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1.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 102: 103486, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473265

RESUMO

The complement system is a crucial component of the innate immune system that links innate and adaptive immunity. CL-11, a protein similar to Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), plays significant role in the innate immune system in mammals and fish, serving as an initiator of the lectin pathway of complement activation. In this study, a CL-11 homolog (TfCol-11) was identified in roughskin sculpin (Trachidermus fasciatus), and its expression and role in immune responses were characterized. The open reading frame of TfCol-11 is 795 bp long, encoding a 264 amino acid polypeptide. The deduced amino acid sequence of this protein is highly homologous to sequences in other teleosts, and is similar to vertebrate CL-11, containing a canonical collagen-like region, a carbohydrate recognition domain, and a neck region. Recombinant TfCol-11 purified from Escherichia coli(E.coli) was able to bind to different microbes in a Ca2+-independent manner. Meanwhile, a 993 bp-long of partial MASP cDNA with a 96 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) was also cloned from roughskin sculpin, containing 299 amino acids and consisting of three domains (CUB-EGF-CUB). qRT-PCR indicated that TfCol-11 and MASP mRNAs were predominately co-expressed in the liver. The temporal expression of TfCol-11 and MASP were both drastically up-regulated in the liver, skin, and blood by LPS challenge. Recombinant TfCol-11 purified from E.coli BL21(DE3) was able to agglutinate some bacteria in a Ca2+-dependent manner. In addition, an in vitro pull-down experiment demonstrated that TfCol-11 was able to bind to MASP, and in vivo experiments showed that TfCol-11 was associated with increased membrane attack complex (MAC) levels. It is therefore possible that TfCol-11 may plays a role in activating the complement system and in the defense against invading microorganisms in roughskin sculpin.


Assuntos
Colectinas/metabolismo , Ativação do Complemento , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Perciformes/imunologia , Testes de Aglutinação , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Colectinas/química , Colectinas/genética , Complexo de Ataque à Membrana do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/química , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/genética , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Alinhamento de Sequência , Distribuição Tecidual
2.
J Biol Chem ; 294(45): 17155-17165, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562242

RESUMO

Bovine conglutinin is an immune protein that is involved in host resistance to microbes and parasites and interacts with complement component iC3b, agglutinates erythrocytes, and neutralizes influenza A virus. Here, we determined the high-resolution (0.97-1.46 Å) crystal structures with and without bound ligand of a recombinant fragment of conglutinin's C-terminal carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). The structures disclosed that the high-affinity ligand N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) binds in the collectin CRD calcium site by interacting with the O3' and O4' hydroxyls alongside additional specific interactions of the N-acetyl group oxygen and nitrogen with Lys-343 and Asp-320, respectively. These residues, unique to conglutinin and differing both in sequence and in location from those in other collectins, result in specific, high-affinity binding for GlcNAc. The binding pocket flanking residue Val-339, unlike the equivalent Arg-343 in the homologous human surfactant protein D, is sufficiently small to allow conglutinin Lys-343 access to the bound ligand, whereas Asp-320 lies in an extended loop proximal to the ligand-binding site and bounded at both ends by conserved residues that coordinate to both calcium and ligand. This loop becomes ordered on ligand binding. The electron density revealed both α and ß anomers of GlcNAc, consistent with the added α/ßGlcNAc mixture. Crystals soaked with α1-2 mannobiose, a putative component of iC3b, reported to bind to conglutinin, failed to reveal bound ligand, suggesting a requirement for presentation of mannobiose as part of an extended physiological ligand. These results reveal a highly specific GlcNAc-binding pocket in conglutinin and a novel collectin mode of carbohydrate recognition.


