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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(4): 1453-1462, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We explored the effect of winter cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) supplementation on innate immune markers in healthy Danish children (55°N). METHODS: In the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, ODIN Junior, 119 healthy, white, 4-8 year-olds were randomized to 0 (placebo), 10 or 20 µg/day of vitamin D3 for 20 weeks (October-March). Cheek mucosal swabs, blood samples, and questionnaires on acute respiratory infections the previous month were collected at baseline and endpoint. Innate immune markers were measured as secondary outcomes including in vivo oral mucosal gene expression of calprotectin (S100A9), lipocalin-2 (LCN2), beta-defensin-4 (DEFB4), interleukin-8 (IL-8), viperin (RSAD2), and the cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide (CAMP); ex vivo whole-blood lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cathelicidin, IL-8, and IL-6; and plasma cathelicidin, together with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. RESULTS: Serum 25(OH)D was 56.7 ± 12.3 nmol/L at baseline and 31.1 ± 7.5, 61.8 ± 10.6, and 75.8 ± 11.5 nmol/L at endpoint after placebo, 10 and 20 µg/day of vitamin D3 (P < 0.0001), respectively. A decreased oral mucosal S100A9 expression with placebo [- 18 (95% CI - 1; - 32)%] was marginally avoided with 20 µg/day [6 (- 13; 28)%] (P = 0.06). Likewise, a decreased LPS-induced IL-8 with placebo [- 438 (95% CI - 693; - 184) ng/L] was marginally avoided with 20 µg/day [- 109 (- 374; 157) ng/L] (P = 0.07). All other immune markers and respiratory infection episodes were unaffected by vitamin D3 supplementation (all P > 0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Winter vitamin D3 supplementation of 10 µg/day did not affect innate immune markers, whereas 20 µg/day tended to maintain the capacity to produce a few markers in healthy children.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/imunologia , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colecalciferol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/imunologia
2.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 67(11): 1709-1718, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132083

RESUMO

Vitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) deficiency impairs rituximab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and the outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas (DLBCL). Since the optimum 25-OH-D3 serum levels for NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) are unknown, we determined the 25-OH-D3 serum levels associated with maximum NK cell-mediated ADCC. CD20 antibody-loaded CD20+ B-cell lymphoma cell lines were cultured with NK cells and ADCC activity was determined by lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Using a newly developed formula, pre-defined 25-OH-D3 serum levels were achieved with high individual precision over a wide range. NK cells from 20 healthy individuals killed antibody-treated CD20+ lymphoma cells in a concentration- and E:T ratio-dependent manner with obinutuzumab displaying a stronger ADCC activity than rituximab. Maximum NK-cell activity and ADCC were observed at 65 ng/ml 25-OH-D3, the middle of the normal range (30-100 ng/ml). 25-OH-D3 serum levels around this range should be the target in interventional trials aiming at improving NK cell-mediated ADCC by 25-OH-D3 substitution. Lower levels do not provide significant ADCC improvements in individuals with 25-OH-D3 deficiency or insufficiency and might result in the failure of interventions with 25-OH-D3.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos/imunologia , Colecalciferol/sangue , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/imunologia , Rituximab/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/sangue , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 189(3): 359-371, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28470739

RESUMO

Persistent inflammatory response in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways is believed to play a central role in the progression of lung damage. Anti-inflammatory treatment may slow lung disease progression, but adverse side effects have limited its use. Vitamin D has immunoregulatory properties. We randomized 16 CF patients to receive vitamin D2, vitamin D3 or to serve as controls, and investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on soluble immunological parameters, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and T cell activation. Three months of vitamin D treatment were followed by two washout months. Vitamin D status at baseline was correlated negatively with haptoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and immunoglobulin A concentration. Total vitamin D dose per kg bodyweight correlated with the down-modulation of the co-stimulatory receptor CD86 on mDCs. Vitamin D treatment was associated with reduced CD279 (PD-1) expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, as well as decreased frequency of CD8+ T cells co-expressing the activation markers CD38 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) in a dose-dependent manner. There was a trend towards decreased mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) cell frequency in patients receiving vitamin D and free serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (free-s25OHD) correlated positively with CD38 expression by these cells. At the end of intervention, the change in free-s25OHD was correlated negatively with the change in CD279 (PD-1) expression on MAIT cells. Collectively, these data indicate that vitamin D has robust pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects in CF. Larger studies are needed to explore the immunomodulatory treatment potential of vitamin D in CF in more detail.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Cística/imunologia , Ergocalciferóis/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/genética , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Adolescente , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Criança , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ergocalciferóis/administração & dosagem , Ergocalciferóis/imunologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Haptoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
4.
Scand J Immunol ; 85(6): 386-394, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332200

