Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.410
Filtrar
1.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(4): 349-356, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474685

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a subtype of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has a potentially progressive course that can lead to liver cirrhosis. Age is strongly associated with the development and progression of NAFLD/NASH, but the natural history of pediatric NAFLD is still not fully understood. Here, we evaluated the age-related alterations of NASH in 5-, 9- and 13-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats that were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (30% fat, 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% sodium cholate, w/w) for 9 wk (6 rats/group). Our results showed that the cumulative energy intake, body weight gain and food efficacy during the 9-wk rearing period were highest in the youngest group and lowest in the oldest group. Serologically, almost all parameters including the serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were similar regardless of age. Histopathological findings, such as hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation and hepatocyte ballooning, were also similar regardless of age, but hepatic fibrosis was more evident in the oldest group. Also, the mRNA expression levels of some fibrogenic, inflammatory, oxidative stress and cholesterol or lipid metabolism-related genes in the liver were highest in the oldest group and lowest in the youngest group, although the difference was not statistically significant. These results indicated that aging is likely associated with the development of NASH. Because the cumulative energy intake and daily food intake/body weight were not similar among groups in the present study, further studies designed with an equivalent daily food intake/body weight among groups are needed in order to interpret the exact nutritional effect.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Animais , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Expressão Gênica , Inflamação/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Phytother Res ; 33(11): 2996-3007, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418509

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the contribution of mango fiber (MF) and mango phenolic compounds (MP) to the hepatoprotective effect of freeze-dried mango pulp (FDM) cultivar (cv.) "Ataulfo" diets in high cholesterol/sodium cholate (HCC)-fed rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with a HCC diet for 12 weeks, either untreated, or supplemented with MF, MP, FDM, or a control diet (no HCC; n = 6/group). All mango treatments significantly decreased hepatic cholesterol deposition and altered its fatty acid profile, whereas MF and MP mitigated adipose tissue hypertrophy. MF caused a lower level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α/ß, IFN-γ, TNF-α) whereas FDM increased the anti-inflammatory ones (IL-4, 6, 10). Mango treatments increased catalase (CAT) activity and its mRNA expression; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was normalized by MF and FDM, but its activity was unrelated to its hepatic mRNA expression. Changes in CAT and SOD mRNA expression were unrelated to altered Nrf2 mRNA expression. Higher hepatic PPARα and LXRα mRNA levels were found in MP and MF. We concluded that MF and MP are highly bioactive, according to the documented hepatoprotection in HCC-fed rats; their mechanism of action appears to be related to modulating cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism as well as to stimulating the endogenous antioxidant system.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mangifera/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Fenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipercolesterolemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Colato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Colato de Sódio/efeitos adversos
3.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; 45(11): 1725-1739, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432703

RESUMO

Objective and methods: This study predicted the nature of chitosan interactions and effects of this interaction on drug release mechanism in simvastatin-loaded chitosan nanoformulation using molecular docking, spectroscopic and thermal analysis. Significance: This work explains in depth the molecular mechanism of simvastatin and chitosan bond formation in nanoformulation. Results: The effective encapsulation and sustain release properties of chitosan were indicated by increase in melting endotherm of simvastatin. Intermolecular hydrogen bond between third hydroxyl group pyranone ring of simvastatin and amino group of chitosan represented the stability of active lactone moiety that was not cleaved during formulation which is prerequisite for biological activity. UV-vis spectroscopic characterization, shift in infrared vibration wavenumber of simvastatin and chitosan, ligand titration, 1HNMR and 13C-NMR analyses confirmed this interaction pattern. The pharmacokinetic evaluation in mouse model revealed the sustain release property of nanoformulation. Conclusion: Thus formation of intermolecular hydrogen bond in nanoformulation contributed to modified physicochemical properties and improved in vivo performance of simvastatin.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Sinvastatina/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esquema de Medicação , Composição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
J Med Food ; 22(10): 1000-1008, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460816

