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1.
Gastroenterology ; 158(2): 418-432, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394083

RESUMO

The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing worldwide. CRC has high mortality when detected at advanced stages, yet it is also highly preventable. Given the difficulties in implementing major lifestyle changes or widespread primary prevention strategies to decrease CRC risk, screening is the most powerful public health tool to reduce mortality. Screening methods are effective but have limitations. Furthermore, many screen-eligible people remain unscreened. We discuss established and emerging screening methods, and potential strategies to address current limitations in CRC screening. A quantum step in CRC prevention might come with the development of new screening strategies, but great gains can be made by deploying the available CRC screening modalities in ways that optimize outcomes while making judicious use of resources.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Carga Global da Doença , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Colonoscopia/normas , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Sangue Oculto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco/normas , Sigmoidoscopia/normas , Sigmoidoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Gut ; 69(1): 112-121, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). International guidelines recommend surveillance intervals of 1-2 years. However, yearly surveillance likely leads to overtreatment for many. We prospectively assessed a surveillance protocol aiming to safely reduce the burden of colonoscopies. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2018, we enrolled SPS patients from nine Dutch and Spanish hospitals. Patients were surveilled using a protocol appointing either a 1-year or 2-year interval after each surveillance colonoscopy, based on polyp burden. Primary endpoint was the 5-year cumulative incidence of CRC and advanced neoplasia (AN) during surveillance. RESULTS: We followed 271 SPS patients for a median of 3.6 years. During surveillance, two patients developed CRC (cumulative 5-year incidence 1.3%[95% CI 0% to 3.2%]). The 5-year AN incidence was 44% (95% CI 37% to 52%), and was lower for patients with SPS type III (26%) than for patients diagnosed with type I (53%) or type I and III (59%, p<0.001). Most patients were recommended a 2-year interval, and those recommended a 2-year interval were not at increased risk of AN: AN incidence after a 2-year recommendation was 15.6% compared with 24.4% after a 1-year recommendation (OR 0.57, p=0.08). CONCLUSION: Risk stratification substantially reduced colonoscopy burden while achieving CRC incidence similar to previous studies. AN incidence is considerable in SPS patients, but extension of surveillance intervals was not associated with increased AN in those identified as low-risk by the protocol. We identified SPS type III patients as low-risk group that might benefit from even less frequent surveillance. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The study was registered on http://www.trialregister.nl; trial-ID NTR4609.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Sobremedicalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1105): 20190240, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the participation rate between CT colonography (CTC) and colonoscopy in screening population in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: A search was performed using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. RCTs that included screening populations and reported participation number were assessed. Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the bias and quality. Risk ratio (RR) was used to present the results. The non-participation rate was analyzed to verify the results of participation rate. RESULTS: Five of 760 studies, with a total of 15,974 invitees, were included. The participation rate was higher at CTC (28.8%) than colonoscopy (20.8%), although the difference did not reach statistical significance (RR = 1.26; p = 0.070; I2 = 90.3%). The non-participation rate at CTC was significantly lower than colonoscopy (RR = 0.92; p = 0.012; I2 = 86.7%). Subgroup analysis suggested both the participation and non-participation rate were with significant difference between reduced/no cathartic preparation CTC and colonoscopy. Cumulative meta-analysis showed both the participation rate and non-participation rate exhibited a trend over time and sample size. CONCLUSION: The participation rate was higher at CTC than colonoscopy, although the difference did not reach statistical significance. But the non-participation rate was with statistical difference. Screening population seemed more likely to participate the reduced/no cathartic preparation CTC. Statistical evidence was provided for more large RCTs are needed in the future. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: The screening populations seem more likely to participate in the CTC, especially the reduced/no cathartic preparation CTC. The statistical evidence was provided for more large RCTs are needed in the future.


