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1.
J Vis Exp ; (166)2020 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369605

RESUMO

Sex steroids, produced by the gonads, play an essential role in brain and pituitary tissue plasticity and in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in all vertebrates by providing feedback to the brain and pituitary. Teleost fishes possess a higher degree of tissue plasticity and variation in reproductive strategies compared to mammals and appear to be useful models to investigate the role of sex steroids and the mechanisms by which they act. The removal of the main source of sex steroid production using gonadectomy together with blood sampling to measure steroid levels has been well-established and fairly feasible in bigger fish and is a powerful technique to investigate the role and effects of sex steroids. However, these techniques raise challenges when implemented in small size teleost models. Here, we describe the step-by-step procedures of gonadectomy in both males and female Japanese medaka followed by blood sampling. These protocols are shown to be highly feasible in medaka indicated by a high survival rate, safety for the life span and phenotype of the fish, and reproducibility in terms of sex steroid clearance. The use of these procedures combined with the other advantages of using this small teleost model will greatly improve the understanding of feedback mechanisms in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction and tissue plasticity provided by sex steroids in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Tamanho Corporal , Castração , Oryzias/anatomia & histologia , Oryzias/sangue , Animais , Castração/instrumentação , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Gônadas/cirurgia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Oviposição , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suturas , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/sangue
2.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 162-169, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197684

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Para la extracción de muestras de laboratorio a través de catéteres, se debe desechar un volumen de sangre para garantizar la exactitud de los resultados. OBJETIVOS: Analizar el volumen sanguíneo desechado obtenido a través de catéter vascular y relacionarlo con el tipo de catéter, la experiencia del profesional que realiza la extracción y el centro hospitalario, en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) de adultos de les Illes Balears. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo multicéntrico transversal. Ámbito de estudio: Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos de adultos de les Illes Balears. Población: 296 enfermeras. Instrumento de recogida de datos: cuestionario ad hoc, anónimo y voluntario. Variables estudiadas: volumen de desecho, tipo de catéter, sexo, experiencia profesional y hospital. Análisis estadístico descriptivo, desviación estándar, coeficiente de variación y pruebas no paramétricas: Kruskal-Wallis y prueba de la mediana con un IC del 95%, mediante el programa SPSS vs20.0. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron 142 encuestas, participaron 12 hospitales: 6 públicos y 6 privados; el 72,5% mujeres y el 27,5% hombres. El volumen medio total desechado fue de 5,98± 3,01 ml: catéter venoso periférico (CVP) 5,74ml ± 2,85 ml, cánula arterial 4,37 ± 2,93ml, catéter central acceso periférico (PICC) 7,34±3,03 ml y catéter venoso central (CVC) 6,49± 2,99ml. Las medianas de volumen de desecho fueron muy variables entre las diferentes ucis (p <0,001). Los hospitales privados desechan mayores volúmenes que los públicos a través de CVP: 5,12± 2,15ml vs. 6,99± 2,80ml (p = 0,023), CVC: 5,92± 2,58 ml vs. 7,93± 1,71ml (p = 0,026) y PICC: 6,77± 2,73ml vs. 9,07± 2,05ml (p = 0,004). CONCLUSIONES: Existe una gran variabilidad en el volumen de sangre desechado en función del hospital donde se realiza la extracción. No se ha encontrado asociación entre la sangre desechada y el resto de variables estudiadas. Se deberían utilizar técnicas de extracción más conservadoras