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of idiopathic, chronic and relapsing inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by an aberrant and exaggerated immunological response in the gut. Supplementation of vitamin D3 in patients with IBD exerts both direct and indirect regulatory roles on the naïve T cells, thereby maintaining a balance between inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines. The direct actions of vitamin D3 on naïve T cells result in the proliferation of more regulatory T cells and inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10 and IL-5. The binding of vitamin D to dendritic cells (DCs) through vitamin D receptors inhibits the action of IL-12 on DCs, resulting in the downregulation of Th1 and Th17. On the other hand, this interaction favours Th2 and Treg upregulation and facilitates the maintenance of immune homoeostasis between inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines which is essentially significant in the management of patients with IBD. The aim of this review was to explore the current and mounting scientific evidence on the roles of vitamin D3 in immunoregulation of inflammatory and inhibitory cytokines in patients with IBDs. An extensive literature search was conducted using keywords such as Vitamin D3*, IBD*, inflammatory cytokines*, inhibitory cytokines*, naïve-T-cells* and antigen presenting cells* through PubMed, SCOPUS and MEDLINE search engines. The results of the accumulated bodies of research that have been conducted demonstrate that vitamin D3 plays a major role not only in the immunoregulation of cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of IBDs but also in many other inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/imunologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
5.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 77(3)2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045211

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Increasing evidence demonstrates that inflammatory cytokines are involved in LPS-induced adverse pregnant outcomes including early embryo loss. Vitamin D3 (VitD3) has anti-inflammatory activity. We aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D3 (VitD3) on LPS-induced early embryo loss in mice. METHOD OF STUDY: All pregnant mice except controls were intraperitoneally (ip) injected with LPS on GD7. In VitD3 alone and LPS+VitD3 groups, pregnant mice were pretreated with VitD3 by gavage daily from GD5 to GD7. RESULTS: LPS caused 62.5% pregnant mice with early embryo loss. Interestingly, the rate of abortion dropped to 14.3% when pregnant mice were pretreated with VitD3. Additional experiment showed that VitD3 significantly attenuated LPS-evoked elevation on TNF-α, IFN-γ, MIP-2, and nitrate plus nitrite in maternal serum. In addition, VitD3 alleviated LPS-induced COX-2 expression in the decidua and attenuated the elevation of PGF2α in maternal serum. Although VitD3 had no effect on IL-10 in maternal serum, it induced further elevation of serum IL-10 level in LPS-treated mice. Further analysis showed that VitD3 activated VDR signaling, simultaneously inhibited LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunits in the decidua. CONCLUSIONS: VitD3 protects mice from LPS-induced early embryo loss at least partially through its anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/imunologia , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Perda do Embrião/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/imunologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Decídua/metabolismo , Dinoprosta/sangue , Perda do Embrião/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Gravidez
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 5(1): 23-31, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28065340

RESUMO

Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) relies on high doses of allergens to treat patients with type I allergies. Although SLIT is commonly performed without any adjuvant or delivery system, allergen(s) could be further formulated with allergen-presentation platforms to better target oral dendritic cells eliciting regulatory immune responses. Improving the availability of allergens to the immune system should enhance SLIT efficacy, while allowing to decrease allergen dosing. Herein, we present an overview of adjuvants and vector systems that have been, or could be, considered as candidate allergen-presentation platforms for the sublingual route. Such platforms encompass adjuvants capable of stimulating allergen-specific TH1 and/or regulatory CD4+ T-cell responses, including 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3, glucocorticoids, Toll-like receptor ligands as well as selected bacterial probiotic strains. A limiting factor for SLIT efficacy is the number of dendritic cells capturing the allergens in the upper layers of oral tissues. Thus, adsorption or encapsulation of the allergen(s) within mucoadhesive particulate vector (or delivery) systems also has the potential to significantly enhance SLIT efficacy due to a facilitated allergen uptake by tolerogenic oral dendritic cells.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Boca/imunologia , Imunoterapia Sublingual/métodos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Colecalciferol/análogos & derivados , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/imunologia , Humanos , Probióticos/metabolismo , Imunoterapia Sublingual/tendências , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
8.
J Craniofac Surg ; 27(2): 469-76, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26845098