Assuntos
Colonografia Tomográfica Computadorizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 627-634, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868574

RESUMO

Early detection of colorectal neoplasms can reduce the disease burden of colorectal cancer by timely intervention of individuals at high risk. Our aim was to evaluate a joint environmental-genetic risk score as a risk stratification tool for early detection of advanced colorectal neoplasm (ACRN). Known environmental risk factors and high-risk genetic loci were summarized into risk scores for ACRN in 1014 eligible participants of a screening study. The performances of single and joint environmental-genetic scores were evaluated with estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of the absolute risk, relative risk and predictive ability using the area under the curve (AUC). Individuals with higher environmental risk scores showed increasing ACRN risk, with 3.1-fold for intermediate risk and 4.8-fold for very high risk, compared to the very low environmental risk group. Similarly, individuals with higher genetic risk scores showed increasing ACRN risk, with 2.2-fold for intermediate risk and 3.5-fold for very high risk, compared to the lowest genetic risk group. Moreover, the joint environmental-genetic score improved the ACRN risk stratification and showed higher predictive values (AUC = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.60-0.67) with substantial difference (p = 0.0002) compared to the single environmental score (0.58; 0.55-0.62). The integration of environmental and genetic factors looks promising for improving targeting individuals at high-risk of colorectal neoplasm. Applications in practical screening programs require optimization with additional genetic and other biomarkers involved in colorectal carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(12): 1518-1527, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Split-dose bowel preparation is recommended for morning colonoscopy, although a same-day dose regimen is an alternative for afternoon colonoscopy. Same-day preparation for morning colonoscopy has rarely been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We compared the bowel cleansing efficacy, bowel movement kinetics, safety profile, and patient tolerability of split-dose and same-day preparation using 4-L polyethylene glycol. DESIGN: This was a prospective, randomized, assessor-blinded study. SETTINGS: This study was performed at a tertiary center in Korea. PATIENTS: Study subjects were randomly assigned to the same-day or split-dose groups. For the same-day dose group, 4 L of polyethylene glycol were ingested on the day of colonoscopy starting at 5:00 AM for morning colonoscopy or 7:00 AM for afternoon colonoscopy. In the split-dose group, 2 L of polyethylene glycol were ingested at 9:00 PM the day before colonoscopy, and the remaining 2 L from 7:00 AM for morning colonoscopy or from 10:00 AM for afternoon colonoscopy. Colonoscopy was performed from 10:00 AM. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The efficacy of bowel cleansing was evaluated using the Boston bowel preparation scale. The participants completed questionnaires asking about adverse events, bowel movement kinetics, and tolerability of the preparation before colonoscopy. RESULTS: A total of 339 subjects were included (same-day dose = 172; split dose = 167). One subject in each group did not undergo colonoscopy. The rate of successful cleansing did not differ between the groups (same-day dose = 98.8% vs split dose = 98.2%; p = 0.681). There were no instances of hemodynamic instability or aspiration in either group. Tolerability, including overall satisfaction and willingness to reuse, were comparable between the groups. LIMITATIONS: This was a single-center study. CONCLUSIONS: The bowel cleansing efficacy, safety profile, and tolerability of same-day dosing with polyethylene glycol were comparable with those of split dose. Therefore, same-day dosing with 4 L of polyethylene glycol is a feasible bowel preparation method. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B44. COMPARACIÓN DE LA EFICACIA DE LA LIMPIEZA INTESTINAL, LA SEGURIDAD, LA CINÉTICA DEL MOVIMIENTO INTESTINAL Y LA TOLERABILIDAD DEL PACIENTE DE LA PREPARACIÓN INTESTINAL EN EL MISMO DÍA Y EN DOSIS DIVIDIDAS UTILIZANDO 4 L DE POLIETILENGLICOL: UN ESTUDIO PROSPECTIVO ALEATORIZADO: Se recomienda la preparación del intestino en dosis divididas para la colonoscopia de la mañana, aunque un régimen de una sola dosis el mismo día es una alternativa para la colonoscopia en la tarde. La preparación de una sola dosis el mismo día para la colonoscopia matutina rara vez se ha evaluado.Comparamos la eficacia de la limpieza intestinal, la cinética del movimiento intestinal, el perfil de seguridad y la tolerabilidad del paciente de la