Assuntos
Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Colectinas/química , Colectinas/metabolismo , Soroglobulinas/química , Soroglobulinas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Bovinos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
3.
J Innate Immun ; 11(1): 13-28, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30293076

RESUMO

Innate recognition of viruses is an essential part of the immune response to viral pathogens. This is integral to the maintenance of healthy lungs, which are free from infection and efficient at gaseous exchange. An important component of innate immunity for identifying viruses is the family of C-type collagen-containing lectins, also known as collectins. These secreted, soluble proteins are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which recognise pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), including viral glycoproteins. These innate immune proteins are composed of trimerized units which oligomerise into higher-order structures and facilitate the clearance of viral pathogens through multiple mechanisms. Similarly, many viral surface proteins form trimeric configurations, despite not showing primary protein sequence similarities across the virus classes and families to which they belong. In this review, we discuss the role of the lung collectins, i.e., surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) in viral recognition. We focus particularly on the structural similarity and complementarity of these trimeric collectins with the trimeric viral fusion proteins with which, we hypothesise, they have elegantly co-evolved. Recombinant versions of these innate immune proteins may have therapeutic potential in a range of infectious and inflammatory lung diseases including anti-viral therapeutics.


Assuntos
Colectinas , Imunidade Inata , Proteína A Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia , Animais , Colectinas/química , Colectinas/imunologia , Humanos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pneumopatias/virologia , Multimerização Proteica , Proteína A Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/química , Proteína A Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/imunologia , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/química , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/imunologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/química , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/química , Vírus/imunologia
4.
Viruses ; 11(1)2018 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587835

RESUMO

Since the largest 2014⁻2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, understanding of Ebola virus infection has improved, notably the involvement of innate immune mediators. Amongst them, collectins are important players in the antiviral innate immune defense. A screening of Ebola glycoprotein (GP)-collectins interactions revealed the specific interaction of human surfactant protein D (hSP-D), a lectin expressed in lung and liver, two compartments where Ebola was found in vivo. Further analyses have demonstrated an involvement of hSP-D in the enhancement of virus infection in several in vitro models. Similar effects were observed for porcine SP-D (pSP-D). In addition, both hSP-D and pSP-D interacted with Reston virus (RESTV) GP and enhanced pseudoviral infection in pulmonary cells. Thus, our study reveals a novel partner of Ebola GP that may participate to enhance viral spread.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/química , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colectinas/química , Ebolavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Ligação Proteica , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/genética , Suínos , Células Vero , Proteínas Virais/química
5.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2238, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323815

RESUMO

Collectin-11 (CL-11) is a pattern recognition molecule of the lectin pathway of complement with diverse functions spanning from host defense to embryonic development. CL-11 is found in the circulation in heterocomplexes with the homologous collectin-10 (CL-10). Abnormal CL-11 plasma levels are associated with the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation, urinary schistosomiasis, and congenital disorders. Although there has been a marked development in the characterization of CL-11 there is still a scarcity of clinical tools for its analysis. Thus, we generated monoclonal antibodies and developed a quantitative ELISA to measure CL-11 in the circulation. The antibodies were screened against recombinant CL-11 and validated by ELISA and immunoprecipitation of serum and plasma. The best candidates were pairwise compared to develop a quantitative ELISA. The assay was validated regarding its sensitivity, reproducibility, and dilution linearity, demonstrating a satisfactory variability over a working range of 0.29-18.75 ng/ml. The mean plasma concentration of CL-11 in healthy controls was determined to be 289.4 ng/ml (range 143.2-459.4 ng/ml), highly correlated to the levels of CL/10/11 complexes (r = 0.729). Plasma CL-11 and CL-10/11 co-migrated in size exclusion chromatography as two major complexes of ~400 and >600 kDa. Furthermore, we observed a significant decrease at admission in CL-11 plasma levels in patients admitted to intensive care with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. By using the in-house antibodies and recombinant CL-11, we found that CL-11 can bind to zymosan independently of calcium by a separate site from the carbohydrate-binding region. Finally, we showed that CL-11/MASP-2 complexes trigger C4b deposition on zymosan. In conclusion, we have developed a specific and sensitive ELISA to investigate the ever-expanding roles of CL-11 in health and disease and shown a novel interaction between CL-11 and zymosan.