For laboratory sample extraction through catheters, blood volume must be discarded prior to specimen collection to ensure the accuracy of the results. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the discarded blood volume obtained through vascular catheters, according to type of catheter, professional experience in extraction and hospital in Adult Intensive Care Units (ICU) of the Balearic Islands. METHOD: Cross-sectional multicentre descriptive study. Conducted from April to December 2018. Field of study: Adult Intensive Care Units of the Balearic Islands. Population: 296 nurses. Sample: nursing professionals who answered the survey. Data collection instrument: ad hoc, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire. Variables studied: waste volume, type of catheter, sex, professional experience and hospital. Descriptive statistical analysis, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and non-parametric tests: Kruskal-Wallis and Median test with an CI: 95%, using the SPSS vs20.0 programme. RESULTS: 142 surveys were obtained, 12 hospitals participated: 6 public and 6 private, 72.5% women and 27.5% men. The total mean volume discarded was 5.98ml (± 3.01): peripheral venous catheter (CVP) 5.74ml (± 2.85), arterial cannula 4.37ml (± 2.93), peripheral access central catheter (PICC) 7.34ml (± 3.03) and central venous catheter (CVC) 6.49ml (± 2.99). The medians of waste volume vary greatly between the different ICUs (p <.001). Private hospitals discard larger volumes than public hospitals through CVP: 5.12ml (±2.15) vs. 6.99ml (±2.80) (p=.023), CVC: 5.92ml (±2.58) vs. 7.93ml (±1.71) (p=.026) and PICC: 6.77ml (±2.73) vs. 9.07ml (±2.05) (p=.004). CONCLUSIONS: There is a great variability in the volume of blood discarded, it depends on the hospital. No association was found between the discarded blood and the other variables studied. More conservative extraction techniques should be used


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Volume Sanguíneo , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Hemoglobinas/análise , Competência Clínica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais , Intervalos de Confiança
3.
AAPS J ; 22(6): 135, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098040

RESUMO

The microsampling workshop generated recommendations pertaining to blood sampling site (venous blood versus capillary blood), when to conduct a bridging study, statistical approaches to establish correlation/concordance and deciding on sample size, opportunities and challenges with patient-centric sampling, and how microsampling technology can enrich clinical drug development. Overall, the goal was to provide clarity and recommendations and enable the broader adoption of microsampling supporting patients' needs, convenience, and the transformation from clinic-centric to patient-centric drug development. The need and adoption of away-from-clinic sampling techniques has become critical to maintain patient safety during the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(6): 657-667, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112264

RESUMO

Objective: Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard to discriminate patients with unilateral primary aldosteronism (UPA) from bilateral disease (BPA). AVS is technically demanding and in cases of unsuccessful cannulation of adrenal veins, the results may not always be interpreted. The aim of our study was to develop diagnostic models to distinguish UPA from BPA, in cases of unilateral successful AVS and the presence of contralateral suppression of aldosterone secretion. Design: Retrospective evaluation of 158 patients referred to a tertiary hypertension unit who underwent AVS. We randomly assigned 110 patients to a training cohort and 48 patients to a validation cohort to develop and test the diagnostic models. Methods: Supervised machine learning algorithms and regression models were used to develop and validate two prediction models and a simple 19-point score system to stratify patients according to their subtype diagnosis. Results: Aldosterone levels at screening and after confirmatory testing, lowest potassium, ipsilateral and contralateral imaging findings at CT scanning, and contralateral ratio at AVS, were associated with a diagnosis of UPA and were included in the diagnostic models. Machine learning algorithms correctly classified the majority of patients both at training and validation (accuracy: 82.9-95.7%). The score system displayed a sensitivity/specificity of 95.2/96.9%, with an AUC of 0.971. A flow-chart integrating our score correctly managed all patients except 3 (98.1% accuracy), avoiding the potential repetition of 77.2% of AVS procedures. Conclusions: Our score could be integrated in clinical practice and guide surgical decision-making in patients with unilateral successful AVS and contralateral suppression.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/irrigação sanguínea , Aldosterona/sangue , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/estatística & dados numéricos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Regressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Veias
5.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 555-564, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026350

RESUMO

Biochemical diagnosis of hereditary metabolic diseases requires the detection and simultaneous identification of a large number of compounds, hence the interest in metabolic profiles. Amino acid chromatography allows the identification and quantification of more than forty compounds. As part of the accreditation process for medical biology examinations according to standard NF EN ISO 15189, the group from SFEIM recommends an approach to accredit amino acid chromatography. Validation parameters and recommendations are discussed in this specific framework.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Cromatografia/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Acreditação/normas , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Aminoácidos/urina , Amniocentese/normas , Líquido Amniótico/química , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/normas , Criança , Cromatografia/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/sangue , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/urina , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/normas , Fase Pré-Analítica , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Urinálise/métodos , Urinálise/normas , Coleta de Urina/normas
6.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(10): 599-609, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012728