dosis dividida y la preparación el mismo día utilizando 4 L de polietilenglicol.Este fue un estudio prospectivo, aleatorizado, cegado por el evaluador.Este estudio se realizó en un centro terciario en Corea.Los sujetos del estudio fueron asignados aleatoriamente a el grupo de una dosis en el mismo día o al grupo de dosis dividida. Para el grupo de dosis del mismo día, se ingirieron 4 L de polietilenglicol el día de la colonoscopia a partir de las 5 a.m. para la colonoscopia de la mañana o las 7 a.m. para la colonoscopia de la tarde. En el grupo de dosis dividida, se ingirieron 2 L de polietilenglicol a las 9 p.m. el día anterior a la colonoscopia, y los otros 2 L restantes a partir de las 7 a.m. para la colonoscopia de la mañana o desde las 10 a.m. para la colonoscopia de la tarde. La colonoscopia se realizó a partir de las 10 a.m.La eficacia de la limpieza intestinal se evaluó mediante la escala de preparación intestinal de Boston. Los participantes completaron cuestionarios preguntando sobre los eventos adversos, la cinética del movimiento intestinal y la tolerabilidad de la preparación antes de la colonoscopia.Se incluyeron un total de 339 sujetos (dosis el mismo día, 172; dosis dividida, 167). Un sujeto en cada grupo no se sometió a colonoscopia. La tasa de limpieza exitosa no difirió entre los grupos (dosis el mismo día, 98.8% versus dosis dividida, 98.2%; p = 0.681). No hubo casos de inestabilidad hemodinámica o aspiración en ninguno de los grupos. La tolerabilidad, incluida la satisfacción general y la voluntad de reutilización, fueron comparables entre los grupos.Este fue un estudio de centro único.La eficacia de la limpieza intestinal, el perfil de seguridad y la tolerabilidad de la dosificación en el mismo día con polietilenglicol fueron comparables con los de la dosis dividida. Por lo tanto, la dosificación en el mismo día con 4 L de polietilenglicol es un método factible de preparación intestinal. Vea el video del resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B44.


Assuntos
Catárticos/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Catárticos/efeitos adversos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMJ ; 367: l5383, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate benefits and harms of different colorectal cancer screening strategies, stratified by (baseline) 15-year colorectal cancer risk. DESIGN: Microsimulation modelling study using MIcrosimulation SCreening ANalysis-Colon (MISCAN-Colon). SETTING: A parallel guideline committee (BMJ Rapid Recommendations) defined the time frame and screening interventions, including selection of outcome measures. POPULATION: Norwegian men and women aged 50-79 years with varying 15-year colorectal cancer risk (1-7%). COMPARISONS: Four screening strategies were compared with no screening: biennial or annual faecal immunochemical test (FIT) or single sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy at 100% adherence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Colorectal cancer mortality and incidence, burdens, and harms over 15 years of follow-up. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Over 15 years of follow-up, screening individuals aged 50-79 at 3% risk of colorectal cancer with annual FIT or single colonoscopy reduced colorectal cancer mortality by 6 per 1000 individuals. Single sigmoidoscopy and biennial FIT reduced it by 5 per 1000 individuals. Colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and annual FIT reduced colorectal cancer incidence by 10, 8, and 4 per 1000 individuals, respectively. The estimated incidence reduction for biennial FIT was 1 per 1000 individuals. Serious harms were estimated to be between 3 per 1000 (biennial FIT) and 5 per 1000 individuals (colonoscopy); harms increased with older age. The absolute benefits of screening increased with increasing colorectal cancer risk, while harms were less affected by baseline risk. Results were sensitive to the setting defined by the guideline panel. Because of uncertainty associated with modelling assumptions, we applied a GRADE rating of low certainty evidence to all estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Over a 15 year period, all screening strategies may reduce colorectal cancer mortality to a similar extent. Colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy may also reduce colorectal cancer incidence, while FIT shows a smaller incidence reduction. Harms are rare and of similar magnitude for all screening strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Modelos Estatísticos , Idoso , Colonoscopia/efeitos adversos , Colonoscopia/normas , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Sangue Oculto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sigmoidoscopia/efeitos adversos , Sigmoidoscopia/normas , Sigmoidoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida
8.