RESUMO

Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein and has beneficial effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism. However, whether LF supplementation alleviates the development of atherosclerosis (AS) remains unclear. In the present study, all of 48 male Apolipoprotein E-/- mice were fed with high-fat diet with 1.25% added cholesterol and divided to four treatment groups with either distilled water (HFCD), LF solutions at 2 mg/mL (low LF), 10 mg/mL (middle LF or MLF), or 20 mg/mL (high LF or HLF) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12. At the end of the experiment, lipids in serum, liver, and feces were determined. The livers, whole aortas, and aortic sinuses were pathologically examined. The protein expression of factors related to cholesterol synthesis, absorption, and excretion were detected through western blot. No significant difference in body weight, food intake, and OGTT was observed among the four groups. Compared with the HFCD group, the MLF and HLF groups had significantly decreased serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and significantly increased fecal cholesterol contents. LF alleviated the hepatic steatosis and lipid droplet, especially in the MLF group. LF also significantly decreased the average lesion areas in the whole aorta, especially in the MLF group. On the other hand, LF downregulated hepatic protein expression of HMG-CoA reductase (the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis) and upregulated cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol). LF also downregulated the intestinal expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein, which is known to bind to a critical mediator of cholesterol absorption. In conclusion, LF supplementation alleviates the AS in mice on HFCD likely by reducing the synthesis and absorption of cholesterol and increasing cholesterol excretion.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Colesterol/sangue , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado Gorduroso/fisiopatologia , Homeostase , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE
5.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357492

RESUMO

To investigate the associations between dietary fatty acids and cholesterol consumption and stomach cancer (SC), we analyzed data from a population-based case-control study with a total of 1900 SC cases and 6532 controls. Dietary data and other risk or protective factors were collected by face-to-face interviews in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2003 to 2010. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multiple unconditional logistic regression models and an energy-adjusted method. The joint associations between dietary factors and known risk factors on SC were examined. We observed positive associations between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and total cholesterol and the development of SC, comparing the highest versus lowest quarters. Increased intakes of dietary SFAs (p-trend = 0.005; aOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01-1.22 with a 7 g/day increase as a continuous variable) and total cholesterol (p-trend < 0.001; aOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.22 with a 250 mg/day increase as a continuous variable) were monotonically associated with elevated odds of developing SC. Our results indicate that dietary SFAs, MUFAs, and total cholesterol are associated with stomach cancer, which might provide a potential dietary intervention for stomach cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle
6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(7): 653-664, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Effects of whole egg consumption on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk in the middle-aged and older population remain unclear due to inconsistent findings from observational and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This meta-analysis aimed to assess the impacts of whole egg and egg category (whole eggs versus egg substitutes) intake quantity on CVD risk factors from systematically searched RCTs. Egg substitutes were hypothesized to have minimal effects of the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile as they are void of dietary cholesterol. METHODS AND RESULTS: As many as 434 studies identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Medline (Ovid) databases were screened and data were extracted from 8 selected RCTs. Quality of the selected studies were assessed and the overall effect sizes of weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated using a random effects model. Non-differential effects in blood pressures, lipids and lipoproteins were observed when >4 whole eggs/week compared to ≤4 whole eggs/week were consumed. Intake of >4 whole eggs/week compared to equivalent amounts of egg substitutes caused greater elevations in blood total cholesterol (WMD: 0.198 mmol/L; 95% CIs: 0.056, 0.339), HDL cholesterol (WMD: 0.068 mmol/L; 95% CIs: 0.006, 0.130) and LDL cholesterol (WMD: 0.171 mmol/L; 95% CIs: 0.028, 0.315) but did not differentially affect triglycerides concentration. CONCLUSION: Overall, the results support the notion that quantity of whole egg intake does not affect CVD risk factors and consuming egg substitutes may also be beneficial compared to whole eggs on lowering CVD risk in the middle-aged and older population.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ovos , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Valor Nutritivo , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ovos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(1): 169-176, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest inverse associations between consumption of egg, a major source of dietary cholesterol, and stroke. However, the evidence of the relation remains limited, especially among carriers of apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), which influences cholesterol metabolism. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations of egg and cholesterol intakes with risk of stroke and with the major stroke risk factor, blood pressure, in middle-aged and older men from eastern Finland and whether apoE phenotype could modify these associations. METHODS: A total of 1950 men aged 42-60 y in 1984-1989 were included at the baseline examinations of the prospective population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Data on apoE phenotype were available for 1015 men. Dietary intakes were assessed with 4-d food records at baseline and incident stroke events were assessed by record linkage to hospital discharge registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate associations with stroke risk. Associations with baseline blood pressure were evaluated with ANCOVA. RESULTS: During the mean ± SD follow-up of 21.2 ± 7.2 y, there were 217 incidences of any stroke: 166 of ischemic stroke and 55 of hemorrhagic stroke. Comparing the highest egg intake quartile with the lowest, the multivariable-adjusted HRs were 0.81 for total stroke (95% CI: 0.54, 1.23; P-trend = 0.32), 0.84 for ischemic stroke (95% CI: 0.53, 1.34; P-trend = 0.44), and 0.75 for hemorrhagic stroke (95% CI: 0.32, 1.77; P-trend = 0.40). The respective HRs for the highest cholesterol intake quartile compared with the lowest were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.57, 1.32; P-trend = 0.42), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.46, 1.20; P-trend = 0.32), and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.45, 2.66; P-trend = 0.75). Diastolic blood pressure was 1.6 mm Hg (P-trend = 0.04) lower in the highest egg intake quartile compared with the lowest, but there were no associations with systolic blood pressure or with cholesterol intake. ApoE phenotype (32% had apoE4 phenotype) did not modify the associations. CONCLUSION: Neither egg nor cholesterol intakes were associated with stroke risk in this cohort, regardless of apoE phenotype.This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03221127.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Ovos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Apolipoproteína E4/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096723