RESUMO

To assess the influences of blood sampling volumes or sites on toxicological and toxicokinetic (TK) evaluations, 4-week duration animal studies and a single-dose TK study of imipramine were conducted. In the toxicological evaluation, six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into no blood and blood sampling groups. Fifty microliters (microsampling) or 100 µL (larger sampling) of blood/time point was collected from the jugular vein (50 µL of data was reported previously as Yokoyama et al., 2020) or the tail vein 6 to 7 times on days 1/2 and in week 4. Although no parameters were affected by the 100 µL sample from the tail vein, the 100 µL jugular vein sampling decreased the red blood cell parameters in females, possibly due to hemorrhage at the sampling site. Regarding the TK assessment, 50 µL of blood/site/time point was collected at 6 time points from the tail and jugular vein of the same male rats after single oral administration of 10 or 100 mg/kg imipramine, which was selected as a representative drug with high distribution volume. Although there were no differences in the AUC0-24hr and Cmax values between the sites, the plasma concentrations at the early time points were significantly lower from the tail vein than the jugular vein. From our studies, 50 µL of jugular and tail vein microsampling did not affect the toxicity parameters or AUC/Cmax. However, appropriate toxicity considerations and/or selection of the blood sampling site may be important in the case of larger sampling volumes or blood concentration assessment.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Imipramina/toxicidade , Veias Jugulares , Pescoço/irrigação sanguínea , Cauda/irrigação sanguínea , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Veias , Administração Oral , Animais , Feminino , Imipramina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Toxicocinética
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238895, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898190

RESUMO

Laboratory mice are the most frequently used animals in biomedical research. In accordance with guidelines for humane handling, several blood sampling techniques have been established. While the effects of these procedures on blood quality and histological alterations at the sampling site are well studied, their impact on the animals' welfare has not been extensively investigated. Therefore, our study aimed to compare three commonly used blood sampling techniques regarding their effects on different indicators of animal welfare, including physiological and behavioural response stress parameters, including pain measures, home-cage behaviour and nest-building as well as exploratory activity and neophobia. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single blood collection from either the vena facialis, the retrobulbar sinus or the tail vessel, or were allocated to the respective control treatment. While all blood sampling techniques led to an acute increase in plasma corticosterone levels, the response was strongest in animals that underwent sampling from the vena facialis and the retrobulbar sinus. Similar results were observed when the time-course of adrenocortical activity was monitored via corticosterone metabolites from faecal samples. Blood collection from the vena facialis and the retrobulbar sinus also decreased exploration of novel stimuli, resulted in decreased nest-building activity and induced higher scores in the Mouse Grimace Scale. Moreover, locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviour were strongly affected after facial vein bleeding. Interestingly, tail vessel bleeding only induced little alterations in the assessed physiological and behavioural parameters. Importantly, the observed effects in all treatment groups were no longer detectable after 24 hours, indicating only short-term impacts. Thus, by also taking the animal's perspective and comprehensively assessing the severity of the particular sampling procedures, the results of our study contribute to Refinement within the 3R concept and allow researchers to objectively select the most appropriate and welfare-friendly blood sampling technique for a given experiment.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/sangue , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Laboratório/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/efeitos adversos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/classificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 191: 113597, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927419

RESUMO

The multiple pathological effects of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and its total novelty, mean that currently a lot of diagnostic and therapeutic tools, established and tentative alike, are needed to treat patients in a timely, effective way. In order to make these tools more reliable, faster and more feasible, biological fluid microsampling techniques could provide many advantages. In this review, the most important microsampling techniques are considered (dried matrix spots, volumetric absorptive microsampling, microfluidics and capillary microsampling, solid phase microextraction) and their respective advantages and disadvantages laid out. Moreover, currently available microsampling applications of interest for SARS-CoV-2 therapy are described, in order to make them as much widely known as possible, hopefully providing useful information to researchers and clinicians alike.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
Int J Hematol ; 112(5): 614-620, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929688