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical effect on the biochemical inflammatory markers of a single oral high dose of cholecalciferol in vitamin D-deficient patients undergoing the surgical removal of lower third molars.A randomized, split-mouth, single-blind study was conducted on 25 vitamin D-deficient patients ranging between 18 and 40 years of age requiring lower third molars extraction and referred at the Oral Surgery Unit of the School of Dentistry of the University of Messina.All patients, with vitamin D3 blood levels ≦30 ng/mL, underwent bilateral surgical removal. The first extraction (control group) being conducted with the administration of a placebo, the second one (test group) being conducted with the preliminary administration of 300,000 IU of cholecalciferol 4 days before the procedure.At each surgery, clinical indexes, such as pain, edema and any functional limitation have been recorded. Clinical and biochemical parameters were registered 4 days before, immediately after, 3 and 7 days after the surgical procedure. The data obtained were processed using paired t-test. The clinical outcome parameters showed a slight to moderate improvement between the control and the vitamin-D treatment group, with statistical significance being obtained regarding the edema at defined time points. Interleukin-1-beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha values were significantly lower (P < 0.01) for the test group after the surgery. The increase of vitamin D serum levels showed an impact on the outcome of the third molar surgery, eliciting a reduced inflammatory response and leading to a more favorable clinical course.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Extração Dentária/métodos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Colecalciferol/deficiência , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interleucina-1/análise , Interleucina-6/análise , Masculino , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Placebos , Método Simples-Cego , Dente Impactado/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Trismo/prevenção & controle , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Sports Sci ; 34(1): 67-74, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25861808

RESUMO

Heavy training is associated with increased respiratory infection risk and antimicrobial proteins are important in defence against oral and respiratory tract infections. We examined the effect of 14 weeks of vitamin D3 supplementation (5000 IU/day) on the resting plasma cathelicidin concentration and the salivary secretion rates of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cathelicidin, lactoferrin and lysozyme in athletes during a winter training period. Blood and saliva were obtained at the start of the study from 39 healthy men who were randomly allocated to vitamin D3 supplement or placebo. Blood samples were also collected at the end of the study; saliva samples were collected after 7 and 14 weeks. Plasma total 25(OH)D concentration increased by 130% in the vitamin D3 group and decreased by 43% in the placebo group (both P = 0.001). The percentage change of plasma cathelicidin concentration in the vitamin D3 group was higher than in the placebo group (P = 0.025). Only in the vitamin D3 group, the saliva SIgA and cathelicidin secretion rates increased over time (both P = 0.03). A daily 5000 IU vitamin D3 supplement has a beneficial effect in up-regulating the expression of SIgA and cathelicidin in athletes during a winter training period, which could improve resistance to respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/sangue , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Educação Física e Treinamento , Saliva/metabolismo , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Lactoferrina/metabolismo , Masculino , Muramidase/metabolismo , Taxa Secretória , Vitaminas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Scand J Immunol ; 83(2): 83-91, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26678915

RESUMO

In the past, vitamin D was known for its classical, skeletal action as a regulator of calcium and bone homoeostasis. Currently, vitamin D was found to have a role in numerous physiological processes in the human body; thus, vitamin D has pleiotropic activity. The studies carried out in the past two decades showed the role of vitamin D in the regulation of immune system functions. Basically, these effects may be mediated not only via endocrine mechanism of circulating calcitriol but also via paracrine one (based on cell-cell communication that leads to production of signal inducing the changes in nearby/adjacent cells and modulating their differentiation or behaviour) and intracrine mechanism (the action of vitamin D inside a cell) of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) synthetized from its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3 ). Both vitamin D receptor (VDR) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1-α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) are expressed in several types of immune cells (i.e. antigen presenting cells, T and B cells), and thus, they are able to synthetize the bioactive form of vitamin D that modulates both the innate and adaptive immune system. This review discusses the role of vitamin D as regulator of immune system, and our understanding of how vitamin D regulates both adaptive and innate immunity as well as inflammatory cascade on the cellular level.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/imunologia , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , 25-Hidroxivitamina D3 1-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/biossíntese , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Calcifediol/imunologia , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Calcitriol/imunologia , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
J Immunol ; 195(5): 2141-8, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26232426

