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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(37): 5619-5629, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database provides large-cohort. However, studies regarding accuracy of administrative database for pancreatic cancer (PC) have not been reported. We aimed to identify accuracy of NHI database regarding PC classified by international classification of disease (ICD)-10 codes. AIM: To identify the accuracy and usefulness of administrative database in PC and the accurate ICD codes for PC with location. METHODS: Study and control groups were collected from 2003 to 2016 at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. Cases of PC were identified in NHI database by international classification of diseases, 10th revision edition (ICD-10 codes) supported with V codes. V code is issued by medical doctors for covering 95% of medical cost by Korean government. According to pathologic reports, definite or possible diagnoses were defined using medical records, images, and pathology. RESULTS: A total of 1846 cases with PC and controls were collected. Among PC, only 410 (22.2%) cases were identified as specific cancer sites including head in 234 (12.7%) cases, tail in 104 (5.6%) cases and body in 72 (3.9%) cases. Among PC, 910 (49.3%) cases were diagnosed by definite criteria. Most of these were adenocarcinoma (98.0%). The rates of definite diagnosis of PC were highest in head (70.1%) followed by body (47.2%) and tail (43.3%). False-positive cases were pancreatic cystic neoplasm and metastasis to the pancreas. In terms of the overall diagnosis of PC, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 99.95%, 98.72%, 98.70%, and 99.95%, respectively. Diagnostic accuracy was similar both in terms of diagnostic criteria and tumor locations. CONCLUSION: Korean NHI claims database collected according to ICD-10 code with V code for PC showed good accuracy.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 592, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate medications prescribed for pregnant women and their potential teratogenicity risk in Kemisse General Hospital. RESULT: A total of 263 medical records of pregnant women were reviewed, of which 234 pregnant women were prescribed with a total of 430 prescription drugs. The average numbers of drugs per pregnant women was found to be 1.84. Most pregnant women 166 (63.2%) were in the third trimester and more than half of them (51.3%) were multigravida. The maximum number of drugs were prescribed in the second trimester 162 (37.67%) followed by third trimester 143 (33.26%). Supplemental drugs were the most widely used medications 297 (69.07%) and followed by 82 (19.1%) drugs from category B; 54 (12.6%) drugs from category C; and the rest 7 (1.6%) drugs from category D. There was no any drug from category X. Moreover, approximately one third of the pregnant women encountered with drugs from category B, C and D. However, there were no FDA category C and D drugs prescribed in first trimester.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4389, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558713

