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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 1-15, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677833

RESUMO

Colostrum is the first milk produced by a cow after she gives birth. Compared with mature milk, it has a high concentration of immunoglobulin G. Calves are born without circulating antibodies, thus ingestion of colostrum is necessary to protect the calf against pathogens in the first challenging weeks of life. In addition to the life-saving supply of antibodies, colostrum contains minerals, vitamins, growth factors, and immune cells. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) were added to that list. MicroRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules that can regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They are thought to act as key regulators of diverse biological and developmental processes. Colostrum contains higher amounts of miRNAs than mature milk; immune- and development-related miRNAs are prominent. Their expression pattern in milk is likely to be influenced by maternal nutrition and environment. The fat content of the maternal diet appears to have a major effect on expression of miRNAs in milk and in the neonate. The immunological state of the mammary gland seems to affect miRNA expression as well. In cows diagnosed with subclinical mastitis, alterations in the expression of miRNAs in milk have been observed. It is believed that miRNAs in colostrum and milk are signaling molecules passed from mother to newborn. They are packaged in extracellular vesicles, which makes them resistant to the harsh conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, they can reach the small intestine, where they are absorbed and transferred into the bloodstream. MicroRNAs are important for the development of the intestines. For example, miRNAs stimulate cell viability, proliferation, and stem cell activity of the intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, miRNAs seem to act as key players in the development of the complete immune system. They can, among other things, regulate B- and T-cell differentiation and affect interleukin production of macrophages. The abundance of miRNAs in colostrum and milk and the possibility for their absorption in the intestines of the neonate supports the hypothesis that these tiny molecules are important for the development of the newborn. The probable relation of diet to the expression of miRNAs by the mother creates a possible avenue to optimize expression of miRNAs and improve neonatal maturation.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Colostro/química , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , Colostro/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/genética , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(3): 535-556, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590901

RESUMO

Colostrum management is the single most important management factor in determining calf health and survival. Additional benefits of good colostrum management include improved rate of gain and future productivity. Successful colostrum management requires producers to provide calves with a sufficient volume of clean, high-quality colostrum within the first few hours of life. This article reviews the process of colostrogenesis and colostrum composition, and discusses key components in developing a successful colostrum management program. In addition, the article discusses approaches for monitoring and proposes new goals for passive immunity in dairy herds.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Colostro/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos/imunologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Colostro/imunologia , Feminino , Imunização Passiva , Gravidez
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(10)2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Breastfeeding promotion is an important public health strategy for counter-balancing the negative effects of maternal overweight and obesity. Colostrum contains melatonin, which can attenuate the impacts of excessive maternal weight and boost the infant's immune system. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of melatonin on mononuclear (MN) phagocytes from the colostrum of women with pre-gestational obesity. Materials and Methods: Colostrum samples were collected postpartum from 100 women at a public hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. The donors were divided into two groups: the control group and the high body mass index (BMI) group. Melatonin levels in the colostrum were determined by an ELISA Kit, and the functional activity of MN cells was assessed using the phagocytosis assay by flow cytometry, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular calcium, and apoptosis were assessed by fluorimetry using a microplate reader. RESULTS: The colostrum of mothers with pre-gestational high BMI exhibited higher melatonin levels (p < 0.05) and lower phagocytosis (p < 0.05) and ROS release (p < 0.05). Superoxide release was similar between the normal and high BMI groups (p > 0.05). Intracellular calcium release and apoptosis were also higher in the high BMI group (p < 0.05). Melatonin levels likely increased the phagocytosis rate and reduced intracellular calcium release and the apoptosis index (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that melatonin is a possible mechanism for maternal-infant protection against obesity and restores the functional activity of colostrum phagocytes in obese mothers.


Assuntos
Colostro/imunologia , Melatonina/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fagócitos/fisiologia , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Colostro/química , Feminino , Humanos , Melatonina/análise , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fagócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4256-4267, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504586

RESUMO

This study was conducted to compare the effects of adding sodium butyrate (SB), medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) to the diet of sows during late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance of sows and the growth performance and intestinal health of suckling piglets. Twenty-four sows (Landrace × Large-White hybrid; third parity; 200 ± 15 kg) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 diets: basal diet (control group), basal diet + 1 g SB/kg (SB group), basal diet + 7.75 g MCFA/kg (MCFA group), or basal diet + 68.2 g n-3 PUFA/kg (n-3 PUFA group). The experiment began on day 85 of gestation and ended day 22 of lactation. Colostrum samples were collected from each sow. After the experiment, blood and tissue samples were collected from 1 randomly selected piglet. The results showed that the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was shorter than that of sows in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of diarrhea in suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups was lower than that of piglets in the control group (P < 0.05). The fat, protein, IgA, IgG, and IgM concentration in colostrum from sows increased following dietary supplementation with SB, MCFA, or n-3 PUFA (P < 0.05). Comparison with the control group, the mRNA expression of claudin-1, zona occludens 1, and interleukin-10 increased in the jejunum mucosa of suckling piglets in the SB, MCFA, and n-3 PUFA groups, while that of TLR4 decreased (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the Chao1 and ACE indexes of microbial flora in the colon contents of piglets in the SB, MCFA, and MCFA groups increased (P < 0.05), while the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Synergistetes decreased at the phylum level (P < 0.05). In conclusion, during late pregnancy and lactation, dietary SB supplementation had a greater effect on intestinal health and caused a greater decrease in preweaning mortality of suckling piglets than did dietary MCFA or n-3 PUFA supplementation; dietary MCFA supplementation shortened the weaning-to-estrus interval of sows to a greater extent than did dietary SB or n-3 PUFA supplementation; and dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation increased the fat and protein content in the colostrum to the greatest extent.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Colostro/química , Colostro/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10266-10276, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521357

