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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48514, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1117619

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar as dissertações e teses defendidas nos cursos de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Enfermagem, no Brasil, relativas ao tema criança com estoma, destacando seus aspectos epistemológicos. Método: estudo documental, descritivo, considerando o recorte temporal entre 2009 e 2019. Utilizou-se a Metodologia de Categorização Epistemológica para a Pesquisa na Enfermagem. Resultados: selecionaram-se doze estudos: dez dissertações de mestrado e duas teses de doutorado. Nota-se o predomínio de estudos na área/campo epistêmico assistencial, na linha de pesquisa: Processo de Cuidar em Saúde e Enfermagem. Identificou-se um maior interesse de estudos no contexto domiciliar e ambulatorial. Há predomínio da abordagem qualitativa e uso da entrevista para coleta de dados. Conclusão: os aspectos epistemológicos destacados possibilitam afirmar que as dissertações e teses relacionadas ao tema estão predominantemente orientadas para um pragmatismo epistemológico da assistência de enfermagem à criança com estoma e sua família, com objetos científicos delimitados para alcançar a compreensão desse fenômeno.


Objective: to examine postgraduate Nursing dissertations and theses defended in Brazil on the subject of children with stoma, highlighting their epistemological aspects. Method: this descriptive study considered studies published between 2009 and 2019 using the Epistemological Categorization methodology for research in Nursing. Results: twelve studies were selected: ten master's dissertations and two doctoral theses. The predominant epistemic area/field was "care", in the research line: "care process in health, and nursing". Studies were found to show greater interest in the home and outpatient context. The qualitative approach and data collection by interview predominated. Conclusion: from the epistemological aspects highlighted, it can be said that the dissertations and theses on the subject of children with stomata were predominantly oriented towards an epistemological pragmatism in nursing care for children with stoma and their families, with scientific objects delimited to achieve an understanding of this phenomenon.


Objetivo: analizar las disertaciones y tesis de posgrado en Enfermería defendidas en Brazil sobre el tema de niños con estoma, destacando sus aspectos epistemológicos. Método: este estudio descriptivo consideró estudios publicados entre 2009 y 2019 utilizando la metodología de Categorización Epistemológica para la investigación en Enfermería. Resultados: se seleccionaron doce estudios: diez tesis de maestría y dos tesis doctorales. El área / campo epistémico predominante fue el "cuidado", en la línea de investigación: "proceso de cuidado en salud y enfermería". Se encontró que los estudios muestran un mayor interés en el contexto domiciliario y ambulatorio. Predominó el enfoque cualitativo y la recolección de datos por entrevista. Conclusión: a partir de los aspectos epistemológicos destacados, se puede decir que las disertaciones y tesis sobre el tema de los niños con estoma estuvieron orientadas predominantemente hacia un pragmatismo epistemológico en la atención de enfermería al niño con estoma y sus familias, con objetos científicos delimitados para lograr un entendimiento. de este fenómeno.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Estomia/educação , Cuidado da Criança , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem , Brasil , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Coleta de Dados , Estomas Cirúrgicos , Cuidados de Enfermagem
2.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(8): 541-554, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025949

RESUMO

At the 56th Global Annual Meeting of the Drug Information Association (DIA), attendees met virtually during the height of the global COVID-19 pandemic for "rapid cross-stakeholder, cross-border collaboration" to support health worldwide. Sessions included presenters and speakers from regulatory, patient advocacy and academia sectors, with patients at the forefront of those discussions. This report covers various presentations and panel discussions from the 4-day meeting that focus on COVID-19, innovative trial designs spurred by a need to adapt amid a pandemic, digital health, novel products inspiring new regulatory standards, clinical trials, data collection and management, the need for more and better data and the ever-increasing importance of the patient perspective.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Congressos como Assunto , Coleta de Dados , Gerenciamento de Dados , Humanos
3.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 108(4): 656-662, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013228

RESUMO

Since January 30, 2020, when the World Health Organization declared the SARS CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) to be a public health emergency of international concern, the National Library of Medicine's (NLM's) Web Collecting and Archiving Working Group has been collecting a broad range of web-based content about the emerging pandemic for preservation in an Internet archive. Like NLM's other Global Health Events web collections, this content will have enduring value as a multifaceted historical record for future study and understanding of this event. This article describes the scope of the COVID-19 project; some of the content captured from websites, blogs, and social media; collecting criteria and methods; and related COVID-19 collecting efforts by other groups. The growing collection-2,500 items as of June 30, 2020-chronicles the many facets of the pandemic: epidemiology; vaccine and drug research; disease control measures and resistance to them; effects of the pandemic on health care institutions and workers, education, commerce, and many aspects of social life; effects for especially vulnerable groups; role of health disparities in infection and mortality; and recognition of racism as a public health emergency.