Assuntos
Colectinas/sangue , Colectinas/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Células CHO , Cromatografia em Gel , Colectinas/imunologia , Colectinas/metabolismo , Complemento C4/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Congelamento , Humanos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Zimosan/química
6.
Semin Immunopathol ; 40(1): 75-85, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28894916

RESUMO

Pattern recognition molecules are sensors for the innate immune system and trigger a number of pathophysiological functions after interaction with the corresponding ligands on microorganisms or altered mammalian cells. Of those pattern recognition molecules used by the complement system, collagen-like lectins (collectins) are an important subcomponent. Whereas the best known of these collectins, mannose-binding lectin, largely occurs as a circulating protein following production by hepatocytes, the most recently described collectins exhibit strong local biosynthesis. This local production and release of soluble collectin molecules appear to serve local tissue functions at extravascular sites, including a developmental function. In this article, we focus on the characteristics of collectin-11 (CL-11 or CL-K1), whose ubiquitous expression and multiple activities likely reflect a wide biological relevance. Collectin-11 appears to behave as an acute phase protein whose production associated with metabolic and physical stress results in locally targeted inflammation and tissue cell death. Early results indicate the importance of fucosylated ligand marking the injured cells targeted by collectin-11, and we suggest that further characterisation of this and related ligands will lead to better understanding of pathophysiological significance and exploitation for clinical benefit.


Assuntos
Colectinas/química , Colectinas/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/metabolismo , Animais , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Immunobiology ; 221(10): 1058-67, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27377710

