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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 551-556, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on gut microbiota. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty adults with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency [25(OH)D <30 ng/ml] were enrolled and given 600, 4,000 or 10,000 IUs/day of oral vitamin D3 Stool samples were collected at baseline and 8 weeks for identifying gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. RESULTS: Baseline serum 25(OH)D was associated with increased relative abundance of Akkermansia and decreased relative abundance of Porphyromonas (p<0.05). After the intervention, we observed a dose-dependent increase in relative abundance of Bacteroides with a significant difference between the 600 IUs and the 10,000 IUs groups (p=0.027), and Parabacteroides with a significant difference between the 600 IUs and the 4,000 IUs groups (p=0.039). CONCLUSION: Increased serum 25(OH)D was associated with increased beneficial bacteria and decreased pathogenic bacteria. A dose-dependent increase in bacteria associated with decreased inflammatory bowel disease activity was observed after vitamin D3 supplementation.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos
2.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 565-572, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: To assess the effectiveness of three UV emitting lamps on the cutaneous production of vitamin D3, a marker of DNA damage and nitric oxide production in human skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human skin samples (skin types II, III and IV) obtained from surgery were exposed to three different UV emitting lamps for varying times and then extracted and chromatographed to determine the vitamin D3 content. The skin samples exposed to the 3 UV emitting lamps were also evaluated for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a marker of DNA damage) and nitric oxide production. RESULTS: It was observed that the spectral output of the 3 lamps had different effects on the cutaneous production of vitamin D3, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and nitric oxide production. One lamp demonstrated optimal production of vitamin D3 with the least amount of DNA damage and intermediate production of nitric oxide suggesting that it could be developed into a device for treating vitamin D deficiency. CONCLUSION: The spectral output of the experimental UVB emitting lamps significantly influenced the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and nitric oxide.


Assuntos
/biossíntese , Colecalciferol/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Eritema/etiologia , Humanos
3.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 181(1): 56-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Phospholipases are enzymes that occur in many types of human cells, including mast cells, and play an important role in the molecular background of asthma pathogenesis, and the development of inflammation NF-κB activities that affect numerous biological processes has been reported in many inflammatory diseases including asthma. Vitamin D is a widely studied factor that affects many diseases, including asthma. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on regulation of chosen phospholipase-A2 (PLA2) expression-selected inflammation mediators. METHODS: LUVA mast cells were stimulated with 1,25(OH)2D3, and inhibitors of NF-κB p65 and ubiquitination. Expression analysis of phospholipases (PLA2G5, PLA2G10, PLA2G12, PLA2G15, PLA2G4A, PLA2G4B, PLA2G4C, PLAA, NF-κB p65, and UBC) was done utilizing real-time PCR and Western blot. Eicosanoid (LTC4, LXA4, 15[S]-HETE, and PGE2) levels and sPLA2 were also measured. RESULTS: We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased the expression of PLA2G5, PLA2G15, PLA2G5,UBC, and NF-κB p65 but increased expression of PLAA and PLA2G4C (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression of PLA2G5 and PLA2G15 decreased after inhibition of NF-κB p65 and UBC. Increased levels of released LXA4 and 15(S)-HETE, decreased levels of LTC4, and sPLA2s enzymatic activity in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 were also observed. Additionally, NF-κB p65 inhibition led to an increase in the LXA4 concentration. CONCLUSION: Future investigations will be needed to further clarify the role of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the context of asthma and the inflammatory process; however, these results confirm a variety of effects which can be caused by this vitamin. 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated action may result in the development of new therapeutic strategies for asthma treatment.