RESUMO

Cross-talk between mature dendritic cells (mDC) and NK cells through the cell surface receptors NKp30 and DNAM-1 leads to their reciprocal activation. However, the impact of regulatory dendritic cells (regDC) on NK cell function remains unknown. As regDC constrain the immune response in different physiological and pathological conditions, the aim of this work was to investigate the functional outcome of the interaction between regDC and NK cells and the associated underlying mechanisms. RegDC generated from monocyte-derived DC treated either with LPS and dexamethasone, vitamin D3, or vitamin D3 and dexamethasone instructed NK cells to secrete lower amounts of IFN-γ than NK cells exposed to mDC. Although regDC triggered upregulation of the activation markers CD69 and CD25 on NK cells, they did not induce upregulation of CD56 as mDC, and silenced IFN-γ secretion through mechanisms involving insufficient secretion of IL-18, but not IL-12 or IL-15 and/or induction of NK cell apoptosis. Blocking experiments demonstrated that regDC curb IFN-γ secretion by NK cells through a dominant suppressive mechanism involving IL-10, NK cell inhibitory receptors, and, unexpectedly, engagement of the activating receptor NKp46. Our findings unveil a previously unrecognized cross-talk through which regDC shape NK cell function toward an alternative activated phenotype unable to secrete IFN-γ, highlighting the plasticity of NK cells in response to tolerogenic stimuli. In addition, our findings contribute to identify a novel inhibitory role for NKp46 in the control of NK cell function, and have broad implications in the resolution of inflammatory responses and evasion of antitumor responses.


Assuntos
Receptores Coestimuladores e Inibidores de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptor 1 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/imunologia , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Receptores Coestimuladores e Inibidores de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Dexametasona/imunologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Glucocorticoides/imunologia , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor 1 Desencadeador da Citotoxicidade Natural/metabolismo , Receptor Cross-Talk/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Cross-Talk/imunologia , Vitaminas/imunologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
13.
Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig ; 23(3): 71-8, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26057218