RESUMO

Both the complement system and collectins play important roles in our innate immune system. The collectins, which are characterized by their inclusion of a collagen-like region and a calcium-dependent carbohydrate recognition domain, are pattern recognition molecules and include the well characterized proteins mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and the surfactant proteins SP-A/-D. Collectin liver 1 (CL-L1), collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) and collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) are the most recently discovered collectins. Although their function is still under investigation, accumulating information suggests that CL-L1, CL-K1 and CL-P1 play important roles in host defense by recognizing a variety of microorganisms and interacting with effector proteins, including complement components. The recent establishment of the existence of CL-K1 in the circulation in form of heteromeric complexes with CL-L1 (known as CL-LK) and its activation of the lectin pathway via MASPs, drew new attention in the complement biology, which was further strengthened by the observed interactions between CL-P1 and CRP-C1q-factor H or properdin. Deficiency of either CL-K1 or MASP-3 has been demonstrated in 3MC syndrome patients with developmental abnormalities, showing that lectin pathway components, regulation and/or activation are essential during the embryonic development; another feature that they most likely share CL-P1. Herein, we discuss the recent characteristics and roles of the collectins CL-L1, CL-K1 and CL-P1 in the complement system, in innate immunity and their possible association with disease development and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Colectinas/fisiologia , Ativação do Complemento , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Colectinas/química , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ligantes , Família Multigênica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1860(6): 1118-28, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26922829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a plasma pentraxin family protein that is massively induced as part of the innate immune response to infection and tissue injury. CRP and other pentraxin proteins can activate a complement pathway through C1q, collectins, or on microbe surfaces. It has been found that a lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1), which is an endothelial scavenger receptor (SR) having a C-type lectin-like domain, interacts with CRP to activate the complement pathway using C1q. However it remains elusive whether other lectins or SRs are involved in CRP-mediated complement activation and the downstream effect of the complement activation is also unknown. METHODS: We prepared CHO/ldlA7 cells expressing collectin placenta-1 (CL-P1) and studied the interaction of CRP with cells. We further used ELISA for testing binding between proteins. We tested for C3 fragment deposition and terminal complement complex (TCC) formation on HEK293 cells expressing CL-P1. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrated that CL-P1 bound CRP in a charge dependent manner and the interaction of CRP with CL-P1 mediated a classical complement activation pathway through C1q and additionally drove an amplification pathway using properdin. However, CRP also recruits complement factor H (CFH) on CL-P1 expressing cell surfaces, to inhibit the formation of a terminal complement complex in normal complement serum conditions. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: The interaction of collectin CL-P1 with CFH might be key for preventing attack on "self" as a result of complement activation induced by the CL-P1 and CRP interaction.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/química , Colectinas/química , Ativação do Complemento , Receptores Depuradores/química , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/fisiologia , Células CHO , Colectinas/fisiologia , Fator H do Complemento/química , Cricetulus , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptores Depuradores/fisiologia
9.
BMC Biol ; 13: 27, 2015 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25912189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collectin-K1 (CL-K1, or CL-11) is a multifunctional Ca(2+)-dependent lectin with roles in innate immunity, apoptosis and embryogenesis. It binds to carbohydrates on pathogens to activate the lectin pathway of complement and together with its associated serine protease MASP-3 serves as a guidance cue for neural crest development. High serum levels are associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation, where spontaneous clotting can lead to multiple organ failure. Autosomal mutations in the CL-K1 or MASP-3 genes cause a developmental disorder called 3MC (Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech and Michels) syndrome, characterised by facial, genital, renal and limb abnormalities. One of these mutations (Gly(204)Ser in the CL-K1 gene) is associated with undetectable levels of protein in the serum of affected individuals. RESULTS: In this study, we show that CL-K1 primarily targets a subset of high-mannose oligosaccharides present on both self- and non-self structures, and provide the structural basis for its ligand specificity. We also demonstrate that three disease-associated mutations prevent secretion of CL-K1 from mammalian cells, accounting for the protein deficiency observed in patients. Interestingly, none of the mutations prevent folding or oligomerization of recombinant fragments containing the mutations in vitro. Instead, they prevent Ca(2+) binding by the carbohydrate-recognition domains of CL-K1. We propose that failure to bind Ca(2+) during biosynthesis leads to structural defects that prevent secretion of CL-K1, thus providing a molecular explanation of the genetic disorder. CONCLUSIONS: We have established the sugar specificity of CL-K1 and demonstrated that it targets high-mannose oligosaccharides on self- and non-self structures via an extended binding site which recognises the terminal two mannose residues of the carbohydrate ligand. We have also shown that mutations associated with a rare developmental disorder called 3MC syndrome prevent the secretion of CL-K1, probably as a result of structural defects caused by disruption of Ca(2+) binding during biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Carboidratos/química , Colectinas/genética , Colectinas/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Animais , Células CHO , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bovinos , Colectinas/química , Ativação do Complemento , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cristalografia por Raios X , Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Ratos , Síndrome
10.
Anim Biotechnol ; 26(1): 29-36, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25153452

RESUMO

Conglutinin, a soluble pattern recognition receptor of innate immune system in bovines is known for its potential defensive activity against microorganisms either by direct agglutination in the presence of calcium or by acting as opsonin. In the present study, sheep (Ovis aries) conglutinin encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (rSCGN) was expressed in the E coli BL21 expression host. The recombinant conglutinin revealed molecular weight of 27 kDa in SDS PAGE and also in western blotting using antibuffalo conglutinin polyclonal serum. The protein was characterized further for its functional activity in various assays. In ELISA based sugar and LPS binding assay, the rSCGN revealed its high binding activity toward N-acetyl glucosamine and E. coli LPS in the presence and the absence of calcium ions, respectively. Hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells caused by Newcastle disease virus was not inhibited in the presence of rSCGN as it lacked complete collagenous region present in the native protein. In virus neutralization test, the recombinant protein was found to reduce multiplication of bovine herpes virus-1 propagated in MDBK cells. This prokaryotically expressed 27 kDa recombinant sheep conglutinin can serve as antigen in future studies to develop sandwich ELISA for assessing the level of native conglutinin in sheep serum.