Assuntos
Arquivos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Curadoria de Dados , National Library of Medicine (U.S.) , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Coleta de Dados , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pandemias , Controle de Qualidade , Estados Unidos
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium vivax malaria represents a major public health problem. This study presents the quality assessment of clinical practice guidelines for the management of P. vivax malaria. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, SciELO, and Google Scholar. Additionally, five guidelines were assessed with the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation) II protocol. RESULTS: The general performance on the domains of stakeholder involvement, development rigor, and editorial independence was low. CONCLUSIONS: Most guidelines lack a solid research methodology, which implies ambiguous accuracy. Much needs to be done in the area of therapeutics and quality of policies.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Projetos de Pesquisa , América do Sul
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21299, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers and chatbots have been developed; however, anecdotal evidence suggests that their conclusions are highly variable. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the accuracy of COVID-19 symptom checkers in a statistically rigorous manner. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracies of web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers. METHODS: We identified 10 web-based COVID-19 symptom checkers, all of which were included in the study. We evaluated the COVID-19 symptom checkers by assessing 50 COVID-19 case reports alongside 410 non-COVID-19 control cases. A bootstrapping method was used to counter the unbalanced sample sizes and obtain confidence intervals (CIs). Results are reported as sensitivity, specificity, F1 score, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). RESULTS: The classification task between COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative for "high risk" cases among the 460 test cases yielded (sorted by F1 score): Symptoma (F1=0.92, MCC=0.85), Infermedica (F1=0.80, MCC=0.61), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (F1=0.71, MCC=0.30), Babylon (F1=0.70, MCC=0.29), Cleveland Clinic (F1=0.40, MCC=0.07), Providence (F1=0.40, MCC=0.05), Apple (F1=0.29, MCC=-0.10), Docyet (F1=0.27, MCC=0.29), Ada (F1=0.24, MCC=0.27) and Your.MD (F1=0.24, MCC=0.27). For "high risk" and "medium risk" combined the performance was: Symptoma (F1=0.91, MCC=0.83) Infermedica (F1=0.80, MCC=0.61), Cleveland Clinic (F1=0.76, MCC=0.47), Providence (F1=0.75, MCC=0.45), Your.MD (F1=0.72, MCC=0.33), CDC (F1=0.71, MCC=0.30), Babylon (F1=0.70, MCC=0.29), Apple (F1=0.70, MCC=0.25), Ada (F1=0.42, MCC=0.03), and Docyet (F1=0.27, MCC=0.29). CONCLUSIONS: We found that the number of correctly assessed COVID-19 and control cases varies considerably between symptom checkers, with different symptom checkers showing different strengths with respect to sensitivity and specificity. A good balance between sensitivity and specificity was only achieved by two symptom checkers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Internet , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Informática em Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3642-3650, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893553

RESUMO

This article is based on basic data such as field surveys and literature surveys, contrasting and analyzing the distribution of Callicarpa nudiflora by different zoning methods, different data sources, and different spatial scales. The results showed that there were certain differences in the distribution results obtained by using different methods, such as qualitative description, similar ecological environment, and niche model, to divide the distribution of the C. nudiflora, but all of them could reflect the distribution of C. nudiflora to different degrees. Among them, the qualitative description division method has certain advantages in macro guidance in a large scale. The distribution range obtained by the ecological environment similar division method is wider than that obtained by applying the qualitative description method and the niche model method. The results of the zoning of the distribution of the C. nudiflora obtained from different data sources were different. The number and representativeness of the survey data have an impact on the zoning results. Through the analysis of the distribution of different spatial scales, the ecological factors and contribution rates that affect the distribution of C. nudiflora are different in China and in the world. The comprehensive multi-source data analysis showed that C. nudiflora mainly distributed in southern coastal provinces such as Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian in China, and also in Jiangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Chongqing, Hunan, Gansu, Taiwan and other provinces. Globally, C. nudiflora are suitable for distribution in Southeast Asia, such as China, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, India, etc. There are also potential distribution areas in the southern United States and Mexico.