RESUMO

Accurate clotting time assay results are vital, as the test is employed to indicate the amount of oral anticoagulant to be prescribed, while it is also used for screening the hemorrhagic and thrombotic diseases. The procedure chosen for preparation of a patient blood sample including centrifugation can contribute to significant differences in the results obtained. Thus, for the purpose of proposing a standardized method to appropriately prepare blood samples prior to assay, the Japanese Society of Laboratory Hematology organized the Working Group for Standardization of Sample Preparation for Clotting Time Assays (WG). Following reviews of previously announced guidelines and original experimental results, consensus was obtained by the WG, with the main findings as follows. (1) The recommended anticoagulant in the blood collection tube is sodium citrate solution at 0.105-0.109 M (3.13-3.2%). (2) Whole blood samples should be stored at room temperature (18-25 ˚C) within 1 h of collection from the patient. (3) For plasma preparation, centrifugation at 1500 × g should be performed for at least 15 min or at 2000 × g for at least 10 min at room temperature. (4) After the plasma sample is prepared, it should be stored at room temperature and assayed within 4 h.


Assuntos
Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/normas , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/normas , Consenso , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Centrifugação , Humanos
10.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 537-546, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933890

RESUMO

Biochemical diagnosis of hereditary metabolic diseases requires the detection and simultaneous identification of a large number of compounds, hence the interest in metabolic profiles. Acylcarnitine profile allows the identification and quantification of more than thirty compounds. As part of the accreditation process for medical biology examinations according to standard NF EN ISO 15189, the group from SFEIM recommends an approach to accredit acylcarnitine profile. Validation parameters and recommendations are discussed in this specific framework.


Assuntos
Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/diagnóstico , Acreditação , Adulto , Amniocentese/métodos , Amniocentese/normas , Líquido Amniótico/química , Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/normas , Carnitina/análise , Carnitina/sangue , Carnitina/urina , Criança , Cromatografia em Papel/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/sangue , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/urina , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Triagem Neonatal/normas , Fase Pré-Analítica/métodos , Fase Pré-Analítica/normas , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/normas , Urinálise/métodos , Urinálise/normas , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Coleta de Urina/normas
11.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4428-4441, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852212

RESUMO

Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of blood plasma is widely used to investigate perturbed metabolic processes in human diseases. The reliability of biochemical data derived from these measurements is dependent on the quality of the sample collection and exact preparation and analysis protocols. Here, we describe systematically, the impact of variations in sample collection and preparation on information recovery from quantitative proton (1H) NMR spectroscopy of human blood plasma and serum. The effects of variation of blood collection tube sizes and preservatives, successive freeze-thaw cycles, sample storage at -80 °C, and short-term storage at 4 and 20 °C on the quantitative lipoprotein and metabolite patterns were investigated. Storage of plasma samples at 4 °C for up to 48 h, freezing at -80 °C and blood sample collection tube choice have few and minor effects on quantitative lipoprotein profiles, and even storage at 4 °C for up to 168 h caused little information loss. In contrast, the impact of heat-treatment (56 °C for 30 min), which has been used for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses, that may be required prior to analytical measurements in low level biosecurity facilities induced marked changes in both lipoprotein and low molecular weight metabolite profiles. It was conclusively demonstrated that this heat inactivation procedure degrades lipoproteins and changes metabolic information in complex ways. Plasma from control individuals and SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are differentially altered resulting in the creation of artifactual pseudo-biomarkers and destruction of real biomarkers to the extent that data from heat-treated samples are largely uninterpretable. We also present several simple blood sample handling recommendations for optimal NMR-based biomarker discovery investigations in SARS CoV-2 studies and general clinical biomarker research.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Artefatos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(4): 399-409, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698132