RESUMO

The action of vitamin D3, in its biological form 1α,25(OH)2vitD3 or calcitriol, may be summarized as a steroid-like hormone able to modulate basic functions of cell encompassing energy balance, stress response, mitochondria biogenesis, intracellular calcium oscillations, and replication/apoptosis mechanisms leading to cell survival. Moreover, calcitriol exerts a potent role as an innate and adaptive immune cytokine as immunity is closely related to self-maintenance through its energetic/metabolic balance and homeostasis of cell turnover. Therefore, vitamin D might be the ancestral form of survival hormones developed with calcified vertebrate bearing skeleton in order to survive far from water. This characteristic may suggest that the role of dietary vitamin D in preventing cancer is simply ancillary to the many factors playing a major role in contrasting impairment in energy balance and cell survival. Most probably, the immune role of calcitriol might be included in the maintenance, mostly by adipose tissue, of an anti-inflammatory, tolerant immune status, depending on the immune tolerance and modulation from the gut. A balance closely modulated by the leptin axis, which when impairments in metabolism occur, such as in insulin resistance or obesity, calcitriol is unable to face at this imbalance, while leptin plays a major role and cancer progression may be promoted. Furthermore, this mechanism promotes epithelial/mesenchymal transition-mediated fibrosis, leading to cancer resistance to immune control and drug action. Interestingly, this pathologic picture is triggered by deficiency in vitamin D from the diet. Therefore, a dietary habit including vitamin D sources, besides flavonoids, may ameliorate lifestyle and health span in most individuals, depending on their genetic background.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/terapia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Hormônios/imunologia , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Avaliação Nutricional , Vitaminas/imunologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo
14.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(6): 957-9, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26867337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the preventive effects of thymosin-alpha1 against early ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in the patients with mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Fifty two patients with expectancy of mechanical ventilation over 48 h were divided into routine therapy group (n=26) and thymosin therapy group (n= 26) in random. The patients in routine therapy group were given intensive care unit (ICU) conventional treatment, and the patients in thymosin therapy group were given thymosin treatment additionally (1.6 mg subcutaneous injection, qd X 7 d). The incidence and occurrence time of VAP were observed, and the time of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay were recorded. The levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+ /CD8+ T lymphocyte, CD14+ mononuclear cell human leukocyte antigens-DR (CD14+ HLA-DR) and procalcitonin (PCT) were detected before mechanical ventilation and at the 3d and 7th d after mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The base line including the level of immunologic function had no difference between the two groups (P>0.05). The incidence of VAP in thymosin therapy group was lower than that in routine therapy group, but it was not significant difference (P>0.05). The durations of machine ventilation and ICU stay in thymosin therapy group were shorter than those in routine therapy group (P<0.05). The occurrence time of VAP in thymosin therapy group was significantly later than that in routine therapy group (P<0.05). At the 3rd and 7th d after mechanical ventilation, thymosin therapy group achived higher levels of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+ /CD8+ T lymphocyte and CD14+ HLA-DR than routine therapy group did (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Thymosinal may be able to improve immunologic function and prevent the incidence of early VAP in the patients with mechanical ventilation.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/prevenção & controle , Respiração Artificial , Timosina/análogos & derivados , Calcitonina/sangue , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina , Colecalciferol/análogos & derivados , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Antígenos HLA-DR/sangue , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Timalfasina , Timosina/uso terapêutico
15.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 147: 17-23, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25448747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preventive measures and a causal therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) remain elusive. An imbalance between different dendritic cells (DC) with increased immunogenic DC and decreased tolerogenic DC (tDC) may lead to T1D. Furthermore, 25(OH)D3 is associated with less adverse effects than 1,25(OH)2D3. PURPOSE: The present study was performed to clarify the remaining issues about the cellular effects of 25(OH)D3 in patients with T1D and the role of genetic polymorphisms of the vitamin D3 (VD3) metabolism on a functional cellular level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with T1D were case-matched to twelve healthy controls (HC). Monocytes (MC) were either not supplemented or supplemented with 25(OH)D3 in vitro and phenotyped with fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In vitro synthesis and plasma levels of 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 were analyzed as well as twelve gene polymorphisms of the VD3 metabolism. RESULTS: 25(OH)D3 significantly inhibited differentiation of MC into DC and led to an increase of intermediate cells (IC), which show a similar phenotype as tDC. The patient with a recent onset of T1D showed a higher increase in MC and IC compared to patients with long-standing T1D. There were significant differences for the increase of IC with supplementation of 25(OH)D3 between different genotypes within the polymorphisms of VDR-BsmI-rs1544410, VDR-TaqI-rs731236 and CYP24A1-rs927650. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that 25(OH)D3 shows immunomodulatory effects on a cellular level in patients with T1D and HC by inhibiting the differentiation of MC into DC and promoting the formation of IC, which are similar to tDC, thereby shifting immunity to self-tolerance. The potency of 25(OH)D3 did not differ between patients with T1D and HC. Increased plasma levels of 25(OH)D3 may inhibit a proinflammatory cell milieu. Despite of the limited patient number, this study generates the hypothesis that the immunmodulatory effects may be influenced by genotypes of the VDR and CYP24A1 illustrating their functional role in T1D susceptibility, which is worth further investigation.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Adolescente , Adulto , Desdiferenciação Celular , Colecalciferol/sangue , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/citologia , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Vitamina D3 24-Hidroxilase/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Inflammopharmacology ; 22(2): 95-103, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24374976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low serum vitamin D levels may provoke or aggravate Crohn's disease (CrD). Vitamin D3 is a well-known immune modulator that affects immune functions in vitro and may prevent CrD flares. Dendritic cells (DC) are key mediators of vitamin D3 effects. In this study, we describe changes in monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC) maturation marker expression and cytokine production following 26 weeks of oral vitamin D3 supplementation in CrD patients. METHODS: Ten CrD patients who had increased serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels after oral vitamin D3 and calcium treatment and ten seasonally matched placebo-treated patients were selected for this study. Mo-DC were generated before and after the 26 weeks and induced to mature upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Maturation marker expression and cytokine production were analysed. Mo-DC function was analysed in a mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR). RESULTS: Compared with baseline values, LPS-matured mo-DC exhibited reduced expression of CD80 and reduced production of the cytokines IL-10, IL-1ß, and IL-6 following 26 weeks of oral vitamin D3 supplementation. Mo-DC performance in an allogeneic MLR was unchanged after vitamin D3 supplementation. Treatment with the placebo did not affect maturation markers, cytokine production, or the MLR. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D3 treatment in CrD patients led to hypo-responsive LPS-stimulated mo-DC. This finding indicates that vitamin D3 levels have an impact on the monocytic precursors of mo-DC in vivo and may explain the positive effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on CrD patients. Alternatively, CrD patients with high serum vitamin D3 levels may represent a subgroup with low disease activity.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 15(5): R114, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24025795