BMJ ; 367: l5515, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578196

RESUMO

CLINICAL QUESTION: Recent 15-year updates of sigmoidoscopy screening trials provide new evidence on the effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening. Prompted by the new evidence, we asked: "Does colorectal cancer screening make an important difference to health outcomes in individuals initiating screening at age 50 to 79? And which screening option is best?" CURRENT PRACTICE: Numerous guidelines recommend screening, but vary on recommended test, age and screening frequency. This guideline looks at the evidence and makes recommendations on screening for four screening options: faecal immunochemical test (FIT) every year, FIT every two years, a single sigmoidoscopy, or a single colonoscopy. RECOMMENDATIONS: These recommendations apply to adults aged 50-79 years with no prior screening, no symptoms of colorectal cancer, and a life expectancy of at least 15 years. For individuals with an estimated 15-year colorectal cancer risk below 3%, we suggest no screening (weak recommendation). For individuals with an estimated 15-year risk above 3%, we suggest screening with one of the four screening options: FIT every year, FIT every two years, a single sigmoidoscopy, or a single colonoscopy (weak recommendation). With our guidance we publish the linked research, a graphic of the absolute harms and benefits, a clear description of how we reached our value judgments, and linked decision aids. HOW THIS GUIDELINE WAS CREATED: A guideline panel including patients, clinicians, content experts and methodologists produced these recommendations using GRADE and in adherence with standards for trustworthy guidelines. A linked systematic review of colorectal cancer screening trials and microsimulation modelling were performed to inform the panel of 15-year screening benefits and harms. The panel also reviewed each screening option's practical issues and burdens. Based on their own experience, the panel estimated the magnitude of benefit typical members of the population would value to opt for screening and used the benefit thresholds to inform their recommendations. THE EVIDENCE: Overall there was substantial uncertainty (low certainty evidence) regarding the 15-year benefits, burdens and harms of screening. Best estimates suggested that all four screening options resulted in similar colorectal cancer mortality reductions. FIT every two years may have little or no effect on cancer incidence over 15 years, while FIT every year, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy may reduce cancer incidence, although for FIT the incidence reduction is small compared with sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Screening related serious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse events are rare. The magnitude of the benefits is dependent on the individual risk, while harms and burdens are less strongly associated with cancer risk. UNDERSTANDING THE RECOMMENDATION: Based on benefits, harms, and burdens of screening, the panel inferred that most informed individuals with a 15-year risk of colorectal cancer of 3% or higher are likely to choose screening, and most individuals with a risk of below 3% are likely to decline screening. Given varying values and preferences, optimal care will require shared decision making.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Sangue Oculto , Sigmoidoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sigmoidoscopia/normas , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Postgrad Med ; 131(8): 612-618, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524033

RESUMO

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the diagnosis and management of anemic patients in free clinics around the Tampa Bay area.Methods: In this retrospective study we extracted data including demographics, chronic diseases, and laboratory values from medical charts of uninsured patients seen in 9 free clinics from January 2016 through December 2017 in the Tampa Bay area, FL, USA. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess relationships between socioeconomic variables and a documented history of anemia.Results: From two years of documented data, 6971 patients were included, of which 367 (5%) had a documented diagnosis of anemia. Most were women (315, 86%), and the median age was 41 years (6-91). Among the 367 patients with anemia,191 (52%) patients had an unspecified type of anemia, 144 (39%) were diagnosed with IDA, 16 (4%) with anemia of chronic disease, and the remaining were other uncommon causes. Only 67% (97/144) of IDA patients had documented iron replacement. Colonoscopies were documented in only 32 (9%) of all patients with anemia, and in 23 (16%) IDA patients. Several chronic diseases were statistically associated and comorbid with a diagnosis of anemia.Conclusions: Uninsured patients with IDA are prescribed iron and undergo colonoscopies at sub-optimal rates. Increasing resources, awareness, and education of providers in these settings could lead to improved treatment practices and decrease the risk of morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Ferropriva/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Criança , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pol Przegl Chir ; 91(4): 9-12, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481646