Assuntos
Asma/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mastócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Asma/genética , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Lipoxinas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Fosfolipases A2/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitinação
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115337, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590880

RESUMO

A gel delivery system was developed in the present work using whey protein isolate and lotus root amylopectin via regulating pH. The texture, thermodynamics, rheology and microstructure of gels were evaluated. Results showed that pH at 7.0 induced a more compact and stable gel structure than other pH. The composite gel formed at pH 7.0 was accordingly employed to encapsulate vitamin D3. Results exhibited that the encapsulation of composite gel of whey protein isolate and lotus root amylopectin could enhance the storage stability of vitamin D3 and protect vitamin D3 from photochemical degradation. Moreover, this encapsulation could control the release of vitamin D3 in simulated intestinal fluid. Animal experiments exhibited that the bioavailability was significantly increased after vitamin D3 was encapsulated by the composite gel. This work indicated that the whey protein isolate-lotus root amylopectin gel is a good delivery system to improve the stability and bioavailability of vitamin D3.


Assuntos
Amilopectina/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Amilopectina/química , Amilopectina/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Colecalciferol/química , Colecalciferol/farmacocinética , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Géis , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lotus , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Raízes de Plantas , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/farmacocinética , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacocinética
5.
Gene ; 723: 144133, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the neurodevelopmental and cognitive conditions that involves 1 in 160 children around the world. Several studies showed that there is a relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms with the neurodevelopmental behavioral disorders. In the current study, we aimed to highlight the association of VDR gene polymorphisms (FokI and TaqI) with the risk of autism in Birjand population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this case-control study eighty-one patients recognized with ASD and one hundred-eight healthy controls were recruited to the study from 2017 to 2018. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique for all subjects. RESULTS: Calculated odds ratio and P-value for the alleles of VDR gene FokI and TaqI variants between autistic patients and controls did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05). However, calculated homozygous recessive (tt) for TaqI polymorphism was statistically significant (P = 0.015) in control group and there was also statistically meaningful difference in both case and control groups in ft haplotype (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: These results provide preliminary evidence that genetic variants of the VDR gene (FokI and TaqI) might have a possible reduced risk of ASD occurrence in children. The additional examination is needed to acquire more decisive and precise results in this area.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colecalciferol/sangue , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino
6.
Food Chem ; 303: 125416, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472385

RESUMO

Calcium and vitamin D3 were co-encapsulated in three types of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) double emulsions stabilized with biopolymers: gum arabic, sodium alginate (Alg) and chitosan (Ch). Three calcium salts with different solubility were used: calcium carbonate (CaC), tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and calcium gluconate (CaG). In order to study the bioavailability of calcium and vitamin D3, the W/O/W double emulsions were subjected to digestion in simulated conditions using in vitro gastrointestinal models. The size of the oil droplets of all double emulsions increased in oral phase and decreased in gastric and intestinal phases. In the intestinal phase, the average diameter of oil globules in the W/O/W(Alg) and W/O/W(Ch) was d23 = 6.56 ±â€¯0.09 and d23 = 5.33 ±â€¯0.01 and the electro-kinetic potential was: ζ ≈ -25 mV and ζ ≈ -17 mV, respectively. Presence of calcium ions in the intestinal fluid decreased the free fatty acids content and decreased the bioaccessibility of vitamin D3 due to the inhibition of micellization process.


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Colecalciferol/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cálcio/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Digestão , Composição de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Solubilidade , Água/química
7.
N Engl J Med ; 381(26): 2529-2540, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a common, potentially reversible contributor to morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. The potential benefits of vitamin D supplementation in acute critical illness require further study. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of early vitamin D3 supplementation in critically ill, vitamin D-deficient patients who were at high risk for death. Randomization occurred within 12 hours after the decision to admit the patient to an intensive care unit. Eligible patients received a single enteral dose of 540,000 IU of vitamin D3 or matched placebo. The primary end point was 90-day all-cause, all-location mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1360 patients were found to be vitamin D-deficient during point-of-care screening and underwent randomization. Of these patients, 1078 had baseline vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D level, <20 ng per milliliter [50 nmol per liter]) confirmed by subsequent testing and were included in the primary analysis population. The mean day 3 level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 46.9±23.2 ng per milliliter (117±58 nmol per liter) in the vitamin D group and 11.4±5.6 ng per milliliter (28±14 nmol per liter) in the placebo group (difference, 35.5 ng per milliliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31.5 to 39.6). The 90-day mortality was 23.5% in the vitamin D group (125 of 531 patients) and 20.6% in the placebo group (109 of 528 patients) (difference, 2.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.1 to 7.9; P = 0.26). There were no clinically important differences between the groups with respect to secondary clinical, physiological, or safety end points. The severity of vitamin D deficiency at baseline did not affect the association between the treatment assignment and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Early administration of high-dose enteral vitamin D3 did not provide an advantage over placebo with respect to 90-day mortality or other, nonfatal outcomes among critically ill, vitamin D-deficient patients. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; VIOLET ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03096314.).