RESUMO

The plasma membranes of the human lens fiber cell are overloaded with cholesterol that not only saturates the phospholipid bilayer of these membranes but also leads to the formation of pure cholesterol bilayer domains. Cholesterol level increases with age, and for older persons, it exceeds the cholesterol solubility threshold, leading to the formation of cholesterol crystals. All these changes occur in the normal lens without too much compromise to lens transparency. If the cholesterol content in the cell membranes of other organs increases to extent where cholesterol crystals forma, a pathological condition begins. In arterial cells, minute cholesterol crystals activate inflammasomes, induce inflammation, and cause atherosclerosis development. In this review, we will indicate possible factors that distinguish between beneficial and negative cholesterol action, limiting cholesterol actions to those performed through cholesterol in cell membranes and by cholesterol crystals.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/patologia , Cristalino/irrigação sanguínea , Cristalino/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4805926, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937311

RESUMO

Shuangyu Tiaozhi Granule (STG) is composed of two kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs in dioscorea, which are used for managing cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the potential molecular mechanisms of administration of STG in hypercholesterolemia remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of STG on hepatic cholesterol metabolism in high cholesterol (HC) diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat models and simvastatin was used as a positive control. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed general or HC diet, respectively. After 4 weeks of feeding, HC diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats were fed HC diet, STG at 5% (w/w) or 10% (w/w) mixed in the HC diet, or HC diet combined with simvastatin gavages (4 mg·kg-1·d-1) for 4 or 8 weeks. STG treatment decreased body weight gain, liver weight ratio, serum lipids levels and hepatic lipids accumulation in rats fed a HC diet. Moreover, the effects of STG on decreasing body weight and lowering liver cholesterol levels were in dose- and time-dependent. Furthermore, STG or simvastatin treatment decreased the mRNA and protein levels of HMGCR and SREBP-2 in liver. The ACAT-2 and CYP7A1 mRNA expression were significantly decreased in HC diet supplemented with STG, while the mRNA levels of LDLR were markedly increased. STG attenuates hypercholesterolemia via inhibiting SREBP-2 signaling pathway activation and increasing hepatic uptake genes expression, providing a novel idea of TCM keeping cholesterol levels down for the clinical application.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colesterol/biossíntese , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Alimentar , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo
10.
Food Funct ; 10(3): 1684-1695, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839966