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the relationship between the occurrence of polyps and colon cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In 2014-2015, 976 colonoscopies were performed in patients. We compared the number of polyps with high-grade dysplasia and colorectal cancers in patients with and without diabetes. In addition, in the diabetic group we documented the relationship between HbA1C and the occurrence of polyps with high-grade dysplasia, and colon cancer. The data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: 1. Patients with diabetes show a higher incidence of polyps with high-grade dysplasia/carcinoma - 32/91 (35.16%) in comparison to patients without diabetes - 136/885 (15.37%), P < 0.001; 2. Patients with diabetes show a higher incience of polyps with cancer - 9/91 (9.89%) as compared to patients without diabetes - 18/885 (2.03%), P < 0.001. 3) Colorectal cancer occurred significantly more often in uncontrolled diabetes (P = 0.022). CONCLUSION: The conducted study shows a significant association between type 2 diabetes and the incidence of colorectal adenomas. These findings may lead to a conclusion that diabetic patients are at a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer, thus are in higher need for controlled colonoscopy. Therefore, it may be worth considering a scheme for screening patients in the above-mentioned group with colonoscopy.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 856, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between pre-diagnostic colonoscopy and colorectal cancer mortality in South Australia. METHODS: Colonoscopy histories were obtained for colorectal cancer patients diagnosed in 2003-2013 using linked Medical Benefits Schedule (MBS) claims, hospital-inpatient and cancer-registry data. Colonoscopy histories included the year of colonoscopy, numbers of examinations, and the time from first colonoscopy to diagnosis. Histories of multiple exposures to colonoscopies, and exposures of greater than a year from initial colonoscopy to diagnosis, were regarded as indicators of screening or surveillance activity. Colonoscopies occurring within one year of diagnosis were regarded as more likely to be a response to cancer symptoms than those occurring > 1 year before diagnosis. Associations between colonoscopy history and post-diagnostic survival were analysed using sub-hazard ratios (SHRs) from competing risk regression adjusted for socio-demographic and cancer characteristics. RESULTS: Having pre-diagnostic colonoscopy was associated with an unadjusted reduction in risk of colorectal cancer death of 17% (SHR: 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.89). After adjusting for time period and sociodemographic characteristics, the risk of colorectal cancer death reduced by 17% for one pre-diagnostic colonoscopy examination; 27% for two pre-diagnostic colonoscopy examinations; and 45% for three or more pre-diagnostic colonoscopy examinations. Those with a time of over one year from first colonoscopy in the study window to diagnosis, when compared with less than one year, had a 17% lower risk of colorectal cancer death in this adjusted analysis. These reductions were substantially reduced or eliminated when also adjusting for less advanced stage. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnostic colonoscopy, and more so, multiple colonoscopies and first colonoscopy occurring over one year from initial colonoscopy to diagnosis, were associated with longer survival post diagnosis. This was largely explained by less advanced cancer stage at the time of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Austrália do Sul/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Med Care ; 57(10): 773-780, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common but largely preventable malignancy. Screening is recommended for all adults aged 50-75 years; however, screening rates are low nationally and vary by patient factors and across health care systems. It is currently unknown whether there are inequities in CRC screening rates by patient sociodemographic and/or clinical factors in the Veterans Health Administration (VA) where the majority of patients are CRC screening-eligible age and CRC is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using VA national clinical performance and quality data to determine the overall CRC screening rate, rates by patient sociodemographic and clinical factors, and predictors of screening adjusting for patient and system factors. We also determined whether disparities in screening exist in VA. RESULTS: The overall CRC screening rate in VA was 81.5%. Screening rates were lowest among American Indians/Alaska Natives [75.3%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.65-0.90], those with serious mental illness (75.8%; aOR=0.65, 95% CI=0.61-0.69), those with substance abuse (76.9%; aOR=0.76, 95% CI=0.72-0.80), and those in the lowest socioeconomic status quintile (79.5%; aOR=1.10-1.31 for quintiles 2-5 vs. lowest quintile 1). Increasing age, Hispanic ethnicity, black race, Asian race, and high comorbidity were significant predictors of screening uptake. CONCLUSIONS: Many racial/ethnic disparities in CRC screening documented in non-VA settings do not exist in VA. Nonetheless, overall high VA CRC screening rates have not reached American Indians/Alaska Natives, low socioeconomic status groups, and those with mental illness and substance abuse. These groups might benefit from additional targeted efforts to increase screening uptake.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde dos Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Pobreza/etnologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Saúde dos Veteranos/etnologia
