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1.
Life Sci ; 241: 117164, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838135

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was to assess whether andrographolide derivative (AL-1) could restore mucosal homeostasis and regulate tight junctions through MLCK-dependent pathway in DSS-induced colitis mice. MAIN METHODS: Colitis mice model was induced by daily administration of 2.5% DSS for seven days. The therapeutic effect was determined by evaluating the histopathological changes and the pro-inflammatory cytokine level. In addition, the effects of AL-1 on tight junctions were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The expressions of factors in MLCK-dependent pathway were evaluated by immunofluorescence and Western blot. KEY FINDINGS: AL-1 protected the intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis mice. These protective effects were achieved by maintaining the normal mucus secretion and preserving tight junctions via suppression of the MLCK-dependent pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: AL-1 could prevent the increase in the DSS-induced intestinal permeability. These data indicated that AL-1 could be a promising agent for UC treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/fisiologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Diterpenos/química , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Quinase de Cadeia Leve de Miosina/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/patologia
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(48): 13282-13298, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690068

RESUMO

Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to alleviate the effect of colitis in mice, but the mechanisms involved need further exploration. The study aimed to investigate how orally administered CLA alleviates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. CLA was administered in five different doses: 40, 20, 10, 5, and 2.5 mg/day. Doses of CLA at 10 mg/day and higher alleviated colitis symptoms and reduced inflammation induced by DSS, in which 40, 20, and 10 mg/day CLA significantly increased the concentration of mucin2 and goblet cells, but neither 5 mg/day CLA nor 2.5 mg/day CLA had any effects. Meanwhile, 40 and 20 mg/day CLA treatments significantly upregulated the concentration of tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-3) and ameliorated epithelial apoptosis caused by DSS. Moreover, oxidative-stress-related enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) and inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-6] were modulated by 40 and 20 mg/day CLA. Furthermore, 40 mg/day CLA rebalanced the gut microbiota damaged by DSS, including reducing Bacteroides and increasing Bifidobacterium and Odoribacter. In conclusion, CLA supplementation alleviated DSS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner by modulating inflammatory cytokines and oxidation stress, maintaining the mucosal barrier, and reverting microbiota changes.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4368, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554819

RESUMO

The colonic epithelial turnover is driven by crypt-base stem cells that express the R-spondin receptor Lgr5. Signals that regulate epithelial regeneration upon stem cell injury are largely unknown. Here, we explore the dynamics of Wnt signaling in the colon. We identify two populations of cells with active Wnt signaling: highly proliferative Lgr5+/Axin2+ cells, as well as secretory Lgr5-/Axin2+ cells. Upon Lgr5+ cell depletion, these cells are recruited to contribute to crypt regeneration. Chemical injury induced by DSS leads to a loss of both Lgr5+ cells and Axin2+ cells and epithelial regeneration is driven by Axin2- cells, including differentiated Krt20+ surface enterocytes. Regeneration requires stromal Rspo3, which is present at increased levels upon injury and reprograms Lgr5- but Lgr4+ differentiated cells. In contrast, depletion of stromal Rspo3 impairs crypt regeneration, even upon mild injury. We demonstrate that Rspo3 is essential for epithelial repair via induction of Wnt signaling in differentiated cells.


Assuntos
Colo/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Axina/genética , Proteína Axina/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Colite/genética , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Enterócitos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Queratina-20/genética , Queratina-20/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Regeneração/genética , Células-Tronco/citologia , Trombospondinas/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4408, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562318