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal/terapia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Falha de Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
8.
Indian J Dent Res ; 30(5): 722-730, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854363

RESUMO

Introduction: The number of women with osteoporosis i.e. with reduced bone mass and disruption of bone architecture, is increasing in India due to severe deficiency of Vitamin D. It has been reported throughout the country in urban and rural post-menopausal women. Vitamin D synthesis is affected by geographical location, atmospheric pollution, clothing, melanin pigmentation and sunlight exposure. Moreover, ageing is also associated with decreased vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D deficiency is the most underdiagnosed medical condition in postmenopausal woman. Objective: Therefore, this study was planned to estimate and to evaluate alveolar bone mass using radio morphometric indices in postmenopausal women and its correlation with serum vitamin D3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a study comprising of a study group of 60 post-menopausal women, divided into 2 sub-groups, each group comprising of 30 individuals, depending on their occupation and domicile. Blood samples were taken to evaluate serum vitamin D3 level. Also, panoramic radiographs of all the study subjects were recorded for evaluation of 3 radio morphometric indices viz. mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), and panoramic mandibular index (PMI). Results: Statistical analysis revealed higher significant values in rural than in urban postmenopausal woman. Conclusions: A high overall prevalence (90%) of vitamin D deficiency was also observed in the study subjects.


Assuntos
Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa , Densidade Óssea , Colecalciferol , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Mandíbula , Pós-Menopausa , Radiografia Panorâmica
9.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 55, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on skeletal muscle strength in athletes. Vitamin D3 supplements or vitamin D3 fortified foods always have claims for bringing people health benefits including bone and muscle health. An up-to-date rigorous systematic review and meta-analysis is important to better understand the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on muscle strength. METHODS: English written randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that looked at effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on muscle strength in healthy athletes were searched using three databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library). Serum 25(OH)D above 30 ng/mL is considered to be sufficient in this systematic review and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Five RCTs with 163 athletes (vitamin D3 n = 86, placebo n = 77) met inclusion criteria. Fourteen athletes were lost to follow-up and 149 athletes (vitamin D3 n = 80, placebo n = 69) were documented with complete result. Among athletes with baseline serum 25(OH)D values suggesting insufficiency, vitamin D3 daily dosage at 5000 IU for over 4 weeks led to a serum 25(OH)D concentration of 31.7 ng/mL. Athletes with sufficient serum 25(OH)D level at baseline were recruited in only one study, and the participants of which were assigned to either vitamin D3 at a daily dosage of 3570 IU or placebo for 12 weeks, their serum 25(OH)D sufficiency (VD: 37.2 ± 7.6 vs. 45.6 ± 7.6; PL: 38 ± 6.8 vs. 32 ± 8.4) was well maintained above the cut-off boundary. One repetition maximum Bench Press (1-RM BP) was not improved significantly (SMD 0.07, 95% CI: - 0.32 to 0.47, P = 0.72) and there was no significant increase in maximal quadriceps contraction (SMD -2.14, 95% CI: - 4.87 to 0.59, P = 0.12). Furthermore, there was no significant overall effect of vitamin D3 intervention on muscle strength in this meta-analysis (SMD -0.75, 95% CI: - 1.82 to 0.32, P = 0.17). CONCLUSION: Although, serum 25(OH)D concentrations after supplementation reached sufficiency was observed, muscle strength did not significantly improve at this point of current meta-analysis. Additional well-designed RCTs with large number of participants examined for the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on serum 25(OH)D concentrations, muscle strength in a variety of sports, latitudes and diverse multicultural populations are needed.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Força Muscular , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
10.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 47(280): 128-133, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760394