13.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 149, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of colonoscopy in infants and young children and clarify the distribution of colonoscopy-requiring diseases in this age group. METHODS: Cohorts of colonoscopies performed at three children's hospitals in Japan between April 2011 and March 2016 including infants and children younger than six years of age were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: In total, 453 colonoscopies were performed in 276 infants and young children. Of these 275 (60.8%) were for diagnostic purposes, 177 (39.2%) were performed as follow-up, and one case was performed for treatment. The median patient age at the time of diagnostic colonoscopy was 2.49 years, and there was a male-to-female ratio of 1.72:1. Abnormal macroscopic and/or histopathological findings were noted in 212 (77.1%) cases. Of these, definite diagnoses were established for the presence of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGIDs), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and polyp/polyposis in 23, 18.5, and 14% of patients, respectively. Among 51 IBD cases, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and IBD-unclassified were identified in 47.1, 33.3, and 7.8%, retrospectively via endoscopic examination. Of these, 11 (22%) were eventually diagnosed with monogenic diseases via genetic testing. Of those with rectal bleeding, EGIDs, polyps/polyposis, and IBD were found in 27, 19, and 18%, retrospectively. There were significantly more cases of EGIDs and fewer ones of IBD and polyps/polyposis in patients with rectal bleeding younger than two years of age. Furthermore, 68% of all follow-up colonoscopies were performed in children with IBD. There were no serious complications in our study cohort. CONCLUSION: We determined the role of colonoscopy in infants and young children. Diseases diagnosed using colonoscopy in this age group included IBD, EGIDs, and polyps/polyposis. The increasing trend of patients with IBD and EGIDs worldwide means that the role of colonoscopy in infants and younger children will be more important in the future.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Gastroenteropatias , Pré-Escolar , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colonoscopia/tendências , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/classificação , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 464-469, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Uptake of screening through the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program remains low. General practice guidelines support the general practitioners' role to offer CRC screening. This study tests the effect that an intervention including point-of-care FOBT provision, printed screening advice and GP endorsement has on self-reported FOBT uptake. METHODS: A multisite, 1:1 parallel-arm, cluster-randomised controlled trial. Participants aged 50-74, at average risk of CRC and overdue for screening were recruited from four general practices in New South Wales, Australia, from September 2016 to May 2017. Self-report of FOBT up to eight weeks post baseline. RESULTS: A total of 336 participants consented to complete a baseline survey (64% consent rate), of which 123 were recruited into the trial (28 usual care days and 26 intervention days). Follow-up data was collected for 114 participants (65 usual care and 49 intervention). Those receiving the intervention had ten times greater odds of completing screening compared to usual care (39% vs. 6%; OR 10.24; 95%CI 2.9-36.6, p=0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: A multicomponent intervention delivered in general practice significantly increased self-reported FOBT uptake in those at average risk of CRC. Implications for public health: General practice interventions could serve as an important adjunct to the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program to boost plateauing screening rates.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Medicina Geral , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1016, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shanghai is one of the earliest cities in developing countries to introduce an organized colorectal screening program for its residents to fight against the rising disease burden of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aims to investigate the impact of the Shanghai screening program implemented in 2013 on the survival rates of CRC patients. METHODS: We calculated up to 5-year survival rates for 18,592 CRC patients from a representative district of Shanghai during 2002-2016, using data from the Shanghai Cancer Registry. We performed joinpoint regressions to examine temporal changes in the trends of the CRC survival rates. We then conducted Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards modelling to study the association of the survival rates with screening behaviors of the patients. In all the model specifications, we took into account the gender, age and TNM stage at diagnosis, and level of treatment hospital of the patients. RESULTS: We find that the annual percentage changes of the survival rates increased faster after somewhere around 2013, however, the differential trends were not significant. Results from the Cox multivariate regression analysis suggest that patients who did not participate in the screening program showed significantly lower cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-1.91) and all-causes survival (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05-1.77), compared to those who did. Among program participants, delayed colonoscopy was associated with poor cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.93; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.64-5.23) and all-causes survival (HR = 3.29; 95% CI: 1.85-5.84). CONCLUSION: Screening participation and high level of colonoscopy compliance can improve the survival of CRC participants.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida
16.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 119, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286888

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness in surveillance colonoscopy largely depends on the quality of bowel preparation. We aimed to investigate the quality of bowel preparation segmentally and its effect on Adenoma Detection Rate (ADR) and Advanced Adenoma Detection Rate (AADR) at corresponding bowel segments. METHODS: This is a single-centered and cross-sectional study. A consecutive of 5798 patients who underwent colonoscopy examination were included. Bowel preparation was evaluated based on Bowel Bubble Scale (BBS) in general and Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) in each segment (right side, transverse and left side of colon) and total BBPS scores. The quality of bowel preparation was correlated with ADR and AADR. RESULTS: Four thousand nine hundred forty colonoscopies (14,820 bowel segments) were included in the final analysis. In which 30.9% scored 3, 57.5% scored 2, 11.2% scored 1 and 0.4% scored 0 on basis of BBPS. For each score, ADR were 10.8, 7.7, 4.9 and 3.2%, respectively; whereas AADR were 4.5, 2.8,1.8 and 1.6% (P < 0.05). 36.9% of the colonoscopies showed presence of minimal bubbles and 34.3% with no bubble. For bowels without bubbles and with a large amount of bubbles, ADR were 28.3 and 20.0% respectively; and AADR were 13.3 and 7.1% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Segmental bowels' cleanliness and the amount of bubbles in bowels significantly affect ADR and AADR. The better the bowel preparation at each segment is and the less bubbles in the bowel there are, the higher ADR and AADR we got. We suggest repeating colonoscopy if any segment of the bowel preparation is poor, or if there is more bubbles, even if the total score of BBPS indicates good or fair bowel preparation.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Catárticos/normas , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Idoso , Catárticos/uso terapêutico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0219096, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We attempted to examine the factors contributing to the difficulty in performance of colorectal ESD, with the aim of constructing a scoring system that could help in prediction of the difficulty level of the procedure. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The data were analyzed from two viewpoints: to determine the factors contributing to 1) non-en bloc resection and the factors contributing to 2) a slow resection speed. Factors falling under these two categories contributing to difficulty in performance of ESD were extracted and used to construct a scoring system. The validity of this scoring system was evaluated by calculating the correlation between the score and the resection speed in a different dataset. RESULTS: Based on the results of our analysis, we assigned scores for various factors as follows: 4 points for EMR of a scarred lesion, 1 point for tumors with a diameter of ≥ 30 mm, 2 points for lesions located in the liver/splenic flexure, 1 point for lesions located in the transverse colon, 3 points for LST-NG-PD/depressed lesions, 1 point for protruded lesions and LST-NG-F lesions (range 0-10). In the validation study, the rank correlation coefficient between the score according to the scoring system and the resection speed was -0.130, representing a weak and negative correlation (P = 0.03). We defined the difficulty level depending on the sum of the scores: 0-2, low difficulty level; 3-5, intermediate difficulty level; ≥ 6, high difficulty level. The average resection speed was 12.6 mm2/min in the group with scores of 0-2, 8.1 mm2/min in the group with scores of 3-5, and 5.5 mm2/min in the group with scores of ≥ 6 (11.2 mm2/min in all lesions). CONCLUSION: Our colorectal ESD scoring system would be useful for selection of operators with the appropriate skill level in the procedure for colorectal ESD cases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Duração da Cirurgia , Proctoscopia/métodos , Proctoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 111, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can be responsible for alteration in quality of life and economic burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate healthcare use related to this disorder in France. METHODS: The French health data system was used to select adults covered by the general health scheme (87% of population) through their first IBS hospitalization in 2015. We studied the healthcare refunded during the previous 5 years, 1 year before and after hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 43.7 million adults who used refunded healthcare in 2015, 29,509 patients were identified (0.07, 33% males, 67% females, mean age 52 years, 30% admitted through emergency room). During their hospitalization, 33% had upper endoscopy and 64% colonoscopy. Over the five previous years, 3% had at least one hospitalization with an IBS diagnosis, 58% had abdominal ultrasonography, 27% CT scan, 21% upper endoscopy, 13% colonoscopy and 83% a gastroenterologist visit. The year before, these rates were respectively: 0, 36, 16, 6, 4 and 78%. Some of those rates decreased the year after the hospitalization with respectively: 1, 27, 13, 5, 4 and 19%. The year before, 65% had at least one CRP dosage (13% three or more), 58% a TSH dosage (7%) and 8% a test for coeliac diseases (1%) and the year after: 44% (8%), 43% (5%) and 3% (0.3%). At least one refund of a drug used to treat IBS was found for 85% of patients 5 years before, 65% one year before and 51% one year after. CONCLUSION: This first study using French health data system for healthcare consumption assessment in IBS points out the repetition of outpatient visits, examinations and in particular radiological examinations, without a strong decrease after hospitalization for IBS and gastroenterologist visit.