PEG shells could timely detach under stimulation of overexpressed furin protein to solve the problem of the steric hindrance dilemma. The small-sized Tf-CTM released under stimulation of tumor microthermal environment in cervical cancer, which was efficient with regards to deep penetration at tumor sites. Notably, compared to the use of triterpenine alone, PEGcleavable Tf-CTM/L promoted anticervical efficacy and displayed diminished systemic toxicity by efficient accumulation and deep penetration of antitumor drugs within tumor tissues. Our study provides a new strategy, and holds promising potential for anticervical cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Furina/metabolismo , Lipossomos/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Coix/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Transferrina/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 11(11): 9495-9502, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078805

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to explore the hepatoprotective potential of coix seed protein hydrolysates (CPP) against alcohol-induced liver injury, and investigate the underlying mechanisms. The hepatoprotective activity of CPP at 0, 10, 30, 50 mg per kg BW was demonstrated in vivo by using ICR male mice fed with 40% v/v alcohol (5 ml per kg body weight) daily to induce alcoholic liver injury. CPP could significantly improve the alcohol metabolism in liver as evidenced by the enhanced activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The overexpression of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-ß (IL-ß) by alcohol induced injury was altered by CPP administration. The lipid peroxidation was also retarded by CPP by suppressing malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increasing the activity of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD). The findings from the present study suggested that CPP produced significant hepatoprotection and showed potential to be used as a dietary supplement or the ingredient of functional food.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Coix , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Alimento Funcional , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Sementes
20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 840-872, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the zearalenone(ZEN) level in coix seed, and assess the risk of dietary exposure of ZEN in coix seed in Shanghai. METHODS: The ZEN contents of 147 coix seed samples collected in Shanghai were determined. The consumption data of 730 adults in Shanghai was collected by questionnaire survey with random sampling method. Dietary intake of ZEN from coix seed in Shanghai was simulated by Monte Carlo simulation. RESULTS: The total detection rate of ZEN in coix seed was 69. 39 %(102/147), with the content range of <1. 0-9361 µg/kg and the average value of 327. 7 µg/kg. The average exposure level of populations to ZEN in coix seed was 0. 0216 µg/(kg·d), which was much lower than the tolerable daily intake(TDI). The high exposure level(P95) of populations to ZEN in coix seed was 0. 0609 µg/(kg·d), which accounted for about 24% of TDI. There were about 1. 1% people with the dietary exposure to ZEN exceeding TDI on the basis of the ZEN contents in coix seed and consumption data of coix seed in Shanghai. CONCLUSION: The health risk of ZEN exposure of coix seed in Shanghai population is lower when taking coix seed regularly, and there are potential health risks when taking coix seed highly contaminated with ZEN at a higher dose for a long time.


Assuntos
Coix , Zearalenona , China , Exposição Dietética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sementes/química , Zearalenona/análise , Zearalenona/toxicidade
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