Assuntos
Colectinas/química , Colectinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Soroglobulinas/química , Soroglobulinas/metabolismo , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Colectinas/genética , Colectinas/imunologia , Eritrócitos/virologia , Escherichia coli , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Soroglobulinas/genética , Soroglobulinas/imunologia , Carneiro Doméstico
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2014: 389150, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25028649

RESUMO

Conglutinin, a collagenous C-type lectin, acts as soluble pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in recognition of pathogens. In the present study, genes encoding neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD) of conglutinin in goat and blackbuck were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The obtained 488 bp ORFs encoding NCRD were submitted to NCBI with accession numbers KC505182 and KC505183. Both nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences were analysed with sequences of other ruminants retrieved from NCBI GenBank using DNAstar and Megalign5.2 software. Sequence analysis revealed maximum similarity of blackbuck sequence with wild ruminants like nilgai and buffalo, whereas goat sequence displayed maximum similarity with sheep sequence at both nucleotide and amino acid level. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated clear divergence of wild ruminants from the domestic ruminants in separate clusters. The predicted secondary structures of NCRD protein in goat and blackbuck using SWISSMODEL ProtParam online software were found to possess 6 beta-sheets and 3 alpha-helices which are identical to the result obtained in case of sheep, cattle, buffalo, and nilgai. However, quaternary structure in goat, sheep, and cattle was found to differ from that of buffalo, nilgai, and blackbuck, suggesting a probable variation in the efficiency of antimicrobial activity among wild and domestic ruminants.


Assuntos
Antílopes/genética , Colectinas/genética , Cabras/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Filogenia , Soroglobulinas/genética , Animais , Búfalos/genética , Bovinos , Colectinas/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Soroglobulinas/química , Ovinos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Immunol ; 191(12): 6117-27, 2013 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24174618

RESUMO

The complement system is an important part of the innate immune system. The complement cascade may be initiated downstream of the lectin activation pathway upon binding of mannan-binding lectin, ficolins, or collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1, alias CL-11) to suitable microbial patterns consisting of carbohydrates or acetylated molecules. During purification and characterization of native CL-K1 from plasma, we observed that collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) was copurified. Based on deglycosylation and nonreduced/reduced two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, we detected CL-K1 and CL-L1 in disulfide bridge-stabilized complexes. Heteromeric complex formation in plasma was further shown by ELISA and transient coexpression. Judging from the migration pattern on two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, the majority of plasma CL-K1 was found in complex with CL-L1. The ratio of this complex was in favor of CL-K1, suggesting that a heteromeric subunit is composed of one CL-L1 and two CL-K1 polypeptide chains. We found that the complex bound to mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases (MASPs) with affinities in the nM range in vitro and was associated with both MASP-1/-3 and MASP-2 in plasma. Upon binding to mannan or DNA in the presence of MASP-2, the CL-L1-CL-K1 complex mediated deposition of C4b. In favor of large oligomers, the activity of the complex was partly determined by the oligomeric size, which may be influenced by an alternatively spliced variant of CL-K1. The activity of the native heteromeric complexes was superior to that of recombinant CL-K1. We conclude that CL-K1 exists in circulation in the form of heteromeric complexes with CL-L1 that interact with MASPs and can mediate complement activation.


Assuntos
Colectinas/sangue , Complemento C4b/metabolismo , Lectina de Ligação a Manose da Via do Complemento , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/fisiologia , Processamento Alternativo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Colectinas/química , Colectinas/isolamento & purificação , Colectinas/fisiologia , DNA/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mananas/imunologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Peso Molecular , Complexos Multiproteicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
13.
Immunobiology ; 217(9): 851-63, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22475410