Assuntos
Callicarpa , China , Coleta de Dados , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Vietnã
9.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 14: 3803-3813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982184

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms of antiviral drugs against the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the study designs in clinical trials registered with the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Methods: Clinical trials involving antiviral drugs for treating COVID-19 were retrieved from the ICTRP database. For each trial, the study design, number of participants, primary endpoints, source register, antiviral mechanism, and results were evaluated. Results: On June 10, 2020, 145 eligible clinical trials were retrieved from the ICTRP, of which 99 (68.3%) were randomized trials, 109 (75.2%) were parallel assignment trials, 38 (26.2%) were double or single blinded, 130 (89.7%) involved two groups, and 75 (51.6%) included more than 100 participants; and clinical improvement or recovery and virus-negative conversion were the two most common endpoints, accounting for 40.7% and 18.6%, respectively. The drugs were divided according to the antiviral mechanism into HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors, HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), hepatitis C virus NS3 PIs, and anti-influenza drugs. Conclusion: The design characteristics of clinical trials of antiviral drugs for treating COVID-19 as well as the mechanism of action and antiviral efficacy of the drugs were evaluated in this study. The results of these trials could constitute a reference for future clinical trials to be executed on COVID-19 treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Coleta de Dados , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Gerenciamento de Dados , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
Science ; 369(6508): 1160-1161, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883846
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 643, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transmission features and the feasibility of containing shigellosis remain unclear among a population-based study in China. METHODS: A population-based Susceptible - Exposed - Infectious / Asymptomatic - Recovered (SEIAR) model was built including decreasing the infectious period (DIP) or isolation of shigellosis cases. We analyzed the distribution of the reported shigellosis cases in Hubei Province, China from January 2005 to December 2017, and divided the time series into several stages according to the heterogeneity of reported incidence during the period. In each stage, an epidemic season was selected for the modelling and assessing the effectiveness of DIP and case isolation. RESULTS: A total of 130,770 shigellosis cases were reported in Hubei Province. The median of Reff was 1.13 (range: 0.86-1.21), 1.10 (range: 0.91-1.13), 1.09 (range: 0.92-1.92), and 1.03 (range: 0.94-1.22) in 2005-2006 season, 2010-2011 season, 2013-2014 season, and 2016-2017 season, respectively. The reported incidence decreased significantly (trend χ2 = 8260.41, P <  0.001) among four stages. The incidence of shigellosis decreased sharply when DIP implemented in three scenarios (γ = 0.1, 0.1429, 0.3333) and when proportion of case isolation increased. CONCLUSIONS: Year heterogeneity of reported shigellosis incidence exists in Hubei Province. It is feasible to contain the transmission by implementing DIP and case isolation.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Modelos Teóricos , Infecções Assintomáticas , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Coleta de Dados , Disenteria Bacilar/prevenção & controle , Disenteria Bacilar/transmissão , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Incidência , Estações do Ano
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e20509, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the COVID-19 outbreak started in China and rapidly spread around the world. Lack of a vaccine or optimized intervention raised the importance of characterizing risk factors and symptoms for the early identification and successful treatment of patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate and analyze biomedical literature and public social media data to understand the association of risk factors and symptoms with the various outcomes observed in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Through semantic analysis, we collected 45 retrospective cohort studies, which evaluated 303 clinical and demographic variables across 13 different outcomes of patients with COVID-19, and 84,140 Twitter posts from 1036 COVID-19-positive users. Machine learning tools to extract biomedical information were introduced to identify mentions of uncommon or novel symptoms in tweets. We then examined and compared two data sets to expand our landscape of risk factors and symptoms related to COVID-19. RESULTS: From the biomedical literature, approximately 90% of clinical and demographic variables showed inconsistent associations with COVID-19 outcomes. Consensus analysis identified 72 risk factors that were specifically associated with individual outcomes. From the social media data, 51 symptoms were characterized and analyzed. By comparing social media data with biomedical literature, we identified 25 novel symptoms that were specifically mentioned in tweets but have been not previously well characterized. Furthermore, there were certain combinations of symptoms that were frequently mentioned together in social media. CONCLUSIONS: Identified outcome-specific risk factors, symptoms, and combinations of symptoms may serve as surrogate indicators to identify patients with COVID-19 and predict their clinical outcomes in order to provide appropriate treatments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Mídias Sociais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Coleta de Dados , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Surtos de Doenças , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Cefaleia/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Publicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19992, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of