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia is closely associated with cardiovascular disease. Supplementation with probiotics has been shown to contribute to improving lipid metabolism. The probiotic mechanisms of cholesterol reduction are complicated and remain unclear. One of the potential probiotic mechanisms for cholesterol reduction is the deconjugation of bile salts. We previously found a high bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity of Lactobacillus casei pWQH01 (overexpression of bsh1) and Lactobacillus plantarum AR113, but found no BSH activity for Lactobacillus casei LC2W in vitro. Therefore, we decided to investigate whether the high BSH activity of L. plantarum AR113 and L. casei pWQH01 could exert a cholesterol-reducing effect in vivo. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet (HCD) group, AR113 and pWQH01 groups had a significantly lower body weight (BW), serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and atherogenic index (AI), whereas the LC2W group had a poor capability to mitigate the blood lipid levels in the hypercholesterolemic mice. In addition, the AR113 and pWQH01 groups decreased the hepatic levels of TC and LDL-C and improved hepatic steatosis compared with the HCD group. To explore their cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of action, we determined the expression levels of these genes on the cholesterol metabolic pathways. AR113 and pWQH01 groups downregulated the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) genes, but upregulated the expression of the cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene in the liver. Simultaneously, the expression of cholesterol liver X receptor (LXR) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) genes was upregulated in the liver. These results indicated that L. plantarum AR113 and L. casei pWQH01 could inhibit the cholesterol absorption and accelerate the cholesterol transportation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Lactobacillus strain overexpression of bile salt hydrolase has beneficial effects against hypercholesterolemia by reducing cholesterol absorption and increasing cholesterol catabolism.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hipercolesterolemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus casei , Lactobacillus plantarum , Amidoidrolases/genética , Animais , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Probióticos
12.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744113

RESUMO

Mechanisms to explain post-prandial increases in circulating glucocorticoids are not well understood and may involve increased adrenal secretion and/or altered steroid metabolism. We have compared salivary levels of cortisol and cortisone levels in healthy male and female volunteers fed either a low or cholesterol-rich midday meal. Urinary levels of steroids, bile acids and markers of lipid peroxidation were also measured. Males and females showed expected circadian changes in salivary steroids and postprandial peaks within 1h of feeding. After a high-cholesterol meal, postprandial cortisol increases were higher in males whereas post-prandial cortisone levels were higher in females. Urinary cortisol but not cortisone levels were higher on the day when males and females ate a high-cholesterol meal. Urinary bile acid excretion and anti-oxidant markers of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total phenol content were not affected by dietary cholesterol but tended to be higher in males. Cross-tabulation of correlation coefficients indicated positive associations between urinary markers of peroxidation, bile acids, and cortisol:cortisone ratios. We conclude that dietary cholesterol (a substrate for steroidogenesis) does not have an acute effect on adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis and that gender but not a high-cholesterol meal may influence the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone. Longer term studies of the effects of dietary cholesterol are needed to analyze the associations between bile acids, steroid metabolism, and secretion and lipid peroxidation.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/análise , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Adulto , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/urina , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(1): 7-16, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596814