RESUMO

The collectins are a group of innate immune proteins structurally characterized by their content of a carbohydrate recognition domain and a collagen-like region. Collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) and collectin 11 (CL-11, alias collectin kidney 1, CL-K1) are the more recently described members of this group. Their genomic organization and protein structure reveal many similarities. However, CL-11 is a serum protein, whereas CL-L1 appears to be restricted to the cytosol of cells such as hepatocytes. Specificity analyses of the CRDs reveal some differences in their preferences for saccharides: CL-11 binds most avidly to l-fucose and d-mannose, whereas CL-L1 shows preference for d-mannose, d-fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, and surprisingly also d-galactose. CL-11 binds to various microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Influenza A virus. Polymorphisms in the CL-11 gene (COLEC11) leading to deficiencies have recently been identified as causative for 3MC syndrome. The 3MC syndrome is associated with a wide spectrum of developmental features including facial dysmorphism, cognitive impairment, hearing loss and vesicorenal anomalies. Similar polymorphic associations were reported for the mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease 3 (MASP-3), and falls into line with the observation that CL-11 is found in circulating complexes with MASP-1/3. These findings suggest dual or overlapping functions of CL-11 in innate immunity and in fetal development.


Assuntos
Colectinas/química , Colectinas/metabolismo , Animais , Carboidratos , Colectinas/genética , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Substâncias Macromoleculares , Serina Proteases Associadas a Proteína de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Síndrome
14.
J Biol Chem ; 287(19): 15837-50, 2012 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22396535

RESUMO

Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor (PILR) α is an inhibitory receptor that recognizes several ligands, including mouse CD99, PILR-associating neural protein, and Herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein B. The physiological function(s) of interactions between PILRα and its cellular ligands are not well understood, as are the molecular determinants of PILRα/ligand interactions. To address these uncertainties, we sought to identify additional PILRα ligands and further define the molecular basis for PILRα/ligand interactions. Here, we identify two novel PILRα binding partners, neuronal differentiation and proliferation factor-1 (NPDC1), and collectin-12 (COLEC12). We find that sialylated O-glycans on these novel PILRα ligands, and on known PILRα ligands, are compulsory for PILRα binding. Sialylation-dependent ligand recognition is also a property of SIGLEC1, a member of the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins. SIGLEC1 Ig domain shares ∼22% sequence identity with PILRα, an identity that includes a conserved arginine localized to position 97 in mouse and human SIGLEC1, position 133 in mouse PILRα and position 126 in human PILRα. We observe that PILRα/ligand interactions require conserved PILRα Arg-133 (mouse) and Arg-126 (human), in correspondence with a previously reported requirement for SIGLEC1 Arg-197 in SIGLEC1/ligand interactions. Homology modeling identifies striking similarities between PILRα and SIGLEC1 ligand binding pockets as well as at least one set of distinctive interactions in the galactoxyl-binding site. Binding studies suggest that PILRα recognizes a complex ligand domain involving both sialic acid and protein motif(s). Thus, PILRα is evolved to engage multiple ligands with common molecular determinants to modulate myeloid cell functions in anatomical settings where PILRα ligands are expressed.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Antígeno 12E7 , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos CD/química , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Arginina/química , Arginina/genética , Arginina/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/química , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Colectinas/química , Colectinas/genética , Colectinas/metabolismo , Sequência Conservada/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligantes , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/química , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Receptores Imunológicos/química , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Depuradores/química , Receptores Depuradores/genética , Receptores Depuradores/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico , Células Vero
15.
FEBS J ; 278(20): 3930-41, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21651725

RESUMO

Collectins are effector molecules of the innate immune system that play an important role in the first line of defence against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Most of their interactions with microorganisms are mediated through their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), which binds in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner to glycoconjugates. This domain is a well-known structure that is present in a larger group of proteins comprising the C-type lectin domain family. Collectins form a subgroup within this family based on the presence of a collagen domain and the trimerization of CRDs, which are essential for the ligand-binding properties of these proteins. The ligand specificity among the nine collectin members is significantly different as a result of both the structural organization of the trimers and specific sequence changes in the binding pocket of the CRD. In addition, some collectin members have additional features, such as N-linked glycosylation of CRD residues and additional loop structures within the CRD that have a large impact on their interaction with the glycoconjugates present on microorganisms or host cells. The availability of crystal structures of three members of the collectin family (surfactant proteins A and D and mannan-binding protein) provides an important tool for addressing the impact of these CRD differences on ligand binding. In this review, the structural differences and similarities between the CRDs of collectins are summarized and their relationship with their ligand-binding characteristics is discussed.