a vaccine or effective treatment for COVID-19, countries have adopted nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing and full lockdown. An objective and quantitative means of passively monitoring the impact and response of these interventions at a local level is needed. OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the utility of the recently developed open-source mobile health platform Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse (RADAR)-base as a toolbox to rapidly test the effect and response to NPIs intended to limit the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data extracted from smartphone and wearable devices, and managed by the RADAR-base from 1062 participants recruited in Italy, Spain, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. We derived nine features on a daily basis including time spent at home, maximum distance travelled from home, the maximum number of Bluetooth-enabled nearby devices (as a proxy for physical distancing), step count, average heart rate, sleep duration, bedtime, phone unlock duration, and social app use duration. We performed Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by post hoc Dunn tests to assess differences in these features among baseline, prelockdown, and during lockdown periods. We also studied behavioral differences by age, gender, BMI, and educational background. RESULTS: We were able to quantify expected changes in time spent at home, distance travelled, and the number of nearby Bluetooth-enabled devices between prelockdown and during lockdown periods (P<.001 for all five countries). We saw reduced sociality as measured through mobility features and increased virtual sociality through phone use. People were more active on their phones (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), spending more time using social media apps (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands), particularly around major news events. Furthermore, participants had a lower heart rate (P<.001 for Italy and Spain; P=.02 for Denmark), went to bed later (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands), and slept more (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We also found that young people had longer homestay than older people during the lockdown and fewer daily steps. Although there was no significant difference between the high and low BMI groups in time spent at home, the low BMI group walked more. CONCLUSIONS: RADAR-base, a freely deployable data collection platform leveraging data from wearables and mobile technologies, can be used to rapidly quantify and provide a holistic view of behavioral changes in response to public health interventions as a result of infectious outbreaks such as COVID-19. RADAR-base may be a viable approach to implementing an early warning system for passively assessing the local compliance to interventions in epidemics and pandemics, and could help countries ease out of lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coleta de Dados , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Smartphone , Isolamento Social , Telemedicina , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Monitorização Fisiológica , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Mídias Sociais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 26(10): 1297-1300, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three pharmacist-specific Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes exist to facilitate medication therapy management (MTM) reimbursement (codes 99605, 99606, and 99607). However, no studies have used CPT codes in administrative claims databases to identify subjects who have received MTM services. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of MTM services provided, using CPT codes identified in an administrative dataset. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a subset of Medicare Part D individuals from the IBM MarketScan Medicare Supplemental Research Databases (2009-2015). Researchers identified beneficiaries who received MTM services using CPT codes 99605, 99606, and 99607. RESULTS: Of the 16,483,709 individuals in the dataset, only 3,291 had CPT codes indicating that they received MTM services, representing an overall prevalence of 0.020%. CONCLUSIONS: The use of CPT codes as an indicator of MTM service provision resulted in far lower MTM utilization rates than in published literature. Reliance on CPT codes to identify MTM services in administrative claims is not recommended, given that it limited the researchers' ability to properly identify patient receipt of such services. More accurate methodologies are warranted for identifying MTM use and its effects on patient outcomes. DISCLOSURES: This work was supported by Pharmacy Quality Alliance; Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co. (Kenilworth, NJ); and SinfoniaRx. The funding sources had no role in study design, collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, writing the report, or decision to submit the article for publication. Tate, Chinthammit, and Campbell completed this work during their employment at the University of Arizona. Pickering was an employee of Pharmacy Quality Alliance at the time of this study. Black is employed by Merck. Axon reports grants from the Arizona Department of Health Services and the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy; Campbell reports a grant from the Community Pharmacy Foundation; Chinthammit reports fees from Eli Lilly; Black has received a grant from Merck; Warholak reports grants from the Arizona Department of Health Services and Novartis, all unrelated to this study. Taylor reports grants from Tabula Rasa Op-Co, during the conduct of the study, and from the Arizona Department of Health Services, outside the conduct of this study. This research was accepted as a poster presentation at the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Annual Meeting, May 16-20, 2020, in Orlando, FL, but was not presented due to the COVID-19 pandemic. An abstract was published in Value in Health, 2020;23(Suppl 1):S305.