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic vaccination with antigen-specific tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDC) might become a future option of individualized therapy for patients with autoimmune diseases. In this study, we tested the possibility of generating monocyte-derived tolDC from patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). We analyzed phenotype, cytokine production and ability to suppress Ro/La-specific immune responses. METHODS: Monocyte-derived tolDC from patients with pSS were generated in the presence of dexamethasone, vitamin D3 and lipopolysaccharide (DexVD3 DC). The phenotype was analyzed by flow cytometry and the cytokine profile was investigated using a 25-plex Luminex assay and ELISA. The capacity to both stimulate Ro/La-specific T cells and suppress this response was evaluated by autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). RESULTS: DC generated from patients with pSS had a similar phenotype and cytokine profile to those from healthy controls. DexVD3 DC from pSS patients induced little antigen-specific T cell proliferation, but DexVD3 DC-primed lymphocytes successfully suppressed Ro/La-specific T cell responses. CONCLUSIONS: DexVD3 DC presenting Ro/La antigens might be a promising new therapeutic option for patients with pSS.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Dexametasona/imunologia , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Teste de Cultura Mista de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/imunologia , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Síndrome de Sjogren/sangue , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Vitaminas/imunologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
18.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 11(4): 217-28, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23745619

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and vitamin D3 deficiency are two highly prevalent pathologic conditions worldwide that share several cardiometabolic risk factors. In addition to its traditional calcium-related effects on the skeleton, vitamin D3 deficiency has now been recognized to exert nonskeletal adverse effects on several other organ systems. Accumulating epidemiological evidence suggests that low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 are associated with the presence and severity of NAFLD, independently of several potential confounders, including features of the metabolic syndrome. The molecular mechanisms of this association remain incompletely understood. A variety of biologically plausible mechanisms may mediate a hepato-protective role for the active metabolite of vitamin D3. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates the insulin signaling pathway/insulin resistance, suppresses fibroblast proliferation and collagen production, exerts anticoagulant and profibrinolytic effects, and modulates macrophage activity and inflammatory cytokine generation. Overall, the high prevalence of vitamin D3 deficiency and the plausible biological mechanisms linking this to NAFLD suggest that treatment of vitamin D3 deficiency to prevent and/or treat NAFLD is a promising field to explore. Large placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials are urgently needed to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation could have any potential benefit in reducing the development and progression of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/sangue , Fígado Gorduroso/sangue , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Bile/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/biossíntese , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
19.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 5: 247-60, 2013 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23277049

RESUMO

Vitamin D3 is a key regulator of vertebrates homeostasis. It is synthesized from the precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol upon UVB exposure in the skin and then hydrolyzed in the liver in position 25, to be finally converted into its active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D or calcitriol), in the kidneys. The biological activity of this molecule depends on its binding to the nuclear receptor VDR, which binds VDRE once complexed with RXR-alpha. Despite being present in different types of food, the best way to assume it at physiological levels remains the exposure to UVB radiation at certain hours of the day and at particular angles of the Earth's crust. There is plenty of evidence that altered levels of vitamin D3 are associated with pathological conditions, such as osteoporosis, cancer, immunological and infectious diseases. In this review, we discuss vitamin D3 metabolism, its role in several diseases and the link between vitamin D3 and immune cells.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/metabolismo , Animais , Colecalciferol/imunologia , Humanos , Infecções/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Osteoporose/metabolismo , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo
20.
Inflammopharmacology ; 21(2): 177-86, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23341164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Crohn's disease (CrD), vitamin D may help to balance an exaggerated immune response and thereby improve the disease course. The immunomodulating effects depend on the activation of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-D3), into 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25-D3). This activation has previously been shown to take place in dendritic cells (DC) from healthy individuals. We hypothesised that DC from CrD patients are able to regulate and control inflammatory responses through 25-D3 activation. METHODS: During differentiation, monocyte-derived DC from 20 CrD patients were cultured with either 25-D3 or 1,25-D3 and matured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined DC surface marker expression, cytokine production, and the ability to induce cell proliferation in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. RESULTS: Following stimulation with LPS, DC exposed to either 25-D3 or 1,25-D3 exhibited lower expression levels of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR and diminished TNF-α production compared with DC cultured with LPS alone. In contrast, CD14 expression and IL-6 production were higher following 25-D3 or 1,25-D3 treatment. Compared with LPS alone, both forms of vitamin D3 reduced the ability of DC to activate lymphocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Following stimulation with 25-D3, DC from CrD patients displayed a reduced response to LPS with a diminished capability to activate T cells compared with DC stimulated with LPS alone. These data indicate that intrinsic activation of 25-D3 occurs in DC from CrD patients and show that 25-D3 can modulate DC function in CrD. Our data suggest that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the uncontrolled inflammatory process seen in CrD.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Doença de Crohn/sangue , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
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