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França , Gastroenterologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tireotropina/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Ultrassonografia/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 345, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether patients receive low-value hospital care (care that is not expected to provide a net benefit) may be influenced by unmeasured factors at the hospital they attend or the hospital's Local Health District (LHD), or the patients' areas of residence. Multilevel modelling presents a method to examine the effects of these different levels simultaneously and assess their relative importance to the outcome. Knowing which of these levels has the greatest contextual effects can help target further investigation or initiatives to reduce low-value care. METHODS: We conducted multilevel logistic regression modelling for nine low-value hospital procedures. We fit a series of six models for each procedure. The baseline model included only episode-level variables with no multilevel structure. We then added each level (hospital, LHD, Statistical Local Area [SLA] of residence) separately and used the change in the c statistic from the baseline model as a measure of the contribution of the level to the outcome. We then examined the variance partition coefficients (VPCs) and median odds ratios for a model including all three levels. Finally, we added level-specific covariates to examine if they were associated with the outcome. RESULTS: Analysis of the c statistics showed that hospital was more important than LHD or SLA in explaining whether patients receive low-value care. The greatest increases were 0.16 for endoscopy for dyspepsia, 0.13 for colonoscopy for constipation, and 0.14 for sentinel lymph node biopsy for early melanoma. SLA gave a small increase in c compared with the baseline model, but no increase over the model with hospital. The VPCs indicated that hospital accounted for most of the variation not explained by the episode-level variables, reaching 36.8% (95% CI, 31.9-39.0) for knee arthroscopy. ERCP (8.5%; 95% CI, 3.9-14.7) and EVAR (7.8%; 95% CI, 2.9-15.8) had the lowest residual variation at the hospital level. The variables at the hospital, LHD and SLA levels that were available for this study generally showed no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: Investigations into the causes of low-value care and initiatives to reduce low-value care might best be targeted at the hospital level, as the high variation at this level suggests the greatest potential to reduce low-value care.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Hospitalização , Hospitais/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/estatística & dados numéricos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E67, 2019 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Screening can decrease colorectal cancer incidence and mortality and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Poor quality of colorectal cancer screening can negate the benefit of screening. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of screening services provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Colorectal Cancer Control Program from July 2009 through June 2015. METHODS: We collected data from the program's 29 grantees, funded to provide colorectal cancer screening and diagnostic services to asymptomatic, low-income, and underinsured or uninsured adults aged 50 to 64. We collected data on the dates and results of all screening and diagnostic tests and, for colonoscopies, on whether the cecum was reached, whether bowel preparation was adequate, and endoscopists' recommendations for the next test. RESULTS: Overall, 82.9% (range among grantees, 50.0%-97.2%) of positive FOBTs/FITs were followed up by colonoscopy; 95.2% of colonoscopies occurred within 180 days of the positive stool test. Cecal intubation rates ranged among grantees from 94.2% to 100%. Adenoma detection rates met recommended threshold levels for almost all grantees. Recommendations for rescreening and surveillance intervals deviated from guidelines in both directions. Of clients with normal colonoscopies, 85.3% (range, 37.7%-99.7%) were told to return in 10 years, as recommended in national guidelines. Of clients with advanced adenomas, 55.2% (range, 20.0%-84.6%) were told to return in 3 years as recommended, 25.4% (range, 3.8%-56.6%) in 5 or more years, and 18.6% (range, 0%-47.2%) in less than 3 years. CONCLUSION: Although overall screening quality was good, it varied considerably. Ongoing monitoring to identify performance problems is essential for all colorectal cancer screening activities, so that efforts designed to improve performance can be targeted to individual clinicians.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
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