Assuntos
Current Procedural Terminology , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Medicare Part D/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
18.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(3): 277-284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985430

RESUMO

Background: Improving quality of health services and providing safe care require well-trained and skilled workforce. The inclusion of components of patient safety in graduate training curricula, followed by adherence to curricula in teaching programs, can improve the quality of health-care services. Objectives: To review the existing training curricula for five subgroups of health workforce (Allopathic doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, pharmacists, and nurse midwives) and to document the components and identified variables of patient safety covered. Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted during July 2017-March 2018. Data were collected through desk review, field visits, in-depth interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and focused group discussions (FGDs). A total of 24 variables were identified by the experts to review the training curricula. Results: Seven states, 28 institutes, and 42 health-care facilities were visited. A total of 516 staff from different health cadres participated in the study through 54 interviews, 156 self-administered questionnaires, and 24 FGDs. Of 24 patient safety variables considered, 16 were covered in the medical and nursing, 9 in laboratory technician and pharmacist, and 5 in midwives' curricula. The teaching material on the patient safety, for most categories of staff, was not available in consolidated form, and there was no standardization. Conclusion: There is a need for the development of comprehensive training material cum operational modules on patient safety, suitably adopted as per the learning needs of different subgroups of health staff. The need for strengthening patient safety has been further underscored as the health workforce is fighting the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The initiatives on patient safety will contribute to improved overall quality of health services, which in turn would advance universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Segurança do Paciente , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Currículo , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade
19.
Aust Health Rev ; 44(5): 723-727, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962798

RESUMO

Objective This study analysed screening for COVID-19 before surgery and outcomes of any perioperative testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection during pandemic-restricted surgery. Methods An audit was conducted with routinely collected health data before both elective and non-elective surgery at two large Melbourne hospitals during April and early May 2020. We looked for documented systematic screening for COVID-19 disease and fever (>38°C) and results of SARS-COV-2 testing, and proposed a minimum acceptable documenting rate of 85%. Results The study included 2197 consecutive patients (1279 (58%) undergoing elective surgery, 917 (42%) undergoing non-elective surgery) across most specialities. Although 926 (72%) patients undergoing elective surgery had both systematic screening and temperature documented, approximately half that percentage undergoing non-elective surgery (n=347; 38%) had both documented. However, 871 (95%) of non-elective surgery patients had temperature documented. Acknowledging limited screening, 85 (9.3%) non-elective surgery patients had positive screening, compared with 39 (3.0%) elective surgery patients. All 152 (7%) patients who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 were negative, and no cases were reported from external contact tracing. Conclusions Although 'not documented' does not necessarily equal 'not done', we found that documenting of COVID-19 screening could be improved. Better understanding of implementing screening practices in pandemics and other crises, particularly for non-elective surgery patients, is warranted. What is known about the topic? Little is known about routine screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection among surgical patients. However, it is well established that implementing effective uptake of safety and quality initiatives can be difficult. What does this paper add? We found that although most patients had documented temperature, fewer than 75% had a documented systematic questionnaire screen for COVID, particularly patients undergoing non-elective surgery. What are the implications for practitioners? Clear documenting is important in managing patients. Pandemics and other crises can require rapid changes in practice. Implementing such measures may be less complete than anticipated and may require greater use of evidence-based implementation strategies, particularly in the less predictable care of non-elective surgery patients.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239441, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976519

RESUMO

The study aims to understand Twitter users' discourse and psychological reactions to COVID-19. We use machine learning techniques to analyze about 1.9 million Tweets (written in English) related to coronavirus collected from January 23 to March 7, 2020. A total of salient 11 topics are identified and then categorized into ten themes, including "updates about confirmed cases," "COVID-19 related death," "cases outside China (worldwide)," "COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea," "early signs of the outbreak in New York," "Diamond Princess cruise," "economic impact," "Preventive measures," "authorities," and "supply chain." Results do not reveal treatments and symptoms related messages as prevalent topics on Twitter. Sentiment analysis shows that fear for the unknown nature of the coronavirus is dominant in all topics. Implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/classificação , Betacoronavirus , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias
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