RESUMO

As a long-term multisystem disorder, chronic heart failure (CHF) can gravely affect on bone metabolism, prompting a severe bone loss and increasing predisposition to fractures and the development of osteoporosis. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate whether in patients with CHF a therapy combining calcium and vitamin D3 supplement (Calcemin Advance) and calcitonin (Miacalcic) can help to prevent and treat osteopenia and osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in 59 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) complicated with chronic heart failure. RESULTS: Our results suggest that following the standard treatment protocol of CHD complicated with CHF resulted in significant BMD loss in the lumbar vertebrae, approaching the level of osteopenia. After taking a calcium and vitamin D3 supplement, patients with this heart disorder had significant increase of BMD in the lumbar vertebrae and in the femoral bone. Patients with CHD complicated with CHF and diagnosed osteoporosis taking Calcemin Advance did not experience osteoprotection outcome, rather their BMD continued to decrease. However, combined therapy with Miacalcic and Calcemin Advance was effective in significantly increasing L1, L2 - L4 BMD in these patients. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated effectiveness of using a calcium and vitamin D3 supplement, for patients with CHD complicated with CHF and diagnosed osteopenia. Patients with CHD complicated by CHF and diagnosed osteoporosis did not experience osteoprotective action when using Calcemin Advance. However, in these patients L1 lumbar vertebra BMD significantly increased after the combined therapy.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Colecalciferol , Doença das Coronárias , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Calcitonina , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares
11.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 120(7): 532-535, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602990

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between urinary megalin, renal function, blood pressure, lipid profile, vitamin D and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: . This was a cross-sectional study which recruited 209 patients with T2DM. Urinary megalin was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r=0.218, p=0.04) but negatively with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r=-0.16, p=0.023). The levels of urinary albumin, triglycerides (TGs) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were higher in the "high-megalin" group, compared to those in "low-megalin" group. Moreover, there was a significant inverse association between vitamin D3 levels and megalin levels in urine (OR=0.281, p=0.047). CONCLUSION: Our study showed for the first time that megalin is associated with progression factors of diabetic nephropathy as well as vitamin D deficiency (Tab. 3, Fig. 1, Ref. 15).


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Proteína-2 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/análise , Albuminúria , Colecalciferol/urina , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Hemoglobina A Glicada/urina , Humanos , Triglicerídeos/urina , Deficiência de Vitamina D
12.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3213-3221, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589344