RESUMO

Background: Elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dietary guidance recommends reducing saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes to reduce circulating LDL cholesterol. Cholesterol intake may also affect high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations, but its impact has not been fully quantified. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the dose-response relation between changes in dietary cholesterol intake and changes in lipoprotein-cholesterol markers for cardiovascular disease risk and to provide a reference for clinicians on how changes in dietary cholesterol intake affect circulating cholesterol concentrations, after accounting for intakes of fatty acids. Methods: We used a Bayesian approach to meta-regression analysis, which uses Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques, to assess the relation between the change in dietary cholesterol (adjusted for dietary fatty acids) and changes in LDL and HDL cholesterol based on the use of data from randomized dietary intervention trials. Results: Fifty-five studies (2652 subjects) were included in the analysis. The nonlinear Michaelis-Menten (MM) and Hill models best described the data across the full spectrum of dietary cholesterol changes studied (0-1500 mg/d). Mean predicted changes in LDL cholesterol for an increase of 100 mg dietary cholesterol/d were 1.90, 4.46, and 4.58 mg/dL for the linear, nonlinear MM, and Hill models, respectively. Conclusions: The change in dietary cholesterol was positively associated with the change in LDL-cholesterol concentration. The linear and MM models indicate that the change in dietary cholesterol is modestly inversely related to the change in circulating HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men but is positively related in women. The clinical implications of HDL-cholesterol changes associated with dietary cholesterol remain uncertain.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 3, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass and concomitantly strength, poses a serious risk to the elderly and to astronauts. Dietary cholesterol (CL), in conjunction with resistance training (RT), has been strongly associated with improvements in lean mass. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two opposing environments on rat skeletal muscle: (1) hindlimb unloading and (2) CL and RT. METHODS: In protocol 1, 13 male Sprague-Dawley rats were unloaded for 28 days (HU; n = 6) or served as cage controls (CC; n = 7). In protocol 2, 42 rats were assigned to 1 of 6 groups: CC (n = 7), CC + CL (n = 4), RT controls (RTC; n = 7), RTC + CL (n = 8), RT (n = 8) and RT + CL (n = 8). RT/RTC consisted of squat-like exercise. RT had weights added progressively from 80 to 410 g over 5 weeks. CL was supplemented in the chow with either 180 ppm (controls) or 1800 ppm (CL). Lower limb muscles were harvested at the end of both protocols and analyzed by Western Blotting for sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) and low-density lipoprotein-receptor (LDL-R) and protein synthesis. RESULTS: Gastrocnemius and plantaris masses and their body mass ratios were significantly lower in the HU rats than control rats. The RT rats gained significantly less body and lean mass than the RTC groups, but the plantar flexor muscles did not show any significant differences among groups. Moreover, RT groups had significantly higher plantaris mixed muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) than the RTC and CC animals, with the CL groups showing greater FSR than control rats. No significant differences among groups in SREBP-2 or LDL-R were observed in either protocol. CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide evidence for a relationship between skeletal muscle and cholesterol metabolism, but the exact nature of that association remains unclear.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Animais , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 2/metabolismo
15.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678282

RESUMO

Due to poor water solubility and high susceptibility to chemical degradation, the applications of quercetin have been limited. This study investigated the effects of pH on the formation of quercetin-loaded nanoemulsion (NQ) and compared the hypocholesterolemic activity between quercetin and NQ to utilize the quercetin as functional food ingredient. NQ particle size exhibited a range of 207⁻289 nm with polydispersity index range (<0.47). The encapsulation efficiency increased stepwise from 56 to 92% as the pH increased from 4.0 to 9.0. Good stability of NQ was achieved in the pH range of 6.5⁻9.0 during 3-month storage at 21 and 37 °C. NQ displayed higher efficacy in reducing serum and hepatic cholesterol levels and increasing the release of bile acid into feces in rats fed high-cholesterol diet, compared to quercetin alone. NQ upregulated hepatic gene expression involved in bile acid synthesis and cholesterol efflux, such as cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 1 (ABCG1). These results suggest at least partial involvement of hepatic bile acid synthesis and fecal cholesterol excretion in nanoemulsion quercetin-mediated beneficial effect on lipid abnormalities.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Nanoestruturas , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Emulsões/química , Masculino , Quercetina/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
J Atheroscler Thromb ; 26(2): 170-182, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29887537