RESUMO

Context: Unilateral aldosteronomas should suppress renin and contralateral aldosterone secretion. Complete aldosterone suppression in contralateral adrenal vein sample (AVS) could predict surgical outcomes. Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the prevalence of basal contralateral suppression using Aldosterone (A)contralateral(CL)/Aperipheral(P) as compared to (A/Cortisol(C)CL)/(A/C)P ratio in primary aldosteronism (PA) patients studied in two Canadian centers. To determine the best cut-off to predict clinical and biochemical surgical cure. To compare the accuracy of ACL/AP to the basal and post-ACTH lateralization index (LI) in predicting surgical cure. Methods: In total, 330 patients with PA and successful AVS were included; 124 lateralizing patients underwent surgery. Clinical and biochemical cure at 3 and 12 months were evaluated using the PASO criteria. Results: Using ACL/AP and (A/C)CL/(A/C)P at the cut-off of 1, the prevalence of contralateral suppression was 6 and 45%, respectively. Using ROC curves, the ACL/AP ratio is associated with clinical cure at 3 and 12 months and biochemical cure at 12 months. (A/C)CL/(A/C)P is associated with biochemical cure only. The cut-offs for ACL/AP offering the best sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for clinical and biochemical cures at 12 months are 2.15 (Se: 63% and Sp: 71%) and 6.15 (Se: 84% and Sp: 77%), respectively. Basal LI and post-ACTH LI are associated with clinical cure but only the post-ACTH LI is associated with biochemical cure. Conclusions: In lateralized PA, basal contralateral suppression defined by ACL/AP is rare and incomplete compared to the (A/C)CL/(A/C)P ratio and is associated with clinical and biochemical postoperative outcome, but with modest accuracy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/sangue , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Adenoma Adrenocortical/sangue , Aldosterona/sangue , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Hiperaldosteronismo/sangue , Hiperaldosteronismo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/cirurgia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/patologia , Adrenalectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adenoma Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Adenoma Adrenocortical/epidemiologia , Adenoma Adrenocortical/cirurgia , Adulto , Aldosterona/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Endócrino , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Hiperaldosteronismo/patologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(4): 454-460, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616472

RESUMO

Blood angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) assay is now realized by the determination of enzyme activity on synthetic substrate, mostly furylacryloyl-phenylalanyl-L-glycyl-L-glycine (FAPGG). The matrix can be serum or heparin-plasma, with or without a separator; the assay developed on serum or plasma is not adapted to other matrix such as cerebrospinal fluid where the ACE activity is much lower. This assay has been adapted on a number of automated biochemistry analyzers with the specifications of the supplier of reagents, sometimes with modification of volumes or times for analysis. Samples can be stored at +4̊C for at least for one week, freezing at -20̊C is possible but refreezing is not advised. The assay is linear from 10 to 200 UI/L. Fidelity is excellent after calibration of the assay. Accuracy can be calculated from IQA and EQA results, and the analytical uncertainty is between 2% and 5% in function of the serum ACE value. Usual values will be soon available from studies on age brackets and sex, because ACE activity seems to be more elevated in boys during adolescence. At signature, it is interesting to have medical information on the diagnosis of sarcoidosis or its treatment including ACE inhibitors as a proof of intake; we can give a commentary on elevation of serum ACE activity from other causes than sarcoidosis and the causes for low activities.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/análise , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Análise Química do Sangue/normas , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/normas , Granuloma/sangue , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Granuloma/terapia , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/normas , Fase Pré-Analítica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sarcoidose/sangue , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/terapia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
14.
Life Sci ; 256: 117910, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504753

RESUMO

AIMS: Insulin (Ins) covalently modified by catecholestrogens (CEs) was commonly found in diabetic patients who have developed insulin resistance. Estrogenization of insulin altered its molecular function and effect carbohydrates metabolisms in these patients. Insulin resistance is a common phenomenon in diabetes but the exact mechanism remains unknown. In this study, binding specificity and affinity of autoantibodies against estrogenized insulin (4-hydroxyestradiol-insulin; 4-OHE2-Ins) were assayed in the serum of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients in order to explain the phenomena behind insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specificity and affinity of autoantibodies from the sera of 66 T1D patients and 41 controls were analyzed by direct binding, competition ELISA and quantitative precipitin titration. Insulin was also estimated in the serum of T1D patients by ELISA. KEY FINDING: Estrogenized insulin (4-OHE2-Ins) exhibited high affinity and specificity to T1D autoantibodies in comparison to Ins (p < .05) or 4-OHE2 (p < .001). Estrogenization of insulin alters its interaction with the insulin receptor (IR). The affinity constant of 4-OHE2-Ins with the T1D autoantibodies was found to be 1.41 × 10-7 M. SIGNIFICANCE: Estrogenization of insulin by catecholestrogen makes these molecules highly antigenic and produced high-affinity autoantibodies in T1D patients. As a result, patients develop insulin resistance and presented this molecule as a potential biomarker for T1D.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Estrogênios de Catecol/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Insulina/química , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Proposta de Concorrência , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Estrogênios de Catecol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Insulina/imunologia , Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3263, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to develop and validate the first immersive virtual reality simulation addressing vacuum blood collection in adult patients - VIDA-Nursing v1.0. METHOD: methodological study to validate 14 steps of the vacuum blood collection procedure in adults, designed to develop the immersive virtual reality simulator VIDA-Nursing v1.0. It was assessed by 15 health workers and 15 nursing undergraduate students in terms of visual, interactive, movement simulation reality, teaching and user-friendly aspects. RESULTS: the workers considered 79.6% of the items to be valid, while the students considered 66.7% of the items valid; most of the demands can be implemented in the system by improving future versions. CONCLUSION: the simulator was considered a promising and innovative tool to teach vacuum blood collection in adults as it can be combined with other resources currently used to introduce this topic and technique in the education of undergraduate nursing students.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/instrumentação , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Invenções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vácuo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Transfusion ; 60(8): 1773-1777, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel coronavirus has caused an international outbreak. Currently, there are no specific therapeutic agents for coronavirus infections. Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy is a potentially effective treatment option. METHODS: Patients who had recovered from COVID-19 and had been discharged from the hospital for more than 2 weeks were recruited. COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP)-specific donor screening and selection were performed based on the following criteria: 1) aged 18-55 years; 2) eligible for blood donation; 3) diagnosed with COVID-19; 4) had two consecutive negative COVID-19 nasopharyngeal swab tests based on PCR (at least 24 hr apart) prior to hospital discharge; 5) had been discharged from the hospital for more than 2 weeks; and 6) had no COVID-19 symptoms prior to convalescent plasma donation. In addition, preference was given to CCP donors who had a fever lasting more than 3 days or a body temperature exceeding 38.5°C (101.3°F), and who donated 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. CCP collection was performed using routine plasma collection procedures via plasmapheresis. In addition to routine donor testing, the CCP donors' plasma was also tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid and S-RBD-specific IgG antibody. RESULTS: Of the 81 potential CCP donors, 64 (79%) plasma products were collected. There were 18 female donors and 46 male donors. There were 34 first-time blood donors and 30 repeat donors. The average time between CCP collection and initial symptom onset was 49.1 days, and the average time between CCP collection and hospital discharge was 38.7 days. The average volume of CCP collected was 327.7 mL. All Alanine transaminase (ALT) testing results met blood donation requirements. HIV Ag/Ab, anti-HCV, anti-syphilis, and HBsAg were all negative; NAT for HIV, HBV, and HCV were also negative. In addition, all of the CCP donors' plasma units were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Of the total 64 CCP donors tested, only one had an S-RBD-specific IgG titer of 1:160, all others had a titer of ≥1:320. CONCLUSION: Based on a feasibility study of a pilot CCP program in Wuhan, China, we demonstrated the success and feasibility of CCP collection. In addition, all of the CCP units collected had a titer of ≥1:160 for S-RBD-specific IgG antibody, which met the CCP quality control requirements based on the Chinese national guidelines for CCP.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Seleção do Doador/normas , Plasmaferese/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , China , Convalescença , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 303-307, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549559

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) causes a disease that primarily affects juvenile Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants, causing acute hemorrhage and death. Due to the severity of the disease, many zoos have developed EEHV active surveillance programs. Currently, trunk washes are the standard for testing elephants for shedding of EEHV, but it has also been detected from other mucosal surfaces. This study compared the efficacy of oral swabs and trunk washes for the detection of EEHV shedding using previously validated quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods. Oral swab and trunk wash samples from three juvenile elephants at the Dublin Zoo in Ireland were collected in tandem and tested from April to September 2017. Of the 51 paired samples, 21 trunk wash samples were positive for EEHV1, while only 2 of the oral swab samples were positive for EEHV1, suggesting that trunk wash samples are more effective for detecting shedding of EEHV in Asian elephants compared with oral swabs.


Assuntos
Betaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Elefantes , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Viremia/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Irlanda , Masculino , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/virologia
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 433-437, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549575

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) threatens Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) population sustainability in North America. Clusters of cases have also been reported in African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Risk to range country elephant populations is unknown. Currently, EEHV detection depends upon sampling elephants trained for invasive blood and trunk wash collection. To evaluate noninvasive sample collection options, paired invasively collected (blood, trunk wash and oral swabs), and noninvasively collected (chewed plant and fecal) samples were compared over 6 wk from 9 Asian elephants and 12 African elephants. EEHV shedding was detected simultaneously in a paired trunk wash and fecal sample from one African elephant. Elephant γ herpesvirus-1 shedding was identified in six chewed plant samples collected from four Asian elephants. Noninvasively collected samples can be used to detect elephant herpesvirus shedding. Longer sampling periods are needed to evaluate the clinical usefulness of noninvasive sampling for EEHV detection.


Assuntos
Betaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Elefantes , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Ração Animal/virologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Irlanda , Masculino , Manejo de Espécimes/classificação , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação
19.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 123-126, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573748

RESUMO

We present the case of a severely injured Special Operations Servicemember whose care was remarkable for three unique interventions: the first use of a walking blood bank performed at the point of injury, prolonged permissive hypotension, and intermittent resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA).


Assuntos
Medicina Militar/métodos , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra/terapia , Aorta , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Transfusão de Sangue , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Humanos , Hipotensão , Ressuscitação/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559239

RESUMO

The benefits of inhaling hydrogen gas (H2) have been widely reported but its pharmacokinetics have not yet been sufficiently analyzed. We developed a new experimental system in pigs to closely evaluate the process by which H2 is absorbed in the lungs, enters the bloodstream, and is distributed, metabolized, and excreted. We inserted and secured catheters into the carotid artery (CA), portal vein (PV), and supra-hepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) to allow repeated blood sampling and performed bilateral thoracotomy to collapse the lungs. Then, using a hydrogen-absorbing alloy canister, we filled the lungs to the maximum inspiratory level with 100% H2. The pig was maintained for 30 seconds without resuming breathing, as if they were holding their breath. We collected blood from the three intravascular catheters after 0, 3, 10, 30, and 60 minutes and measured H2 concentration by gas chromatography. H2 concentration in the CA peaked immediately after breath holding; 3 min later, it dropped to 1/40 of the peak value. Peak H2 concentrations in the PV and IVC were 40% and 14% of that in the CA, respectively. However, H2 concentration decay in the PV and IVC (half-life: 310 s and 350 s, respectively) was slower than in the CA (half-life: 92 s). At 10 min, H2 concentration was significantly higher in venous blood than in arterial blood. At 60 min, H2 was detected in the portal blood at a concentration of 6.9-53 nL/mL higher than at steady state, and in the SVC 14-29 nL/mL higher than at steady state. In contrast, H2 concentration in the CA decreased to steady state levels. This is the first report showing that inhaled H2 is transported to the whole body by advection diffusion and metabolized dynamically.


Assuntos
Hidrogênio/farmacocinética , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Difusão , Hidrogênio/sangue , Metabolismo , Veia Porta/metabolismo , Suínos , Veia Cava Inferior/metabolismo
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