Assuntos
Colectinas/química , Colectinas/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Receptores de Superfície Celular/química
16.
J Immunol Methods ; 362(1-2): 204-8, 2010 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20833176

RESUMO

Bovine conglutinin is a serum protein involved in innate immunity. It binds calcium dependently to iC3b, a product of the complement component C3 deposited on cell surfaces, immune complexes or artificial surfaces after complement activation. We here present a simple and efficient two-step procedure for the purification of conglutinin. In the first step, bovine serum is incubated with non-coupled chromatographic TSK beads at 37°C to allow complement activation and iC3b deposition on the beads and subsequent binding of conglutinin to iC3b. Conglutinin is then eluted from the beads by EDTA. In the second step, conglutinin is separated from iC3b and IgM by ion-exchange chromatography. This purification procedure yielded 81 µg of conglutinin per ml of serum with a recovery of 61.2%. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the purified conglutinin had a high affinity for mannan (K(d)=2.3-3.2 nM). SDS-PAGE and time-resolved immunofluorometric assays showed that the conglutinin was not contaminated with other serum collectins such as collectin-43 or mannan-binding lectin.


Assuntos
Colectinas/isolamento & purificação , Complemento C3b , Soroglobulinas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Colectinas/química , Ativação do Complemento , Mananas/química , Soroglobulinas/química
17.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 34(12): 1274-82, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20638410

RESUMO

C-type lectins are a superfamily of Ca(2+) dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins which play significant diverse roles in nonself-recognition and clearance of invaders. In the present study, a C-type lectin (CfLec-2) from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri was selected to investigate its functions in innate immunity. The mRNA expression of CfLec-2 in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (P<0.01) after scallops were stimulated by LPS, PGN or ß-glucan, and reached the highest expression level at 12h post-stimulation, which was 72.5-, 23.6- or 43.8-fold compared with blank group, respectively. The recombinant CfLec-2 (designated as rCfLec-2) could bind LPS, PGN, mannan and zymosan in vitro, but it could not bind ß-glucan. Immunofluorescence assay with polyclonal antibody specific for CfLec-2 revealed that CfLec-2 was mainly located in the mantle, kidney and gonad. Furthermore, rCfLec-2 could bind to the surface of scallop hemocytes, and then initiated cellular adhesion and recruited hemocytes to enhance their encapsulation in vitro, and this process could be specifically blocked by anti-rCfLec-2 serum. These results collectively suggested that CfLec-2 from the primitive deuterostome C. farreri could perform two distinct immune functions, pathogen recognition and cellular adhesion synchronously, while these functions were performed by collectins and selectins in vertebrates, respectively. The synchronous functions of pathogen recognition and cellular adhesion performed by CfLec-2 tempted us to suspect that CfLec-2 was an ancient form of C-type lectin, and apparently the differentiation of these two functions mediated by C-type lectins occurred after mollusk in phylogeny.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Pectinidae/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Western Blotting , Adesão Celular , Colectinas/química , Colectinas/imunologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Hemócitos/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Mananas/imunologia , Modelos Moleculares , Pectinidae/genética , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes , Selectinas/química , Selectinas/imunologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Frutos do Mar , Regulação para Cima , Zimosan/imunologia
18.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 299(3): L384-92, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20601494

RESUMO

Surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays important roles in host defense against a variety of pathogens including influenza A virus (IAV). Ligand binding by SP-D is mediated by the trimeric neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD). We used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human SP-D and a panel of mutant collectin NCRD constructs to identify functionally and structurally important epitopes. The ability of SP-D to bind to IAV and mannan involved partially overlapping binding sites that are distinct from those involved in binding to the glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) scavenger receptor protein. A species-specific motif (D324,D325,R343), which has been implicated in the specific binding of several ligands, contributes to recognition by mAbs that block antiviral or mannan binding activity. D325, in particular, is involved in the epitopes of these blocking mAbs. Conversely, the interspecies substitution of arginine for Lys343 in the rat NCRD (rK343R) conferred binding to two of the mAbs. The single site substitution of alanine for R349 or E347 resulted in highly selective alterations in mAb binding and caused decreased antiviral activity. Mutations at Glu333 (E333A), Trp340 (W340F), and Phe335 (F335A), which abrogated antiviral activity, were associated with decreased binding to multiple blocking mAbs, consistent with critical structural roles. More conservative substitutions at 335, which showed a significant increase in neutralization activity, caused selective loss of binding to one mAb. The analysis reveals, for the first time, an extended binding site for IAV; calcium-dependent antiviral activity involves residues flanking the primary carbohydrate binding site as well as more remote residues displayed on the carbohydrate recognition domain surface.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Carboidratos/química , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/imunologia , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Arginina , Sítios de Ligação , Cálcio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Colectinas/química , Colectinas/genética , Cães , Epitopos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Lisina , Mananas/metabolismo , Mutação , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/genética , Ratos , Especificidade da Espécie , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 72(10): 1337-43, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20526045

RESUMO

Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pattern recognition molecule that has an important role in pulmonary host defense. In this study, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for bovine SP-D and determined the concentration of SP-D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from calves. Bovine SP-D was purified from BALF using a mannose-Shepharose 6B column. The obtained 44 kDa protein was identified as bovine SP-D by N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis and SDS-PAGE analysis. The peptides corresponding to bovine SP-D amino acid residues SDTRKEGT, which have little homology across bovine serum collectins, were synthesized and used to raise an antibody in rabbits. The obtained antibody was specific for bovine SP-D and did not react with collectins in serum. The anti-bovine SP-D antibody was purified and an ELISA system was developed. The detection range of this assay was 4-125 ng/ml, and the intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 5.6 and 9.7%, respectively. The concentrations of SP-D in BALF collected from calves experimentally infected with bovine adenovirus type-3 or Mannheimia haemolytica were determined by the ELISA. Elevation of SP-D was found in BALF from inoculated lobes of infected calves compared with those of non-inoculated lobes and those from control animals. These data suggest that the ELISA developed in this study may be available to investigate the physiological role of bovine SP-D in bovine lung.


Assuntos
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/análise , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Colectinas/química , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/química , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/isolamento & purificação , Coelhos/imunologia , Soroglobulinas/química
20.
Innate Immun ; 16(3): 175-82, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20423921

RESUMO

The lung is continuously exposed to inhaled pathogens (toxic pollutants, micro-organisms, environmental antigens, allergens) from the external environment. In the broncho-alveolar space, the critical balance between a measured protective response against harmful pathogens and an inappropriate inflammatory response to harmless particles is discerned by the innate pulmonary immune system. Among its many components, the surfactant proteins and specifically the pulmonary collectins (surfactant proteins A [SP-A] and D [SP-D]) appear to provide important contributions to the modulation of host defense and inflammation in the lung. Many studies have shown that multimerization of SP-A and SP-D are important for efficient local host defense including neutralization and opsonization of influenza A virus, binding Pneumocystis murina and inhibition of LPS-induced inflammatory cell responses. These observations strongly imply that oligomerization of collectins is a critical feature of its function. However, during the inflammatory state, despite normal pool sizes, chemical modification of collectins can result in alteration of their structure and function. Both pulmonary collectins can be altered through proteolytic inactivation, nitration, S-nitrosylation, oxidation and/or crosslinking as a consequence of the inflammatory milieu facilitated by cytokines, nitric oxide, proteases, and other chemical mediators released by inflammatory cells. Thus, this review will summarize recent developments in our understanding of the relationship between post-translational assembly of collectins and their modification by inflammation as an important molecular switch for the regulation of local innate host defense.


Assuntos
Colectinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pneumocystis/imunologia , Aglutinação , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Colectinas/química , Colectinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Imunomodulação , Mediadores da Inflamação/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Camundongos , Multimerização Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
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