RESUMO

AIM: The positive relationship between dietary cholesterol and serum cholesterol has been questioned by a set of recent cohort studies. This study aimed to investigate how employment status and education years relate to the association between dietary cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in a Japanese population. METHODS: A population-based, random sample, cross-sectional study (INTERLIPID) was performed. Among 1,145 Japanese individuals aged 40-59 years, 106 were excluded because of special diets, use of lipid-lowering drugs, hormone replacement, and missing data, leaving 1,039 individuals (533 men and 506 women). Dietary cholesterol was assessed from four 24-h dietary recalls, and LDL-C was measured enzymatically with an auto-analyzer. A standard questionnaire inquired about employment status and education years. RESULTS: In men, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher dietary cholesterol was associated with 3.16 mg/dL lower serum LDL-C (P=0.009; unadjusted model). After adjustment for covariates, higher serum LDL-C was estimated per 1 SD higher intake of dietary cholesterol in nonemployed men [self-employed, homemakers, farmers, fishermen, and retired employees; ß=+9.08, 95% confidence interval (CI)=+0.90-+17.27] and less educated men (ß=+4.46, 95% CI=-0.97-+9.90), whereas an inverse association was observed in employed men (ß=-3.02, 95% CI=-5.49--0.54) and more educated men (ß=-3.66, 95% CI=-6.25--1.07). CONCLUSIONS: In men who were nonemployed and less educated, a higher intake of dietary cholesterol was associated with elevated concentrations of serum LDL-C, whereas an inverse association was observed in men who were employed and more educated.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Educação , Emprego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(2): e1800563, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447138

RESUMO

SCOPE: The programming of hepatic lipid dysfunction in response to early cholesterol exposure and the influencing effects of postnatal diet is evaluated in apoE-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: In two separate studies, female mice are assigned to a standard chow (S) or a cholesterol-enriched chow (C) diet during gestation and lactation. Male offspring from each dam are weaned on a postnatal S or a hypercaloric western (W) diet resulting in four experimental groups: S-S and C-S (Experiment 1) and S-W and C-W (Experiment 2). At weaning, litters from hypercholesterolemic mothers weighed less (p < 0.05) and pups had higher blood lipids, glucose, and hepatic cholesterol compared with pups from S-fed mothers. Adult C-S offspring demonstrate an atherogenic lipid profile and increased (p < 0.05) hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride content with altered lipid regulatory mRNA expression and protein content compared with S-S offspring. Alternatively, no difference (p > 0.05) is observed between S-W and C-W in serum and hepatic lipid profiles; however, serum AST and ALT are higher (p < 0.05) in C-W versus S-W offspring. CONCLUSION: The degree of hepatic lipid deposition observed in adult offspring exposed to excessive early cholesterol is influenced by the postnatal diet.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Ocidente
18.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30486328

RESUMO

Restructuring pork (RP) by adding new functional ingredients, like Chia oil (one of the richest natural source of α-linolenic acid) or hydroxytyrosol (HxT) (potent antioxidant), both with hypolipidemic activities, is one of the strategies that may help to reduce the potential negative effects of high meat products consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Chia oil- or HxT-enriched-RP effect on the lipoprotein profile of aged rats fed high-fat, high-energy, and cholesterol-enriched diets. RP samples were prepared by mixing lean pork and lard with or without Chia oil (152.2 g/kg fresh matter) or HxT (3.6 g/kg fresh matter). Diets were prepared by mixing a semisynthetic diet with freeze-dried RP. Groups of 1-year male Wistar rats were fed the following experimental diets for 8 weeks: C, control-RP diet; HC, cholesterol-enriched-RP diet; and Chia oil-RP (CHIA) and HxT, Chia oil- or hydroxytyrosol-RP, cholesterol-enriched diet. Plasma lipid, lipoprotein profile, SREBP-1c protein, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor gene (Ldlr) expressions were evaluated. Compared to C diet, the HC diet increased plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, total lipids, and SREBP-1c expression, but reduced Ldlr expression and significantly modified the lipoprotein profile, giving rise to the presence of high levels of atherogenic cholesterol-enriched very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) particles. Compared to the HC diet, the HxT diet did not produce significant changes in feed intake but it reduced the body weight. Chia oil and HxT partially arrested the negative effects of the high-fat, high-energy, and cholesterol-enriched meat-based diets on lipemia and lipoproteinemia, mostly by reducing the amount of cholesterol content in VLDL (60% and 74% less in CHIA and HxT vs. HC, respectively) and the VLDL total mass (59% and 63% less in CHIA and HxT vs. HC, respectively). Free fatty acids (FFA) significantly correlated with adipose tissue weight and VLDL total mass (both p < 0.05), and plasma triglycerides, phospholipids, total lipids, and SREBP-1c (all p < 0.001), suggesting the important role of FFA in lipoprotein metabolism. Results support the recommendation to include these ingredients in pork products addressed to reduce the presence of increased atherogenic particles in aged people at CVD risk consuming large amounts of pork.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha , Salvia/química , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Masculino , Álcool Feniletílico/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de LDL/sangue , Sementes , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/sangue , Suínos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/sangue , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/farmacologia
19.
J Nutr ; 148(10): 1513-1520, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281112