RESUMO

Do clashes between ideologies reflect policy differences or something more fundamental? The present research suggests they reflect core psychological differences such that liberals express compassion toward less structured and more encompassing entities (i.e., universalism), whereas conservatives express compassion toward more well-defined and less encompassing entities (i.e., parochialism). Here we report seven studies illustrating universalist versus parochial differences in compassion. Studies 1a-1c show that liberals, relative to conservatives, express greater moral concern toward friends relative to family, and the world relative to the nation. Studies 2a-2b demonstrate these universalist versus parochial preferences extend toward simple shapes depicted as proxies for loose versus tight social circles. Using stimuli devoid of political relevance demonstrates that the universalist-parochialist distinction does not simply reflect differing policy preferences. Studies 3a-3b indicate these universalist versus parochial tendencies extend to humans versus nonhumans more generally, demonstrating the breadth of these psychological differences.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cultura , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Empatia , Princípios Morais , Política , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002929, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems play a key role in upholding human rights and generating data for health and good governance. They also can help monitor progress in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Although many countries have made substantial progress in strengthening their CRVS systems, most low- and middle-income countries still have underdeveloped systems. The objective of this systematic review is to identify national policies that can help countries strengthen their systems. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The ABI/INFORM, Embase, JSTOR, PubMed, and WHO Index Medicus databases were systematically searched for policies to improve birth and/or death registration on 24 January 2017. Global stakeholders were also contacted for relevant grey literature. For the purposes of this review, policies were categorised as supply, demand, incentive, penalty, or combination (i.e., at least two of the preceding policy approaches). Quantitative results on changes in vital event registration rates were presented for individual comparative articles. Qualitative systematic review methodology, including meta-ethnography, was used for qualitative syntheses on operational considerations encompassing acceptability to recipients and staff, human resource requirements, information technology or infrastructure requirements, costs to the health system, unintended effects, facilitators, and barriers. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018085768. Thirty-five articles documenting experience in implementing policies to improve birth and/or death registration were identified. Although 25 countries representing all global regions (Africa, the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, Europe, and the Eastern Mediterranean) were reflected, there were limited countries from the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe regions. Twenty-four articles reported policy effects on birth and/or death registration. Twenty-one of the 24 articles found that the change in registration rate after the policy was positive, with two supply and one penalty articles being the exceptions. The qualitative syntheses identified 15 operational considerations across all policy categories. Human and financial resource requirements were not quantified. The primary limitation of this systematic review was the threat of publication bias wherein many countries may not have documented their experience; this threat is most concerning for policies that had neutral or negative effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review suggests that combination policy approaches, consisting of at least a supply and demand component, were consistently associated with improved registration rates in different geographical contexts. Operational considerations should be interpreted based on health system, governance, and sociocultural context. More evaluations and research are needed from the Eastern Mediterranean and Europe regions. Further research and evaluation are also needed to estimate the human and financial resource requirements required for different policies.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Direitos Humanos , Formulação de Políticas , Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Estatísticas Vitais , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Direitos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Urology ; 133: 204-210, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the robustness of hydronephrosis literature with the application of fragility index (FI) and fragility quotient (FQ) calculations. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using Pubmed, Medline, and Ovid for "hydronephrosis" and associated terms and we included all studies with at least 2 groups being compared. FI was calculated by populating study results into a 2-by-2 contingency table and generating a P value using Fisher's exact test. Next, events were manually added to the group with the fewest events, while removing a nonevent from the same group and Fisher's exact test repeated until the P value was >.05. FQ was calculated by dividing FI by the total sample size. RESULTS: The 130 included articles were published between 1986 and 2018 in 32 journals. Median citation count was 14 (0-252), 30% were RCTs and most papers originated in the United States (28%), Turkey(10%), and Canada(9%). Median FI was 2 (1-112), FQ was 0.023 (0.0010-0.55), and 60 papers (46%) had a FI of 1, indicating extremely fragile results. There was a significant difference in the FI between observational studies and RCTs (10 ± 17 vs 4 ± 5; P = .02); however, there was no difference in FQ (0.032 ± 0.030 vs 0.053 ± 0.080; P = .09) between them. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of studies in hydronephrosis literature reporting significant results are extremely fragile, requiring addition of only a couple of events in 1 treatment arm to significantly modify the results. As such, objective reporting of robustness of results should include FI and FQ which may help diminish over-reliance on P values as the main indicator of clinical significance in comparative studies.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidronefrose , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Urologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 508, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Care homes are a common place of death for older adults, especially those with complex health needs or dementia. Representative, internationally comparable data on care home facilities and their residents is needed to monitor health and wellbeing in this population. Identification and collection of data from care homes can be challenging and often underreported. This paper draws on the experiences of the PACE study, a cross sectional mortality follow back study conducted in six European countries. RESULTS: Multiple challenges were encountered in creating a sampling framework and contacting, recruiting and retaining care homes in the PACE study. Recruiting a randomly identified, representative cohort from a stratified sampling framework was problematic, as was engaging with care homes to ensure high response rates. Variation in the funding of care homes across the six countries involved in the study may explain the additional challenges encountered in England. Awareness of the challenges encountered in England in implementing an international study in care homes can inform the design and implementation of future studies within care homes. Further discussion is needed to determine the barriers and facilitators to conducting research in care homes, and how this is shaped by the focus of the study.


Assuntos
Demência/terapia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Taxa de Sobrevida
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 537, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic data collection (EDC) has become a suitable alternative to paper based data collection (PBDC) in biomedical research even in resource poor settings. During a survey in Nepal, data were collected using both systems and data entry errors compared between both methods. Collected data were checked for completeness, values outside of realistic ranges, internal logic and date variables for reasonable time frames. Variables were grouped into 5 categories and the number of discordant entries were compared between both systems, overall and per variable category. RESULTS: Data from 52 variables collected from 358 participants were available. Discrepancies between both data sets were found in 12.6% of all entries (2352/18,616). Differences between data points were identified in 18.0% (643/3580) of continuous variables, 15.8% of time variables (113/716), 13.0% of date variables (140/1074), 12.0% of text variables (86/716), and 10.9% of categorical variables (1370/12,530). Overall 64% (1499/2352) of all discrepancies were due to data omissions, 76.6% (1148/1499) of missing entries were among categorical data. Omissions in PBDC (n = 1002) were twice as frequent as in EDC (n = 497, p < 0.001). Data omissions, specifically among categorical variables were identified as the greatest source of error. If designed accordingly, EDC can address this short fall effectively.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Nepal , Publicações/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Mensagem de Texto/normas , Mensagem de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218870, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the estimated 554,000 homeless individuals on any given night in the United States, obtaining quality sleep is often challenging. This group is known to have multiple health disparities, potentially affected by sleep problems; therefore, identifying lifestyle factors-such as physical activity-that are associated with improving both quality and quantity of sleep has important implications for public health. Here, we examine associations of physical activity with subjective sleep problems within a large sample of homeless adults. METHODS: Participants were homeless adults recruited from Dallas and Oklahoma (N = 747; 66.1% men, Mage = 43.7±12.1). Participants self-reported insufficient sleep (number of days without sufficient rest/sleep in the last month; categorized as 0, 1-13, 14-29, or ≥30 days), sleep duration (over average 24 hours; categorized as ≤6 [short sleeper], 7-9 [optimal sleeper], or ≥10 hours [long sleeper]), and unintentional daytime sleep (number of days with unintentional sleep in the last month; categorized as 0 vs ≥30 days). Physical activity was assessed subjectively using the BRFSS Physical Activity Questionnaire. Regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between physical activity and sleep problems, controlling for age, sex, race, education, body mass, months homeless, at-risk drinking, self-rated health, serious mental illness, smoking status, and recruitment city. RESULTS: Failure to meet/exceed physical activity guidelines was associated with higher likelihood of being a long sleeper (OR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.46, 4.78) but a lower likelihood of having ≥30 days of insufficient rest/sleep (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that physical activity promotion may hold promise for addressing the problem of too much sleep, but not other manifestations of sleep problems among this vulnerable group.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Texas/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 427, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the immediate newborn care of knowledge, practice and associated factors among healthcare providers in Northwestern Zonal health facilities Tigray, Ethiopia, 2018. RESULTS: Among the total healthcare providers, who participated in this study, 64.8% had good knowledge and 59.8% of the respondents had a good level of essential newborn care practice. Unavailability of adequate materials (like guidelines, drug, etc.) and training status were significant variables with knowledge and practice of newborn care.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente/normas , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(5): 164-171, jun 2019. tab, fig
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1024547

RESUMO

Background: Anemia is considered by Worl Health Organization (WHO) as a global health problem. It can be affected by the body mass index of an individual since increasing weight can result in low-grade systemic inflammation and elevation of hepcidin which results in seguestratiion of iron inside a variety of cells including macrophages, hepatocytes and enteroytes and this would lead to the development of what is known as anemia of inflammation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of BI on complete blood count parameters. Patients and methods: In this crosssectional, retrospective study: the data of 200 overweight and obese male patients aged (18-60 years) were collected. They were grouped according to BMI into everweight and obese: different CBC parameters were noted. Inter group comparison was applied regarding different blood parameters and the relations eith BMI were calculated. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 16%. An extremely significant difference was found in mean white blood cells count in relation to different BMI gropups (p=0.001). A positive linear correlation was found between BMI with RDW, WBS, and platelets. Conclusions: There were effects of increasing BMI on WBC, RDW and platelets (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alterações do Peso Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/patologia , Anemia/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos
11.
Rev. cient. Esc. Univ. Cienc. Salud ; 6(1): 6-12, ene.-jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1022955

RESUMO

La mortalidad neonatal es un problema de salud mundial y un indicador de la atención materno infantil. Objetivo: Identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a mortalidad neonatal en pacientes atendidos en los Hos-pitales de Santa Bárbara e Intibucá, de marzo 2017 a febrero 2018. Pacientes y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, de corte transversal. El Mues-treo fue no probabilístico, con una muestra de 32 pacientes. La recolección de datos fue mediante cuestionario validado por el alfa de Cronbach con fiabilidad de 0.709. Los datos fueron procesados en SPSS versión 22.0. Las variables estudiadas fueron los factores de riesgo socio demográficos, natales, rela-cionados al parto y los asociados al riesgo postnatal de las madres. Resultados: 53% de las madres tenían una edad entre 12 a 19 años; 44% eran analfabetas, 84% de proce-dencia rural y 56% no tuvieron controles prenatales. Asimismo, el 93% presentó vagi-nosis. El porcentaje de neonatos fallecidos en Santa Bárbara fue del 62.5% y en Intibu-cá 37.5%. Conclusión: Los factores de riesgo identificados en mortalidad neonatal fueron el analfabetismo, embarazos en ado-lescentes y ser procedente del área rural.Más de la mitad no tuvieron controles prena-tales y casi todas tuvieron vaginosis. Las causas de muerte neonatal fueron: sepsis, prematurez, asfixia, síndrome de aspiración meconial y malformaciones congénitas...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Mortalidade Infantil , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Hospitalar
13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215652, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multi-mode data collection is widely used in surveys. Since several modes of data collection are successively applied in such design (e.g. self-administered questionnaire after face-to-face interview), partial nonresponse occurs if participants fail to complete all stages of the data collection. Although such nonresponse might seriously impact estimates, it remains currently unexplored. This study investigates the determinants of nonresponse to a self-administered questionnaire after having participated in a face-to-face interview. METHODS: Data from the Belgian Health Interview Survey 2013 were used to identify determinants of nonresponse to self-administered questionnaire (n = 1,464) among those who had completed the face-to-face interview (n = 8,133). The association between partial nonresponse and potential determinants was explored through multilevel logistic regression models, encompassing a random interviewer effect. RESULTS: Significant interviewer effects were found. Almost half (46.6%) of the variability in nonresponse was attributable to the interviewers, even in the analyses controlling for the area as potential confounder. Partial nonresponse was higher among youngsters, non-Belgian participants, people with a lower educational levels and those belonging to a lower income household, residents of Brussels and Wallonia, and people with poor perceived health. Higher odds of nonresponse were found for interviews done in the last quarters of the survey-year. Regarding interviewer characteristics, only the total number of interviews carried out throughout the survey was significantly associated with nonresponse to the self-administered questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that interviewers play a crucial role in nonresponse to the self-administered questionnaire. Participant characteristics, interview circumstances and interviewer characteristics only partly explain the interviewer variability. Future research should examine further interviewer characteristics that impact nonresponse. The current study emphasises the importance of training and motivating interviewers to reduce nonresponse in multi-mode data collection.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bélgica , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215751, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002700

RESUMO

AIM: Knowledge is scarce regarding mothers' and fathers' experiences of being a parent of a child with VACTERL association-a complex malformation. The aim of the study was to describe experiences of being a parent of a child with VACTERL association. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were performed with ten mothers and nine fathers face-to-face or by telephone and analyzed by using Qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The parents described crisis reactions at the discovery of malformations in their child. Involvement in care was reported from the initial hospital admission until actively taking responsibility for treatments at home. Eventually the health condition became an integrated part of everyday life. The parents expressed the importance of meeting other families with a child with VACTERL. Descriptions were given of more or less professionalism with perceived discrepancies of knowledge and experience between the healthcare professionals in the tertiary hospital and those in the local hospital. Difficulties in receiving medical support during the initial period at home were described. Furthermore, emotional support and practical arrangements regarding parental accommodation and transportation varied. CONCLUSION: Being a parent of a child with VACTERL association involves crisis, mixed emotional reactions and shared responsibility for the child´s treatment and care with the professional care providers. Psychological processing, good medical care and support from experts, and peer support from other parents is essential in the parents' struggle to reach self-confidence and adaptation. A care plan with individualized tailored care for each child including a training and support plan for the parents is warranted. To reduce the described discrepancies in knowledge and experience between the local and tertiary hospital, video sessions with the parents and responsible professionals at the local and tertiary hospital could be an appropriate mode of transferring information at discharge and follow up of the child.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Canal Anal/anormalidades , Esôfago/anormalidades , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Rim/anormalidades , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Autoimagem , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Traqueia/anormalidades , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Pai/psicologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/diagnóstico , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/terapia , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho
16.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 45, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies find that identifying additional study data is possible by contacting study authors or experts. What is less certain is the time taken, costs involved and value found by using this supplementary search method. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness, efficiency, cost and value of contacting study authors by e-mail, updating the evidence available for this search method. METHODS: Eighty-eight study authors, whose studies met title/abstract inclusion in a. systematic review, were contacted by e-mail. * effectiveness was assessed by comparing the number of study authors contacted. compared to the number of replies received; * efficiency was assessed by recording the time taken to contact study authors; * cost was assessed by comparing the efficiency of contacting authors with the. effectiveness; and * value was assessed by reading and comparing the published studies with the replies received to see if any unique data was identified. RESULTS: Contacting study authors took 6 h, 54 min and 25 s across 7 weeks. 38 answers (46%) were received from 83 possible contacts. Contacting study authors cost £80.33 or £2.11 per reply. We identified unique data from author replies when compared with data reported in published studies, determining this method as 'valuable'. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst our effectiveness findings differ from other studies, we believe that this study demonstrates the effectiveness of contacting study authors. By linking effectiveness to value and cost, we offer a new way to interpret the 'effectiveness' of this supplementary search method.


Assuntos
Autoria , Comunicação , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Correio Eletrônico/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Coleta de Dados/economia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Correio Eletrônico/economia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 143, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Unmet need refers to fecund women who either wish to postpone the next birth (spacers) or who wish to stop childbearing (limiters) but are not using a contraceptive method. The aim of this study was to assess the unmet needs of family planning and identify associated factors in Debre Berhan town among women in reproductive age. The community-based cross-sectional study design was used among 411 study participants (women with reproductive age) at Debre Berhan town. A systematic sampling technique was used to select the households. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were done to determine the association of each independent variable with the dependent variable. RESULTS: The overall unmet need for family planning among women in reproductive age groups was found to be 30.9%. Occupational status AOR = 13.992 (1.054-185.833), from whom the respondents got information about family planning AOR = 0.018 (0.002-0.170), having a discussion with husband AOR = 16.692 (2.911-95.713) and support from husband AOR = 0.005 (0.001-0.025) was significantly associated with the outcome variable. The level of unmet need for family planning in the study area is still high compared to the target set (10%) in the national family planning guide plan for Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Etiópia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/métodos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 56, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family health history (FHH) inherently involves collecting proxy reports of health statuses of related family members. Traditionally, such information has been collected from a single informant. More recently, research has suggested that a multiple informant approach to collecting FHH results in improved individual risk assessments. Likewise, recent work has emphasized the importance of incorporating health-related behaviors into FHH-based risk calculations. Integrating both multiple accounts of FHH with behavioral information on family members represents a significant methodological challenge as such FHH data is hierarchical in nature and arises from potentially error-prone processes. METHODS: In this paper, we introduce a statistical model that addresses these challenges using informative priors for background variation in disease prevalence and the effect of other, potentially correlated, variables while accounting for the nested structure of these data. Our empirical example is drawn from previously published data on families with a history of diabetes. RESULTS: The results of the comparative model assessment suggest that simply accounting for the structured nature of multiple informant FHH data improves classification accuracy over the baseline and that incorporating family member health-related behavioral information into the model is preferred over alternative specifications. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed modelling framework is a flexible solution to integrate multiple informant FHH for risk prediction purposes.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Logísticos , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Família , Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese/métodos , Anamnese/normas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 103, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) system was established to provide information that effectively guides actions to eliminate preventable maternal mortality. In 2016, Hwange district sent six maternal death notification forms (MDNF) to the province without maternal death audit reports. Timeliness of MDNF reaching the province is a challenge. Two MDNF for deaths that occurred in February and May 2016 only reached the provincial office in September 2016 meaning the MDNF were seven and four months late respectively. We evaluated the MDSR system in Hwange district. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. Health workers in the sampled facilities were interviewed using questionnaires. Resource availability was assessed through checklists. Epi Info 7 was used to calculate frequencies, means and proportions. RESULTS: We recruited 36 respondents from 11 facilities, 72.2% were females. Inadequate health worker knowledge, lack of induction on MDSR, unavailability of guidelines and notification forms and lack of knowledge on the flow of information in the system were reasons for late notification of maternal deaths. Workers trained in MDSR were 83.8%. Only 36.1% of respondents had completed an MDNF before. Respondents who used MDSR data at their level were 91.7%, and they reported that MDSR system was useful. Responsibility to complete the MDNF was placed on health workers. Maternal death case definitions were available in 2/11 facilities, 4/11 facilities had guidelines for maternal death audits. It costs $60.78 to notify a maternal death. CONCLUSION: Reasons for late notification of maternal deaths were inadequate knowledge, lack of induction, unavailability of guidelines and notification forms at facilities. The MDSR system is useful, acceptable, flexible, unstable, reliable but not simple. Maternal case definitions and maternal death audit guidelines should be distributed to all facilities. Training of all health workers involved in MDSR is recommended.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue
20.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(1): 7301205120p1-7301205120p13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) interventions often rely on p values, where statistical significance is assumed to provide evidence of an intervention effect. This study provides a secondary data analysis of the Well Elderly II RCT using multiple approaches that examine clinical meaningfulness. METHOD: We reanalyzed the Well Elderly II RCT using effect size, standard deviation, standard error of measurement, minimal difference, a fragility index, an assessment of poor scores at baseline, and an analysis with a small subgroup of participants removed. RESULTS: Although some participants improved on several scales, most stayed the same, and a small subset declined. Omitting a small subgroup of participants led to nonsignificant p values. CONCLUSION: There is evidence that disparities in baseline scores and regression to the mean may have created the appearance of an intervention effect. Our methods of considering clinical meaningfulness suggest improved approaches to analyzing RCT data.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
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