RESUMO

Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) have important functions in nutrient absorption, barrier integrity, regeneration, pathogen-sensing, and mucus secretion. Goblet cells are a specialized cell type of IEC that secrete Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) to regulate mucus viscosity and wound healing, but whether TFF3-responsiveness requires a receptor is unclear. Here, we show that leucine rich repeat receptor and nogo-interacting protein 2 (LINGO2) is essential for TFF3-mediated functions. LINGO2 immunoprecipitates with TFF3, co-localizes with TFF3 on the cell membrane of IEC, and allows TFF3 to block apoptosis. We further show that TFF3-LINGO2 interactions disrupt EGFR-LINGO2 complexes resulting in enhanced EGFR signaling. Excessive basal EGFR activation in Lingo2 deficient mice increases disease severity during colitis and augments immunity against helminth infection. Conversely, TFF3 deficiency reduces helminth immunity. Thus, TFF3-LINGO2 interactions de-repress inhibitory LINGO2-EGFR complexes, allowing TFF3 to drive wound healing and immunity.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Helmintíase/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/imunologia , Fator Trefoil-3/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/imunologia , Células Caliciformes/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/parasitologia , Células HEK293 , Helmintíase/metabolismo , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos/imunologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fator Trefoil-3/genética , Fator Trefoil-3/metabolismo , Células U937
5.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1025-1029, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532239

RESUMO

Neutrophil trafficking into damaged or infected tissues is essential for the initiation of inflammation, clearance of pathogens and damaged cells, and ultimately tissue repair. Neutrophil recruitment is highly dependent on the stepwise induction of adhesion molecules and promigratory chemokines and cytokines. A number of studies in animal models have shown the efficacy of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists in limiting inflammation in a range of preclinical models of inflammation, including colitis, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Recent work in preclinical models of inflammation raises two questions: by what mechanisms do CB2 agonists provide anti-inflammatory effects during acute inflammation and what challenges exist in the translation of CB2 modulating therapeutics into the clinic.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Colite/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/patologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/deficiência , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9570-9585, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477303

RESUMO

Colitis severely affects the quality of life of patients, and lactic acid bacteria have been reported to be able to improve or treat colitis. In this study, we selected a strain of Lactobacillus fermentum (CQPC04) with good resistance in vitro to evaluate its effect on improvement in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. We analyzed the effects of L. fermentum CQPC04 on mice with colitis macroscopically via colon length and histopathology. We also used conventional biochemical and ELISA kits, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and Western blotting to analyze microscopically the effects of L. fermentum CQPC04 on related oxidant indices and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon tissue of mice. The results indicated that L. fermentum CQPC04 notably increased colon length and ameliorated pathological damage of colon tissue in colitic mice. Serum indices showed that L. fermentum CQPC04 increased the enzyme activity of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and catalase (CAT) and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO). In addition, it inhibited the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-12, and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in serum. The RT-qPCR experiments confirmed that L. fermentum CQPC04 downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine nuclear factor-κB-p65 (NF-κBp65), NF-κB inhibitor-α (IκB-α), TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1ß, IL-6, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and upregulated the expression of IL-10 in colon tissue. Western blot analysis indicated that L. fermentum CQPC04 significantly reduced expression of NF-κBp65, TNF-α, IL-1ß, COX-2, and iNOS in mouse colon tissues, and increased expression of IκB-α and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Thus, L. fermentum CQPC04 could effectively alleviate the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis mice and is a potential probiotic for human experiments.


Assuntos
Colite/dietoterapia , Lactobacillus fermentum , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Sulfato de Dextrana , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
7.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1081: 120-130, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446949

RESUMO

Mass spectrometry-based approaches enable us to capture changes in the metabolome in biological systems with high sensitivity and resolution. But global MS-based profiling of the bile acids (BAs) submetabolome is still a challenging task. Particularly for unconjugated BAs, the collision-induced dissociation (CID) fragment ions showed low ion intensities which were insufficient for analysis. This study is aimed at the development of an anion attachment MS-based approach for pseudotargeted profiling of the BAs submetabolome. We demonstrated that anion attachment MS with the combination use of ammonia fluoride (NH4F) and formate could provide stable anionic adduct ([M + HCOO]-) with good MS responses for unconjugated BAs. A mechanistic study revealed that the underlying rationale is due to the NH4F-induced approximate matching of attractions between BAs and anion for the 24-carboxyl hydrogen. This 24-carboxyl hydrogen regioselectivity is useful to screen for potential unconjugated BAs from the biological matrix. The stability and regioselectivity of anion attachment allowed the establishment of SRM transitions for unconjugated BAs for the first time. To profile conjugated BAs that come from the conjugation of glycine or taurine at 24-carboxyl hydrogen, specific precursor/fragment ion transitions were used for the detection. Finally, SRM-based UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the pseudotargeted profiling of the BAs submetabolome with good linearity (r2 > 0.995) and high sensitivity (0.20-1.37 ng mL-1 for LLOQ). With this method, a total of 83 BAs, covering 45 unconjugated BAs and 38 conjugated BAs, were successfully determined in different biosamples from experimental colitis mice. The BAs metabolism homeostasis was disrupted by colitis, characterized by the decreased BAs levels in serum and excessive BAs accumuation in the gall bladder and colon. Overall, the present anion attachment MS-based approach is sufficiently sensitive and robust to comprehensively measure various BAs.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Fluoretos/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Animais , Bile/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Vesícula Biliar/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia
8.
Immunology ; 158(1): 35-46, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429085

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation may drive development of cancer as observed in inflammation-induced colorectal cancer (CRC). Though immune cells can infiltrate the tumour microenvironment, cancer cells seem to evade anti-tumour responses, which is one of the established hallmarks of cancer. Targeting the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 signalling pathway is currently at the forefront in the development of anti-tumour immunity-based therapies for multiple malignancies. By blocking the immune-checkpoint of activated T-cells, it is possible to rewire the adaptive resistance induced by the PD-1 ligands expressed in the tumour microenvironment. However, adverse immunotherapy-modulated events could complicate the treatment of individuals with preexisting chronic inflammatory conditions. In this study, we investigated the expression of different systemic and mucosal T-cell subsets during the course of azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and colitis-associated CRC. In addition, we examined the expression of PD-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 as well as other molecular targets related to T-cell exhaustion. We found a significant increase in PD-1 expression on all examined mucosal T-cell subsets of the colon and the ileum, which correlated with disease progression. We also observed an upregulation of PD-L1 and PD-L2 mRNA expression throughout the AOM/DSS regime. Blocking PD-1 signalling with an anti-PD1 antibody did not affect the tumour burden in the AOM/DSS-treated mice, but did potentiate the weight loss in the third DSS cycle, indicating possible immune-mediated toxicity. This raises a concern for patients with colitis-associated CRCs and should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Azoximetano , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/imunologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Colo/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenótipo , Proteína 2 Ligante de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Regulação para Cima
9.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 5195134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467484

RESUMO

It has been described that the metalloprotease BmooMP-alpha-I purified from Bothrops moojeni snake venom is able to hydrolyze the TNF molecule. However, this observation has been based mainly on in vitro investigation, in addition to molecular modeling and docking approaches. Considering that there is no in vivo study to demonstrate the biological effects of this enzyme, the major aim to the present work was to investigate whether the BmooMP-alpha-I has any anti-inflammatory efficacy by setting up a murine experimental design of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). For this purpose, C57BL/6 mice were divided into six groups, as follows: (i) animals without intestinal inflammation, (ii) animals without intestinal inflammation treated with BmooMP-alpha-I (50 µg/animal/day), and (iii) animals with intestinal inflammation induced by 3% of DSS, (iv) mice with intestinal inflammation induced by DSS and treated with BmooMP-alpha-I enzyme at the 50, 25, or 12.5 µg/animal/day dosages by intraperitoneal route. Clinical signs of colitis were observed daily for calculating the morbidity scores, cytokine measurements, and histological features. We observed that the animals treated with different doses of the enzyme presented a remarkable improvement of colitis signs, as confirmed by a significant increase of the intestine length in comparison to the DSS group. Also, no difference was observed between the groups treated with the enzyme or vehicle, as the colon length of these animals was slightly lower than that of the group of healthy animals, without induction of intestinal inflammation. The cytokine quantification in supernatants of intestinal tissue homogenates showed a significant reduction of 38% in IFN-gamma levels, when the animals were treated with 50 µg of the BmooMP-alpha-I compared to the animals receiving DSS only. A significant reduction of 39% in TNF levels was also observed in all doses of treatment with BmooMP-alpha-I, in addition to a significant reduction of 35% in the amount of IL-12p40. Histological examinations revealed that the BmooMP-alpha-I 50 µg treated group preserved colon architecture and goblet cells and reduced the ulcer area, when compared with DSS mice, which showed typical inflammatory changes in tissue architecture, such as ulceration, crypt dilation, loss of tissue architecture, and goblet cell depletion, accompanied by a significant cell infiltration. In conclusion, our results suggest that the improvement of clinical scores and histological findings related to BmooMP-alpha-I treatment in this experimental model could be attributed to the metalloprotease ability to modulate cytokine production locally at the inflamed intestine. These findings highlight the potential anti-inflammatory role and effectiveness of this enzyme as a therapeutic alternative in this type of immunopathological condition.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Metaloendopeptidases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bothrops , Colite/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 70(2)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443089

RESUMO

Crohn's Disease (CD), one of the types of inflammatory bowel disease, poses a significant challenge to modern healthcare. This condition severely impacts patients' quality of life, and its incidence is continuously rising. Despite constant research, current treatment options are limited and largely unsuccessful and result in serious side effects, therefore new therapy alternatives are needed. Liposomal formulation provides a new hope for disease management. In our study, we characterized the anti-inflammatory activity of mesalazine (5-ASA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) encapsulated in liposomal formulation in the animal model of CD. Liposomes were obtained by thin film hydration method and characterized in terms of suspension stability and particle size and distribution. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic (i.c.) administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The effect of treatment with liposomal suspensions of 5-ASA and CGA was evaluated macroscopically and by measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. We observed that liposome-encapsulated 5-ASA (5 mg/kg), but not CGA (20 mg/kg) attenuated colitis as evidenced by a decreased macroscopic and microscopic scores. It may be hypothesized that the composition of liposomal lipid bilayer as well as the switch in macrophage populations leading to unfavorable accumulation of anti-inflammatory agents in the cells may underly the efficiency of obtained liposomes and need to be taken into consideration in further studies on drug delivery.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossomos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesalamina/química , Mesalamina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico
11.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigate the impact of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant and potent catechin in green tea, on a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the underlying mechanisms of action. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD-like disease and then randomly divided into three groups: Model group (MD), low-dose EGCG group (LE, 20 mg/kg/d), and high-dose EGCG group (HE, 50 mg/kg/d). DSS-induced clinical and macroscopic changes were monitored daily. Intestinal permeability was assessed by FITC-Dextran assay. RESULTS: Both high- and low-dose EGCG treatment alleviated clinical manifestations including body weight loss and disease activity index (DAI) of DSS-induced colitis. The DAI score was significantly improved after two days of EGCG treatment. At the end of the study, the macroscopic severity score (MSS) of HE and LE treatment groups were 2.4 ± 1.2, and 2.2 ± 1.0, respectively, significantly lower than that of the controls (5.0 ± 2.1). EGCG treatment also prevented colon shortening, and improved intestinal permeability and histopathological changes. In addition, EGCG treatment attenuated colon inflammation by suppressing colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha, and inhibited CD3+ T cell and CD68+ macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSION: EGCG is effective in inflammatory colitis because it reduces cellular and molecular inflammation, and reduces intestinal permeability.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Colite/prevenção & controle , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Colite/imunologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Permeabilidade , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387229

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a worldwide healthcare problem calling for the development of new therapeutic drugs. Angelica sinensis and Zingiber officinale Roscoe are two common dietetic Chinese herbs, which are traditionally used for complementary treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. As bioactive constituents, volatile and pungent substances of these two herbs could be effectively extracted together by supercritical fluid extraction. In this study, the supercritical fluid extract of Angelica sinensis and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (AZ-SFE) was obtained by an optimized extraction process and it was chemically characterized. The anti-inflammatory effect and underlying mechanism of AZ-SFE were evaluated in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cell model and a 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rat model. AZ-SFE notably inhibited the production of NO in LPS-stimulated macrophages, and it inhibited the proliferation of Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced splenocytes with suppression of the Th1 immune response. In vivo, the study demonstrated that AZ-SFE significantly alleviated disease activity, colonic shortening, macroscopic damage and histological injury of TNBS-treated rats with reduction of oxidative stress, suppression of inflammatory cytokines, and modulation of hepcidin and serum iron. These findings suggested that AZ-SFE may be a promising supplement for current IBD therapy.


Assuntos
Angelica sinensis/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Gengibre/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Colite/etiologia , Colite/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico/efeitos adversos
13.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382637

RESUMO

Backgrounds: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of MMI-0100, a cell-penetrating peptide inhibitor of MAPK-activated protein kinase II (MK2), on acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Mice were injected intraperitoneally with different doses of MMI-0100 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg per day, six days). The physiological indexes, the parameters for colonic pathological injury and the intensity of inflammatory responses were evaluated by histological staining, quantitative PCR, western blotting, and immunostaining. MMI-0100 attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss, colon length shortening, and colonic pathological injury, including decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) and inhibited inflammatory cell infiltration. MMI-0100 suppressed DSS-induced activation of CD11b+ and F4/80 positive cell, and dramatically decreased the expression of a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, TGF- ß, IFN-γ, IL-17A, COX-2 and iNOS. A TUNEL assay showed that MMI-0100 protected against DSS-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with the results of Western blotting assay in apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl-2, BAX, caspase-3. The anti-inflammatory effects of MMI-0100 on DSS-induced colitis were achieved by down-regulating the phosphorylation level of MK2, IκBα and p65 protein. The current study clearly demonstrates a protective role for MMI-0100 in experimental IBD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/etiologia , Colite/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação
14.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(16): 1951-1958, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect and mechanism of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) in inflammatory bowel disease are unclear. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Sb on intestinal mucosal barrier and intestinal flora in a colitis mouse model. METHODS: Forty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal control group (A), pathologic control group (B), Sb treatment group (C), mesalazine treatment group (D), and Sb combined with mesalazine treatment group (E). Colitis was induced by the addition of 2.5% (wt/vol) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water ad libitum for 7 days. The general condition, weight change, stool property, and bloody stool level of mice were observed to evaluate the disease activity index. The expression of zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in intestinal tissue were measured by immunohistochemistry. The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-8 in plasma was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Inter-cellular tight junctions were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The feces and intestinal contents were collected sterilely, and intestinal flora was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: Compared with group B, Sb reduced the disease activity index and histological score of group C (disease activity index: group B 2.708 ±â€Š0.628, group C 1.542 ±â€Š0.616, PBC = 0.005; histological score: group B 9.875 ±â€Š3.271, group C 4.750 ±â€Š1.832, PBC = 0.005) in DSS-induced colitis in mice. Sb exerted a protect effect on the expression of ZO-1 (group B 2.075 ±â€Š1.176, group C 4.225 ±â€Š1.316, PBC = 0.019) and occludin (group B 2.200 ±â€Š0.968, group C 3.525 ±â€Š1.047, PBC = 0.023). Compared with group B, Sb decreased the level of TNF-α and IL-8 of group C (TNF-α: group B 716.323 ±â€Š44.691 ng/L, group C 521.740 ±â€Š90.121 ng/L, PBC = 0.001; IL-8: group B 128.992 ±â€Š11.475 pg/mL, group C 106.283 ±â€Š15.906 pg/mL, PBC = 0.012). Treatment with Sb preserved the tight junctions and ameliorated microvilli and inter-cellular space. Treatment with Sb also showed its own characteristics: a higher percentage of Bacteroidetes and a lower percentage of Firmicutes, with significant differences or a significant trend. The proportion of the S24-7 family was increased significantly in the Sb treatment group. CONCLUSIONS: Sb shows an anti-inflammatory effect and has a protective effect on the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier. Sb may up-regulate the abundance of family S24-7 specifically, and maybe a mechanism underlying its function.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/microbiologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Saccharomyces boulardii/fisiologia , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ocludina/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8020785, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317039