RESUMO

Background: Phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Pemt-/-/low density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr)-/- mice have significantly reduced plasma lipids and are protected against atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that choline can be metabolized by the gut flora into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), which is an emerging risk factor for atherosclerosis. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether ectopic hepatic PEMT expression or choline supplementation would promote atherosclerosis in Pemt-/-/Ldlr-/- mice. Methods: Male 8- to 10-wk-old Pemt+/+/Ldlr-/- (SKO) and Pemt-/-/Ldlr-/- (DKO) mice were injected with an adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or human PEMT and fed a Western diet (40% of calories from fat, 0.5% cholesterol) for 8 wk. In a separate experiment, 8- to 10-wk-old SKO and half of the DKO male mice were fed a Western diet with normal (3 g/kg) choline for 12 wk. The remaining DKO mice [choline-supplemented (CS) DKO] were fed a CS Western diet (10 g choline/kg). Plasma lipid concentrations, choline metabolites, and aortic atherosclerosis were measured. Results: Plasma cholesterol, plasma TMAO, and aortic atherosclerosis were reduced by 60%, 40%, and 80%, respectively, in DKO mice compared with SKO mice. AAV-PEMT administration increased plasma cholesterol and TMAO by 30% and 40%, respectively, in DKO mice compared with AAV-GFP-treated DKO mice. Furthermore, AAV-PEMT-injected DKO mice developed atherosclerotic lesions similar to SKO mice. In the second study, there was no difference in atherosclerosis or plasma cholesterol between DKO and CS-DKO mice. However, plasma TMAO concentrations were increased 2.5-fold in CS-DKO mice compared with DKO mice. Conclusions: Reintroducing hepatic PEMT reversed the atheroprotective phenotype of DKO mice. Choline supplementation did not increase atherosclerosis or plasma cholesterol in DKO mice. Our data suggest that plasma TMAO does not induce atherosclerosis when plasma cholesterol is low. Furthermore, this is the first report to our knowledge that suggests that de novo choline synthesis alters TMAO status.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Colina/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Metilaminas/sangue , Fosfatidiletanolamina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colina/metabolismo , Dieta Ocidental , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosfatidiletanolamina N-Metiltransferase/farmacologia , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/metabolismo
20.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205602

RESUMO

Whole egg is a food source of dietary cholesterol and inconsistent research findings exist about the effect of dietary cholesterol from whole egg on blood cholesterol concentration. We assessed the effect of co-consuming cooked whole egg (CWE) on dietary cholesterol absorption from two randomized-crossover studies. For study 1, 16 men consumed raw vegetables with no egg, 75 g CWE, or 150 g CWE. For study 2, 17 women consumed cooked vegetables with no egg or 100 g CWE. Triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fractions (TRL) were isolated from collected blood. In study 1, total-cholesterol areas under the curve (AUC)0⁻10h in TRL were not different but triacylglycerol AUC0⁻10h in TRL was greater for 150 g CWE vs. 75 g CWE and no egg. Similarly, in study 2, total-cholesterol AUC0⁻10h in TRL was not different but triacylglycerol AUC0⁻10h in TRL was greater for 100 g CWE vs. no egg. In both studies, whole egg consumption did not affect plasma total-cholesterol AUC0⁻10h, while triacylglycerol AUC0⁻10h was increased. These results suggest that the dietary cholesterol in whole egg was not well absorbed, which may provide mechanistic insight for why it does not acutely influence plasma total-cholesterol concentration and is not associated with longer-term plasma cholesterol control.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Culinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ovos , Absorção Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial , Método Simples-Cego , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA