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1.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(3): 399-402, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820751

RESUMO

A combinatorial approach using a one-bead-one-compound method and a screening based on a SOD-activity assay was set up for the discovery of an efficient peptidyl copper complex. The complex exhibited good stability constants, suitable redox potentials and excellent intrinsic activity. This complex was further assayed in cells for its antioxidant properties and showed beneficial effects when cells were subjected to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/metabolismo , Cobre/química , Peptídeos/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Colo/citologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(10): e201901004, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851212

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of infliximab on the inflammation of the colonic mucosa devoid from fecal stream. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were submitted to a Hartmann's procedure. They remained for 12 weeks with the fecal derivation to development of diversion colitis on excluded colorectal stump. After this period, they were divided into 3 groups: one group received intervention with saline (2.0 mL / week), other group infliximab at doses of 5 mg/kg/week and the other 10 mg/kg/week for five consecutively weeks. Concluded the intervention period, the animals were euthanized to remove colon segments with and without fecal stream. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and the degree of inflammation by validated score. The neutrophilic infiltrate was evaluated by tissue expression of myeloperoxidase identified by immunohistochemical. The tissue content of myeloperoxidase was measured by computer-assisted image analysis. RESULTS: The inflammatory score was high in colonic segments without fecal stream. The intervention with infliximab reduced the inflammatory score in excluded colonic segments. The content of myeloperoxidase was reduced in colonic segments of animals treated with infliximab mainly in high concentrations. CONCLUSION: Intervention with infliximab reduced the inflammation and the neutrophil infiltrate in colonic segments devoid of the fecal stream.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Infliximab/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Colite/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Fezes , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/análise , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 33(11): e22400, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593355

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a continual ailment condition which engrosses the entire alimentary canal. The IBD can be primarily distinguished into two forms, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. The major symptoms of IBD include pustules or abscesses, severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, fistula, and stenosis, which may directly affect the patient's quality of life. A variety of mediators can stimulate the circumstances of IBD, some examples include infections by microbes such as bacteria, perturbation of the immune system and the surrounding environment of the intestines. Severe colitis was stimulated in the experimental animals through administering 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) which is mixed in water ad libitum for 6 days. Eriocitrin (30 mg/kg) was then administered to the experimental animals followed by the induction of severe colitis to evaluate the therapeutic prospective of eriocitrin against the colon inflammation stimulated by DSS. In this study, eriocitrin (30 mg/kg) demonstrated significant (P < .05) attenuation activity against the DSS-stimulated severe colitis in experimental animals. Eriocitrin counteracted all of the clinical deleterious effects induced by DSS, such as body-weight loss, colon shortening, histopathological injury, accretion of infiltrated inflammatory cells at the inflamed region and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The results clearly showed that eriocitrin effectively attenuated DSS-induced acute colitis in experimental animals.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus/química , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/análise , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9598-9604, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521365

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal conditions in which the transit of contents is altered may benefit from nutritional approaches to influencing health outcomes. Milk proteins modulate the transit of contents along different regions, suggesting that they have varying effects on neuromuscular function to alter gastrointestinal motility. We tested the hypothesis that bovine whey and casein milk protein hydrolysates could have direct modulatory effects on colonic motility patterns in isolated rat large intestine. Casein protein hydrolysate (CPH), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH), and a milk protein hydrolysate (MPH; a hydrolyzed blend of 60% whey to 40% casein) were compared for their effects on spontaneous contractile waves. These contractions propagate along the length of the isolated intact large intestine (22 cm) between the proximal colon and rectum and were detected by measuring activity at 4 locations. Milk proteins were perfused through the tissue bath, and differences in contraction amplitude and frequency were quantified relative to pretreatment controls. Propagation frequency was decreased by CPH, increased by MPH, and unaffected by intact whey proteins. The reduced motility with CPH and increased motility with MPH indicate a direct action of these milk proteins on colon tissue and provide evidence for differential modulation by hydrolysate type. These findings mirror actions on lower gastrointestinal transit reported in vivo, with the exception of WPH, suggesting that other factors are required.


Assuntos
Caseínas/farmacologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Intestino Grosso , Masculino , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodução
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11616-11626, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542929

RESUMO

Avocado peel, a byproduct from the avocado pulp industry, is a promising source of polyphenolic compounds. We evaluated the effect of a proanthocyanidin-rich avocado peel polyphenol extract (AvPPE) on the composition and metabolic activity of human fecal microbiota cultured for 24 h in a bioreactor in the presence of high protein (HP) amounts and the effect of the resulting culture supernatants (CSs) on HT-29Glc-/+ and Caco-2 cells. AvPPE decreased the HP-induced production of ammonia, H2S, propionate, and isovalerate and increased that of indole and butyrate. Microbiota composition was marginally affected by HP, whileAvPPE increased the microorganisms/abundance of phylum Actinobacteria, families Coriobacteriaceae and Ruminococcaceae, and genus Faecalibacterium. AvPPE failed to prevent the HP-induced decrease of HT-29Glc-/+ cell viability and energy efficiency but prevented the HP-induced alterations of barrier function in Caco-2 cells. Additionally, the genotoxic effect of the CSs upon HT-29Glc-/+ was attenuated by AvPPE. Therefore, AvPPE may be considered as a promising product for improving colonic homeostasis.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Persea/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proantocianidinas/análise
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9831-9839, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407897

RESUMO

Probiotic lactobacilli and their exopolysaccharides (EPS) are thought to modulate mucosal homeostasis; however, their mechanisms remain elusive. Thus, we tried to clarify the role of exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (EPS116) in the intestinal mucosal homeostasis. Our results indicated that EPS116 regulated the colon mucosal healing and homeostasis, enhanced the goblet cell differentiation, and promoted the expression of Muc2 gene in vivo and in vitro. Further experiments showed that EPS116 promoted the expression and phosphorylation of transcription factor c-Jun and facilitated its binding to the promoter of Muc2. Moreover, knocking down c-Jun or inhibiting its function in LS 174T cells treated with EPS116 led to decreased expression of Muc2, implying that EPS116 promoted the colonic mucosal homeostasis and Muc2 expression via c-Jun. Therefore, our study uncovered a novel model where EPS116 enhanced colon mucosal homeostasis by controlling the epithelial cell differentiation and c-Jun/Muc2 signaling.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colo/citologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/fisiopatologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mucina-2/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-jun/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 70(2)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443089

RESUMO

Crohn's Disease (CD), one of the types of inflammatory bowel disease, poses a significant challenge to modern healthcare. This condition severely impacts patients' quality of life, and its incidence is continuously rising. Despite constant research, current treatment options are limited and largely unsuccessful and result in serious side effects, therefore new therapy alternatives are needed. Liposomal formulation provides a new hope for disease management. In our study, we characterized the anti-inflammatory activity of mesalazine (5-ASA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) encapsulated in liposomal formulation in the animal model of CD. Liposomes were obtained by thin film hydration method and characterized in terms of suspension stability and particle size and distribution. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic (i.c.) administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The effect of treatment with liposomal suspensions of 5-ASA and CGA was evaluated macroscopically and by measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. We observed that liposome-encapsulated 5-ASA (5 mg/kg), but not CGA (20 mg/kg) attenuated colitis as evidenced by a decreased macroscopic and microscopic scores. It may be hypothesized that the composition of liposomal lipid bilayer as well as the switch in macrophage populations leading to unfavorable accumulation of anti-inflammatory agents in the cells may underly the efficiency of obtained liposomes and need to be taken into consideration in further studies on drug delivery.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/química , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Lipossomos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesalamina/química , Mesalamina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109182, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387175

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely used industrial compound worldwide, was recently classified as an environmental toxicant. The intestines and liver are responsible for detoxification in humans and animals, and functional damage to these organs adversely affects the health of the body. However, the effect of BPA on intestinal and liver function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary BPA uptake on oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis and mitochondrial function in the colons and livers of mice. Dietary BPA uptake significantly reduced the body weights of mice as well as their colon and liver weights. Dietary BPA uptake increased the levels of oxidative stress indicators such as reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in mouse serum, colon and liver tissues. Antioxidant indicators, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity, as well as proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) were also significantly reduced in the serum, colon, and liver tissues in the BPA group. Moreover, mitochondria-encoded genes and mitochondrial copy numbers were significantly reduced in the colon and liver tissues of the BPA mice. Dietary BPA uptake also increased gene abundance and enzyme activity of caspase-3, -8, -9 and -10. Our study found that dietary BPA induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in mouse colons and livers.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
9.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(11): 1338-1345, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464523

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease, which often affects colon or rectum or both. It is now well recognized that sphingosine kinases-1/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling may have a very significant potential as targets for therapeutic intervention in UC. Compared with the pure dextran sodium sulfate group, administration of PF543 significantly reduced clinical symptoms with less weight loss, diarrhea, and shortening of the colon. The severity of colitis was improved with reduced disease activity index and degree of histological damage in colon. Moreover, treatment with PF543 not only decreased S1P but also inhibited mRNA expression of proinflammatory factors such as interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6. This suggests that PF543 might exhibit an anti-inflammatory function against colitis through inhibition of expression of proinflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Colite/patologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Metanol/análogos & derivados , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Animais , Colite/sangue , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Metanol/farmacologia , Metanol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Esfingosina/sangue , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Especificidade por Substrato
10.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(27): 3572-3589, 2019 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mucosal healing has become a therapeutic goal to achieve stable remission in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. To achieve this objective, overlapping actions of complex cellular processes, such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation, are required. These events are longitudinally and tightly controlled by numerous factors including a wide range of distinct regulatory proteins. However, the sequence of events associated with colon mucosal repair after colitis and the evolution of the luminal content characteristics during this process have been little studied. AIM: To document the evolution of colon mucosal characteristics during mucosal healing using a mouse model with chemically-induced colitis. METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice were given 3.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 d. They were euthanized 2 (day 7), 5 (day 10), 8 (day 13), and 23 (day 28) d after DSS removal. The colonic luminal environment and epithelial repair processes during the inflammatory flare and colitis resolution were analyzed with reference to a non-DSS treated control group, euthanized at day 0. Epithelial repair events were assessed histo-morphologically in combination with functional permeability tests, expression of key inflammatory and repairing factors, and evaluation of colon mucosa-adherent microbiota composition by 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: The maximal intensity of colitis was concomitant with maximal alterations of intestinal barrier function and histological damage associated with goblet cell depletion in colon mucosa. It was recorded 2 d after termination of the DSS-treatment, followed by a progressive return to values similar to those of control mice. Although signs of colitis were severe (inflammatory cell infiltrate, crypt disarray, increased permeability) and associated with colonic luminal alterations (hyperosmolarity, dysbiosis, decrease in short-chain fatty acid content), epithelial healing processes were launched early during the inflammatory flare with increased gene expression of certain key epithelial repair modulators, including transforming growth factor-ß, interleukin (Il)-15, Il-22, Il-33, and serum amyloid A. Whereas signs of inflammation progressively diminished, luminal colonic environment alterations and microscopic abnormalities of colon mucosa persisted long after colitis induction. CONCLUSION: This study shows that colon repair can be initiated in the context of inflamed mucosa associated with alterations of the luminal environment and highlights the longitudinal involvement of key modulators.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/imunologia , Colo/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Regeneração/imunologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo/citologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Permeabilidade , RNA Ribossômico 16S
11.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigate the impact of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the most abundant and potent catechin in green tea, on a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the underlying mechanisms of action. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were subjected to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD-like disease and then randomly divided into three groups: Model group (MD), low-dose EGCG group (LE, 20 mg/kg/d), and high-dose EGCG group (HE, 50 mg/kg/d). DSS-induced clinical and macroscopic changes were monitored daily. Intestinal permeability was assessed by FITC-Dextran assay. RESULTS: Both high- and low-dose EGCG treatment alleviated clinical manifestations including body weight loss and disease activity index (DAI) of DSS-induced colitis. The DAI score was significantly improved after two days of EGCG treatment. At the end of the study, the macroscopic severity score (MSS) of HE and LE treatment groups were 2.4 ± 1.2, and 2.2 ± 1.0, respectively, significantly lower than that of the controls (5.0 ± 2.1). EGCG treatment also prevented colon shortening, and improved intestinal permeability and histopathological changes. In addition, EGCG treatment attenuated colon inflammation by suppressing colonic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha, and inhibited CD3+ T cell and CD68+ macrophage infiltration. CONCLUSION: EGCG is effective in inflammatory colitis because it reduces cellular and molecular inflammation, and reduces intestinal permeability.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Colite/prevenção & controle , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Colite/imunologia , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Permeabilidade , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362418

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, although the exact causes of IBD remain unknown. Present treatments for IBDs have poor tolerability and insufficient therapeutic efficacy, thus, alternative therapeutic approaches are required. Soybean-derived isoflavones have multiple bioactivities such as anti-inflammation. However, the low water solubility of soybean isoflavones limits their bioavailability and practical use. Therefore, in order to study the preventive effects of water-soluble soybean isoflavones on colonic inflammatory status, we examined soybean-derived isoflavone glycosides (SIFs) in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine colitis model and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Oral administration of SIF (0.5 w/v%) attenuated DSS-induced colitis in terms of body weight decrease, colon shortening, epithelial apoptosis, histological score, mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, and immune cell infiltration in colon tissues. In the in vitro assessment, we observed the inhibitory effects of SIF on the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2, via suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages in response to LPS. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were decreased by pre-treatment with SIF in LPS-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, we demonstrated that SIF suppressed inflammatory mediators involved in nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway via inhibitory κB kinase phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitory κB. Our results suggested that SIF may be beneficial for the remission of colonic inflammatory status including IBDs.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Colite/prevenção & controle , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Dextrana , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/imunologia , Colite/patologia , Colo/imunologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Indução de Remissão , Transdução de Sinais , Soja/química
13.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(8): 584-591, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365980

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on inflammation and microbiota of acute colitis in mice. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups randomly. Each group had 10 mice and was given 2.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) drinking water for 5 days other than the blank control group. Except for model control group, other two groups were administrated with probiotics and synbiotics, respectively. Probiotics was composed of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis, while synbiotics was composed of the aforementioned probiotics, inulin and galactooligosaccharide. Feces of different periods and mucosa samples were collected to analyze the differences of enteric flora by 16s rDNA sequencing. Results: (1) Pathological scores in probiotics group and synbiotics group were 5.40±2.79 and 7.25±2.87, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the model control group with scores 27.00±7.94. Model control group, probiotics group and synbiotics group showed lower flora diversity, increased Bacteroides and decreased Faecalibacterium than blank control group. The mucosal microbiota was different from fecal flora in abundance and species for each group, and Mucispirillum was more common in mucosa. Conclusions: Probiotics and synbiotics alleviate the inflammation of acute colitis in mice. Imbalance of beneficial genera to harmful genera is the characteristic of acute colitis. Supplementation of probiotics and synbiotics contributes to regulating the balance of intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/microbiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
14.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 339-359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342760

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the potential of two new fat-protected butyrate or heptanoate salts to improve gut health and control post-weaning colibacillosis in weaning piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4+, particularly focusing on their impact on intestinal microbiota and fermentative activity along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Seventy-two 21-d-old pigs were fed a plain diet (CTR) or supplemented with sodium butyrate (BUT) or sodium heptanoate (HPT), both at 0.3%. After a week of adaptation, animals were orally challenged at days 8 and 9 with 5.8 · 109 and 6.6 · 1010 cfu, respectively, and were euthanised on d 4 and d 8 post-inoculation (PI) (n = 8) to collect blood, digesta and tissue samples and characterise microbial groups, pathogen loads (qPCR), fermentation, ileal histomorphometry and immune markers. Colonic microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. Supplementing both acid salts did not compensate clinical challenge effects nor performance impairments and neither histomorphometry nor serum biomarkers. Changes in the gastric fermentative activity were registered, BUT reducing lactic acid concentrations (day 8 PI), and with HPT fewer animals presenting detectable concentrations of propionic, butyric and valeric acids. At ileum BUT increased acetic acid concentration (day 8 PI), and both additives reduced short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the colon. Increases in enterobacteria and coliforms counts in ileal digesta (day 4 PI, p < 0.10) and mucosa scrapes (p < 0.05) were registered although E. coli F4 gene copies were unaffected. Regarding changes in the colonic microbiota (day 4 PI), Prevotellaceae and Prevotella were promoted with BUT supplementation whereas only minor groups were modified in HPT-treated animals. Summarising, although the pathogen loads or inflammatory mediators remained unresponsive, butyrate and heptanoate showed a significant impact on microbial fermentation along the whole GIT, being able to modify different bacterial groups at the colon. It could be hypothesised that these effects might be mediated by a carry-over effect of the changes observed in gastric fermentation, but possibly also to a better nutrient digestion in the foregut as a result of the reduced colonic SCFA concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Heptanoatos/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Heptanoatos/administração & dosagem , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sódio/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
15.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 4315-4329, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271400

RESUMO

In this study, the immunostimulatory activity of Caulerpa lentillifera polysaccharides (CLP) was elucidated in cytoxan (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. The results showed that CLP ameliorated the CTX-evoked damage to body weight, colon length and thymus/spleen indexes and enhanced the secretions of interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) in serum and thymic, splenic and colonic tissues of the immunosuppressed mice. Besides, CLP promoted the production of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and mucin2 in the colonic tissue of the immunosuppressed mice. Associated with the above immunostimulatory effects, CLP positively affected the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and microbiota diversity and composition, such as improvement in the growth of Lactobacillus, Coriobacteriaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Clostridium_XVIII and Helicobacter, whereas it suppressed the microbial populations of Bacteroides, Barnesiella and Lachnospiraceae. These findings suggested that CLP modulated SCFA production and gut microbiota in the immunosuppressed mice, evoking the colonic mucosal immunity, which might activate the systemic immunity in blood, thymus and spleen. The results could be helpful for understanding the functions of CLP, supporting their potential as novel prebiotics and immunostimulators.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Caulerpa/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/sangue , Animais , Biodiversidade , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Imunoglobulina A Secretora , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Lactobacillus , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais , Mucina-2 , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Baço , Timo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284672

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Arabinoxylans (AX) can gel and exhibit antioxidant capacity. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential application of AX microspheres as colon-targeted drug carriers. However, the cytotoxicity of AX gels has not been investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to prepare AX-based particles (AXM) by coaxial electrospraying method and to investigate their antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity on human colon cells. Materials and Methods: The gelation of AX was studied by monitoring the storage (G') and loss (G'') moduli. The morphology of AXM was evaluated using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in vitro antioxidant activity of AX before and after gelation was measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. In addition, the effect of AX and AXM on the proliferation of human colon cells (CCD 841 CoN) was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: The final G' and G'' values for AX gels were 293 and 0.31 Pa, respectively. AXM presented spherical shape and rough surface with a three-dimensional and porous network. The swelling ratio and mesh size of AXM were 35 g water/g AX and 27 nm, respectively. Gelation decreased the antioxidant activity of AX by 61-64 %. AX and AXM did not affect proliferation or show any toxic effect on the normal human colon cell line CCD 841 CoN. Conclusion: The results indicate that AXM could be promising biocompatible materials with antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilanos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/fisiopatologia , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/uso terapêutico , Géis/metabolismo , Géis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Xilanos/farmacologia
17.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 119, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness in surveillance colonoscopy largely depends on the quality of bowel preparation. We aimed to investigate the quality of bowel preparation segmentally and its effect on Adenoma Detection Rate (ADR) and Advanced Adenoma Detection Rate (AADR) at corresponding bowel segments. METHODS: This is a single-centered and cross-sectional study. A consecutive of 5798 patients who underwent colonoscopy examination were included. Bowel preparation was evaluated based on Bowel Bubble Scale (BBS) in general and Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) in each segment (right side, transverse and left side of colon) and total BBPS scores. The quality of bowel preparation was correlated with ADR and AADR. RESULTS: Four thousand nine hundred forty colonoscopies (14,820 bowel segments) were included in the final analysis. In which 30.9% scored 3, 57.5% scored 2, 11.2% scored 1 and 0.4% scored 0 on basis of BBPS. For each score, ADR were 10.8, 7.7, 4.9 and 3.2%, respectively; whereas AADR were 4.5, 2.8,1.8 and 1.6% (P < 0.05). 36.9% of the colonoscopies showed presence of minimal bubbles and 34.3% with no bubble. For bowels without bubbles and with a large amount of bubbles, ADR were 28.3 and 20.0% respectively; and AADR were 13.3 and 7.1% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Segmental bowels' cleanliness and the amount of bubbles in bowels significantly affect ADR and AADR. The better the bowel preparation at each segment is and the less bubbles in the bowel there are, the higher ADR and AADR we got. We suggest repeating colonoscopy if any segment of the bowel preparation is poor, or if there is more bubbles, even if the total score of BBPS indicates good or fair bowel preparation.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Catárticos/normas , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Idoso , Catárticos/uso terapêutico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262003

RESUMO

The prevalence of many chronic diseases which have been associated with poor nutrition may be reduced by the positive modulation of colonic microbiota. In this study, we assess the effects of purple sweet potato polyphenols (PSP) in a mixed culture of swine fecal bacteria during in vitro colonic fermentation using pig colonic digest. Jar fermenters were used to conduct a small scale in vitro colonic fermentation experiments under the anaerobic condition for 48 h. Jar fermenters were assigned to one of the following groups: Cellulose, cellulose + PSP, inulin, and inulin + PSP. The present study revealed that the polyphenolic content of purple sweet potato could modulate the colonic microbiota by differentially increasing the population of beneficial bacteria and decreasing the pathogenic bacteria depending on cellulose and inulin. Accordingly, PSP might be a material conducive for improving the conditions for the fermentation of partly-fermentable dietary fiber. Besides, PSP was also responsible for the drastic reduction of putrefactive products, especially p-cresol to a significant level. Our results suggest that PSP could alter the microbial composition depending upon the fermentability of dietary fiber and has the potential to maintain a stable and healthy colonic environment that will ultimately alleviate chronic diseases development and confer health benefits to the host.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ipomoea batatas , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Ipomoea batatas/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa
19.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(3): 258-263, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257266

RESUMO

Allicin, an antioxidant from garlic, is known to regulate intestinal contractions, but its effect on intestinal ion transport is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the role of allicin in the regulation of electrogenic ion transport in rat intestine by measuring the transmural potential difference (ΔPD). Allicin induced significant positive ΔPD, when administered to the serosal side of the colonic mucosal-submucosal preparation. Allicin-induced colonic ΔPD was largely diminished by incubation in the chloride-free solution, although the transient peak of ΔPD after application of allicin remained. This transient peak of ΔPD was significantly diminished in both the chloride- and the bicarbonate-free incubation solution. Induction of ΔPD by allicin was greatly diminished by AP-18, an inhibitor of the transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel subfamily A member 1, TRPA1. Both alliin and S-allylcysteine, the analogues of allicin, had no effect on ΔPD and did not affect allicin-induced ΔPD in the colon. These results suggest that allicin mainly evokes the electrogenic chloride secretion and only partially increases the electrogenic bicarbonate secretion via TRPA1.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Sulfínicos/farmacologia , Canal de Cátion TRPA1 , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/efeitos dos fármacos , Canal de Cátion TRPA1/metabolismo
20.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(7): 1112-1119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257287

RESUMO

Agarwood is used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Although our previous studies demonstrated that agarwood ethanol extract produced by the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (WTAAE) improves intestinal peristalsis, the intestinal protective effect of WTAAE remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of WTAAE on the intestinal injury induced by fluorouracil (5-FU) and explore its potential mechanism. Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were given agarwood ethanol extracts (AAEs) (details in materials part), including WTAAE (0.71, 1.42 and 2.84 g/kg), wild agarwood ethanol extract (WAAE) and burning-chisel-drilling agarwood ethanol extract (FBAAE) (2.84 g/kg). A colon injury model was induced by 5-FU. After 14 d of treatment, the histopathology and biochemical and molecular parameters were measured. Our results indicated that WTAAE enhanced the intestinal advancing rate and alleviated the severity of colon injury similar the WAAE and better than FBAAE. Simultaneously, WTAAE reduced the nitric oxide (NO) concentration and increased the glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. WTAAE also reduced the levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-33 and elevated the level of IL-10. Furthermore, WTAAE upregulated the mRNA expression of the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway and downregulated the mRNA levels of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) pathway. WTAAE had a mitigating effect on intestinal damage, suggesting that it could be used as an intestinal protective and adjuvant therapy drug for intestinal injury induced by chemical drugs.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/toxicidade , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Thymelaeaceae , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Glutationa/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
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