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiome plays a crucial role in promoting intestinal health, and perturbations to its constitution may result in chronic intestinal inflammation and lead to colorectal cancer (CRC). α-Ketoglutarate is an important intermediary in the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory pathway that maintains intestinal homeostasis and prevents initiation of intestinal inflammation, a known precursor to carcinoma development. The objective of this study was to assess the potential protective effects of α-ketoglutarate intervention against CRC development, which may arise due to its known anti-inflammatory and antitumour effects. CRC was induced in C57BL/6 mice using azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Tumour frequency, histological rating, and colonic microbiota were assessed in colonic samples. The findings demonstrated that α-ketoglutarate offered significant protection against CRC development in mice. Furthermore, α-ketoglutarate also exhibited immunomodulatory effects mediated via downregulation of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1ß cytokines. Finally, intervention with α-ketoglutarate tended to minimise the frequency of opportunistic pathogens (Escherichia and Enterococcus) while increasing the populations of Akkermansia, Butyricicoccus, Clostridium, and Ruminococcus. Taken together, our findings show that dietary α-ketoglutarate intervention may protect against inflammation-related CRC.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/farmacologia , Animais , Azoximetano/toxicidade , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/complicações , Colite/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/microbiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(7): e1007915, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329635

RESUMO

Expression of ABO and Lewis histo-blood group antigens by the gastrointestinal epithelium is governed by an α-1,2-fucosyltransferase enzyme encoded by the Fut2 gene. Alterations in mucin glycosylation have been associated with susceptibility to various bacterial and viral infections. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen and a major cause of gastroenteritis. In order to determine the role of Fut2-dependent glycans in Salmonella-triggered intestinal inflammation, Fut2+/+ and Fut2-/- mice were orally infected with S. Typhimurium and bacterial colonization and intestinal inflammation were analyzed. Bacterial load in the intestine of Fut2-/- mice was significantly lower compared to Fut2+/+ mice. Analysis of histopathological changes revealed significantly lower levels of intestinal inflammation in Fut2-/- mice compared to Fut2+/+ mice and measurement of lipocalin-2 level in feces corroborated histopathological findings. Salmonella express fimbriae that assist in adherence of bacteria to host cells thereby facilitating their invasion. The std fimbrial operon of S. Typhimurium encodes the π-class Std fimbriae which bind terminal α(1,2)-fucose residues. An isogenic mutant of S. Typhimurium lacking Std fimbriae colonized Fut2+/+ and Fut2-/- mice to similar levels and resulted in similar intestinal inflammation. In vitro adhesion assays revealed that bacteria possessing Std fimbriae adhered significantly more to fucosylated cell lines or primary epithelial cells in comparison to cells lacking α(1,2)-fucose. Overall, these results indicate that Salmonella-triggered intestinal inflammation and colonization are dependent on Std-fucose interaction.


Assuntos
Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Fucose/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Colite/etiologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/microbiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Fucosiltransferases/deficiência , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Fucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Camundongos Knockout , Óperon , Salmonelose Animal/etiologia , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia
17.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 2056085, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360118

RESUMO

Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC) development has been shown to be related to chronically enhanced inflammation. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory mediator that favors inflammatory cytokine production and has chemotactic properties for the recruitment of macrophages (Møs) and T cells. Here, we investigated the role of MIF in the inflammatory response and recruitment of immune cells in a murine model of chemical carcinogenesis to establish the impact of MIF on CRC genesis and malignancy. We used BALB/c MIF-knockout (MIF-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice to develop CRC by administering intraperitoneal (i.p.) azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water. Greater tumor burdens were observed in MIF-/- mice than in WT mice. Tumors from MIF-/- mice were histologically identified to be more aggressive than tumors from WT mice. The localization of MIF suggests that it is also involved in cell differentiation. The relative gene expression of il-17, measured by real-time PCR, was higher in MIF-/- CRC mice, compared to the WT CRC and healthy MIF-/- mice. Importantly, compared to the WT intestinal epithelium, lower percentages of tumor-associated Møs were found in the MIF-/- intestinal epithelium. These results suggest that MIF plays a role in controlling the initial development of CRC by attracting Møs to the tumor, which is a condition that favors the initial antitumor responses.


Assuntos
Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Imuno-Histoquímica , Fatores Inibidores da Migração de Macrófagos/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Knockout
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3371, 2019 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358760

RESUMO

TNF-like ligand 1 A (TL1A) and death receptor 3 (DR3) are a ligand-receptor pair involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) regulate intestinal immunity and highly express DR3. Here, we report that activation of DR3 signaling by an agonistic anti-DR3 antibody increases GM-CSF production from ILC3s through the p38 MAPK pathway. GM-CSF causes accumulation of eosinophils, neutrophils and CD11b+CD11c+ myeloid cells, resulting in loss of ILC3s from the intestine in an IL-23-dependent manner and exacerbating colitis. Blockade of GM-CSF or IL-23 reverses anti-DR3 antibody-driven ILC3 loss, whereas overexpression of IL-23 induces loss of ILC3s in the absence of GM-CSF. Neutralization of TL1A by soluble DR3 ameliorates both DSS and anti-CD40 antibody-induced colitis. Moreover, ILC3s are required for the deleterious effect of anti-DR3 antibodies on innate colitis. These findings clarify the process and consequences of DR3 signaling-induced intestinal inflammation through regulation of ILC3s.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Membro 25 de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Colite/genética , Colite/metabolismo , Eosinófilos/citologia , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Interleucina-23/farmacologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Células Mieloides/citologia , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Membro 25 de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/genética , Membro 25 de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2892, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253778

RESUMO

Clinical manifestations and response to therapies in ulcerative colitis (UC) are heterogeneous, yet patient classification criteria for tailored therapies are currently lacking. Here, we present an unsupervised molecular classification of UC patients, concordant with response to therapy in independent retrospective cohorts. We show that classical clustering of UC patient tissue transcriptomic data sets does not identify clinically relevant profiles, likely due to associated covariates. To overcome this, we compare cross-sectional human data sets with a newly generated longitudinal transcriptome profile of murine DSS-induced colitis. We show that the majority of colitis risk-associated gene expression peaks during the inflammatory rather than the recovery phase. Moreover, we achieve UC patient clustering into two distinct transcriptomic profiles, differing in neutrophil-related gene activation. Notably, 87% of patients in UC1 cluster are unresponsive to two most widely used biological therapies. These results demonstrate that cross-species comparison enables stratification of patients undistinguishable by other molecular approaches.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Colite/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/genética , Citometria de Fluxo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Membrana Mucosa/citologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Life Sci ; 231: 116535, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175857

RESUMO

Latex proteins from P. pudica (LPPp) have anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, LPPp was evaluated to protect animals against inflammatory ulcerative colitis (UC). UC was induced by intracolonic instillation of a 6% acetic acid solution and the animals received LPPp (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal route 1 h before and 17 h after acetic acid injection. Eighteen hours after instillation of acetic acid, the mice were euthanized and the colons were excised to determine the wet weight, macroscopic and microscopic lesion scores, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, IL1-ß levels, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The results revealed that LPPp treatment (40 mg/kg) had a protective effect on acetic acid-induced colitis by reducing the wet weight, macroscopic and microscopic scores of intestinal lesions and colonic MPO activity. Additionally, LPPp inhibited tissue oxidative stress, since decreases in GSH consumption, MDA concentration and SOD activity were observed. The treatment with LPPp reduced the levels of cytokine IL-1ß, contributing to the reduction of colon inflammation. Biochemical investigation showed that LPPp comprises a mixture of proteins containing proteinases, chitinases and proteinase inhibitors. These data suggest that LPPp has a protective effect against intestinal damage through mechanisms that involve the inhibition of inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokine release and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Látex/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Ácido Acético , Animais , Apocynaceae/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Látex/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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