RESUMO

Vitamin D3 was encapsulated in 10% wt soybean oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions stabilized by either nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) or whey protein isolate (WPI) at 0.3%, 0.5%, and 0.7% w/w. The vitamin D3 -enriched emulsions were tested for their stability against temperature (30 °C to 90 °C), pH (2 to 8), and ionic strength (0 to 500 mM NaCl). The mean particle diameter (d32 ), ζ-potential, and creaming stability of the oil droplets in the emulsions were measured, as well as their vitamin D3 encapsulation efficiency (EE). After preparation, the oil droplet size (d32 ) of the emulsions stabilized by NFC increased with increasing emulsifier concentration, whereas the droplet size of emulsions stabilized by WPI decreased. NFC provided good stability to the emulsions through a combination of steric and electrostatic repulsion. The EE of vitamin D3 increased with increasing emulsifier concentration. Heating or ionic strength did not significantly (P < 0.05) affect the emulsions properties and EE. On the other hand, the NFC-stabilized emulsions were sensitive to highly acidic conditions (pH 2), with an increase in particle size and decrease in EE. The WPI-stabilized emulsions aggregated around the isoelectric point of the adsorbed proteins (pI ≈ 4.8). Increasing NFC or WPI concentration improved the stability and EE of the emulsions against environmental stresses. NFC-stabilized emulsions had good long-term stability. The results show that NFC can be used as an effective emulsifier for creating vitamin-enriched emulsions with good stability. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study can be used to develop more effective encapsulation technologies for fat-soluble vitamins in emulsion-based food products. Encapsulation using nanofibrillated cellulose effectively protected the encapsulated vitamins against environmental stresses which occur in industrial food production (such as pH changes, salt addition, and thermal processing). Moreover, nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from mangosteen rind is a nature-derived emulsifier that is environmental friendly.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Colecalciferol/química , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/química , Garcinia mangostana/química , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsificantes/química , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Eletricidade Estática , Temperatura Ambiente , Água/química
13.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1205-1212, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184646

RESUMO

Introduction: much evidence confirms that vitamin D may be associated with an improvement in CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected individuals, where antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used and associated with decreased 25(OH)D levels. Objective: to carry out a systematic review on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on HIV-infected adult patients. Methods: the research was conducted in the databases Science Direct, PubMed, BVS, Scielo Cochrane and Periods, from February to April 2018, with publication limit from 2000 to 2018, without restriction of gender, ethnicity and involving individuals with age older than 18 years. To evaluate the quality of the studies, we used the protocol Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) and the Jadad scale. Results: the search initially resulted in 198 articles. After the selection process 5 articles were identified as eligible, where they highlight that vitamin D supplementation may be an associated and effective intervention to reduce hypovitaminosis. ART reduces vitamin D3 levels and changes its metabolism, being associated with the risk of mortality. However, adequate levels of 25(OH)D are positively associated with the number of CD4 + cells and the reduction of infection levels. Conclusion: vitamin D supplementation promotes immune recovery. However, the cases analysed were few, insufficient to fully confirm the benefits and recommend supplementation. Therefore, intervention studies are needed to elucidate the role of vitamin D in human protection against HIV infections


Introducción: muchas evidencias ratifican que la vitamina D puede estar asociada con la mejora de los niveles de células CD4 en individuos infectados por el VIH, tratados con terapia antirretroviral (ART) que se asocia a la disminución de los niveles de 25(OH)D. Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática sobre el efecto de la suplementación de vitamina D en pacientes adultos infectados con VIH. Métodos: la investigación fue realizada en las bases de datos Science Direct, PubMed, BVS, Scielo Cochrane y periódicos, de febrero a abril de 2018, con límite de publicación de 2000 a 2018, sin restricción de género, etnicidad y que involucra a individuos con edad mayores de 18 años. Para la evaluación de la calidad de los estudios, se utilizó el protocolo Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews y Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) y la escala de Jadad. Resultados: la encuesta inicialmente resultó en 198 artículos. Después del proceso de selección, 5 artículos fueron identificados como elegibles, donde ponen de manifiesto que la suplementación con vitamina D puede ser una intervención asociada y eficaz para reducir la hipovitaminosis. La ART reduce niveles de la vitamina D3 y altera su metabolismo, estando asociada al riesgo de mortalidad. Sin embargo, los niveles adecuados de 25(OH)D están asociados positivamente al número de células CD4 + y la reducción de los niveles de infecciones. Conclusión: la suplementación de vitamina D promueve la recuperación inmunológica. Sin embargo, los casos analizados fueron pocos, insuficientes para confirmar totalmente los beneficios y recomendar la suplementación. Por lo tanto, estudios de intervención son necesarios para elucidar la actuación de la vitamina D en la protección humana contra las infecciones por el VIH


Assuntos
Humanos , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Reconstituição Imune
14.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190133, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508781

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease (CD) is an important public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Aging and obesity are important matters in patients with CD, as is hypovitaminosis D3, which can decrease the quality of life of these patients. Immunomodulation mediated by vitamin D3, especially the production of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin LL-37, might be related to the severity and symptoms of CD. This study aimed to determine the serum levels of vitamin D and LL-37 and VDR gene polymorphisms in patients with chronic CD. METHODS: This study included male patients with cardiac and indeterminate clinical forms of CD. Clinical, anthropometric, and blood parameters were obtained. Serum levels of 25(OH)D3 and LL-37 were determined by chemiluminescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Fok (rs731236), Bsm (rs1544410), Apa (rs7975232), and Taq (rs731236) polymorphisms of the VDR gene were investigated by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Sixty-four patients were included in the study: 18 of the cardiac form and 46 of the indeterminate form. No differences in age, ethnicity, BMI, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or dyslipidemias were observed between groups. However, the serum levels of 25(OH)D3, but not of LL-37, were lower in the cardiac form group. The association among polymorphisms, vitamin D, and clinical form was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased levels of vitamin D suggest an association with the cardiac form of CD. Studies investigating the roles of vitamin D and LL-37 in the immune response and their associations with VDR polymorphisms and disease susceptibility are necessary.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/sangue , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/genética , Colecalciferol/sangue , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124469, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549635

RESUMO

High exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) in children has been associated with the outcomes of several diseases, including those related to developmental problems. To elucidate the mechanism of BPA mediated developmental toxicity, plasma and urine from rats exposed to BPA was analyzed with high resolution metabolomics, beginning from post-natal day 9, for 91 days. Female and male rats were orally administered 5 different BPA doses to elucidate dose- and sex-specific BPA effects. Regarding dose-specific effects, multivariate statistical analysis showed that metabolic shifts were considerably altered between 5, 50 and 250 mg BPA/kg bw/day in treated rats. A nonmonotonicity and monotonicity between BPA dose and metabolic response were major trajectories, showing overall metabolic changes in plasma and urine, respectively. Metabolic perturbation in the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway was significantly associated with dose- and sex-specific BPA effects. Intermediate metabolites in the rate-limiting step of steroid hormone biosynthesis down-regulated steroid hormones in the 250 mg treatment. Further, our study identified that BPA increased urinary excretion of vitamin D3 and decreased its concentration in blood, suggesting that perturbation of vitamin D3 metabolism may be mechanistically associated with neurodevelopmental disorders caused by BPA. Three metabolites showed a decrease in sex difference with high BPA dose because female rats were more affected than males, which can be related with early puberty onset in female. In brief, the results demonstrated that BPA induces dose- and sex-specific metabolic shifts and that perturbation of metabolism can explain developmental problems.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Esteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Ratos , Caracteres Sexuais
16.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(9): 1224-1228, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489858

RESUMO

Objective: To study the relationship between vitamin D and thyroid antibodies with thyroid benign-malign neoplasms. Materials and Methods: The vitamin D vitamin and thyroid antibodies of 179 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid nodule were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The mean age of the patients was 44.97 ± 14.139. Vitamin D levels were 14.473 ± 4.9999 ng/ml in women and 19.584 ± 6.1981 ng/ml in men and the mean was 15.016 ± 5.3579 ng/ml. There was a significant relationship between sex and vitamin D level (P < 0, 05). Antithyroglobulin antibody (anti-TGB) had been detected in 95 patients and Antithyroid peroxidase antibody (anti TPO) in 58 patients. There was no significant relationship between vitamin D levels (P: 0, 65), anti-TPO positivity (P: 0, 86), and anti-TGB (P: 0, 12) with benign-malignant neoplasm of thyroid. There was no relationship between vitamin D and metastatic disease (P: 0, 30) as well. In addition, no association was found between malignancy and metastasis (P = 0.068, P = 0.14, P: 0, P = 0, respectively) with thyroid antibody positivity (anti TPO and/or anti TGB) in severe deficiency (<10 ng/ml) and deficiency (<20 ng/ml) of vitamin D. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency or thyroid autoantibodies did not have any significant effect on thyroid malignancies or metastatic disease separately or together.


Assuntos
Adenoma Oxífilo/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Colecalciferol/sangue , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Adenoma Oxífilo/cirurgia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/cirurgia , Tireoidectomia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
17.
Transplant Proc ; 51(7): 2324-2329, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402249

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In this study, we evaluated the relationship between serum homocysteine level and proteinuria, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and bone mineral density in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 117 stable KTR older than 18 years was followed in our outpatient clinic. Demographic data were recorded. Simultaneously biochemical parameters, including glucose, blood urea nitrogenous, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, albumin, parathormone, vitamin D3, homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate, and 24-hour urine protein, and bone mineral density of the femoral neck and spine by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were measured. RESULTS: DEXA measurements were normal, osteoporotic, and osteopenic (12.3%, 36.3%, and 51.3%, respectively). There was a relationship between the serum homocysteine and usage of rapamycin (P = .05), statins (P = .057), and beta blockers (P = .01), DEXA measurements were not related with serum homocysteine levels and immunosuppressive drugs used. Serum homocysteine levels correlated negatively with blood urea nitrogen (P = .002), creatinine (P = .001), vitamin B12 (P < .001), and a positively daily proteinuria (rho = 0.203, P = .031). There was a negative relationship between proteinuria and serum level of vitamin D. CONCLUSIONS: The bone mineral density decreased in more than 87% of our KTR. We did not find any relationship between DEXA measurements and levels of homocysteine, vitamin D, parathormone, and immunosuppressive drugs. It should be noted that some drugs used may affect serum homocysteine levels. Interestingly, there was a relationship between proteinuria and serum levels of homocysteine and vitamin D. Therefore, serum levels of homocysteine and vitamin D should be evaluated for preventing renal damage in KTR.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Homocisteína/sangue , Transplante de Rim , Absorciometria de Fóton , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Proteinúria
18.
BMJ ; 366: l4673, 2019 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether vitamin D supplementation is associated with lower mortality in adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register from their inception to 26 December 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials comparing vitamin D supplementation with a placebo or no treatment for mortality were included. Independent data extraction was conducted and study quality assessed. A meta-analysis was carried out by using fixed effects and random effects models to calculate risk ratio of death in the group receiving vitamin D supplementation and the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality. RESULTS: 52 trials with a total of 75 454 participants were identified. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with all cause mortality (risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.02, I2=0%), cardiovascular mortality (0.98, 0.88 to 1.08, 0%), or non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality (1.05, 0.93 to 1.18, 0%). Vitamin D supplementation statistically significantly reduced the risk of cancer death (0.84, 0.74 to 0.95, 0%). In subgroup analyses, all cause mortality was significantly lower in trials with vitamin D3 supplementation than in trials with vitamin D2 supplementation (P for interaction=0.04); neither vitamin D3 nor vitamin D2 was associated with a statistically significant reduction in all cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation alone was not associated with all cause mortality in adults compared with placebo or no treatment. Vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of cancer death by 16%. Additional large clinical studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation is associated with lower all cause mortality. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration number CRD42018117823.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Mortalidade , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 158(3-4): 138-140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416321

RESUMO

Vitamin D is a lipophilic vitamin possessing a myriad of physiologic functions, including hormonal, in human body. It participates in calcium homeostasis and influences cells differentiation via genome. In the context of the broad research aimed at mapping its physiological effects in the human body it is obvious that it significantly interferes with the whole range of physiological and pathological conditions. This text briefly discusses its contribution to gynecology.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Vitaminas , Colecalciferol , Feminino , Ginecologia , Humanos , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
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