RESUMO

Calves are particularly vulnerable to health issues before weaning and experience high rates of mortality. Poor colostrum quality or substandard colostrum management, combined with poor hygiene, can increase disease susceptibility, contributing to elevated mortality rates. This study aimed to assess colostrum and calf management together with subsequent mortality rates in preweaning calves. Forty-seven Irish spring-calving, pasture-based dairy herds were enrolled in the study. To investigate whether colostrum and hygiene practices change as the calving season progresses, each farm was visited in both the first and last 6 wk of the calving season. The concentration of IgG in 250 colostrum samples and 580 calf serum samples was determined by radial immunodiffusion assay. Mean colostrum IgG concentration was 85 mg/mL, and mean calf serum IgG concentration was 30.9 and 27.1 mg/mL, respectively, in the first and last 6 wk of the calving season. Smaller herd size and younger age at sampling were associated with higher calf serum IgG concentration. Dairy breed calves were associated with higher serum IgG concentrations compared with beef breed calves; no association was detected based on sex. For feeding equipment hygiene, we assessed the presence of protein residues and found that hygiene levels tended to worsen from the first to the final 6 wk of the calving season. We found no association between feeding equipment hygiene and herd size or 28-d calf mortality rate. Colostrum and calf management practices were not associated with either calf serum IgG concentration or 28-d calf mortality rate. We found that IgG concentration in colostrum produced in Irish dairy herds was generally good, although large variation existed, emphasizing the need for assessment of colostrum before feeding. Results also suggested that hygiene practices associated with calf rearing can be improved, particularly in the latter half of the calving season.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Higiene , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Mortalidade , Gravidez , Estações do Ano , Desmame
6.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492016

RESUMO

Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is one of the immunomodulatory factors in breast milk (BM). Although it may be involved in the prevention of atopic symptoms and sensitization to both food and inhalant allergens, conflicting evidence exists concerning its protective effects. In this study, we investigated the relationship between sCD14 in colostrum and 1-month BM, and the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and sensitization to food and aeroallergens at 9 months of age in infants who were exclusively or almost exclusively breastfed up to 4 months of age. BM samples were collected from lactating mothers who participated in a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized, nontreatment controlled trial study set in Tokyo, which looked at the efficacy of emollients and synbiotics in preventing AD and food allergy in children during the first year of life. A total of 258 colostrum samples and 269 1-month BM samples were analyzed. We found that one-month BM sCD14 levels in the AD group were significantly lower than in the non-AD group. Levels of sCD14 in 1-month BM were not related to allergen sensitization in the overall analysis, but egg white sensitization correlated inversely with 1-month BM sCD14 in infants without AD. The results suggest that sCD14 in BM may be involved in atopic manifestations in early infancy.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Leite Humano/imunologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Colostro/imunologia , Colostro/metabolismo , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Tóquio
7.
N Z Vet J ; 67(6): 277-286, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401943

RESUMO

The aim of this review is to critically assess the test characteristics and practicality of published data on direct and indirect tests for diagnosing failure of transfer of passive immunity (FPT) in dairy calves in New Zealand, to provide recommendations for veterinary practitioners, and to examine the recommended sample size for assessing herd-level prevalence of FPT and the confidence in the results obtained. The definition of FPT is based on measurement of concentrations of IgG in serum of neonatal calves after colostrum intake. The gold standard method for measurement of concentrations of IgG is radial immunodiffusion. However its cost, requirements for laboratory equipment, and the time taken to obtain results have meant that alternative tests have been developed. The turbidimetric immunoassay and ELISA also directly measure concentrations of IgG. Indirect tests include measurement of concentrations of total proteins (TP) in the laboratory or using a refractometer, γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity, and the zinc sulfate turbidity (ZST) test. Of the indirect tests, measurement of concentrations of TP in the laboratory or using a refractometer combine high specificity and sensitivity with a consistent association with concentrations of IgG in calves between 1-7 days of age. Using a refractometer is less accurate than direct measurement in a laboratory, but is still a suitable test if low cost and speed are important. Although GGT activity is strongly associated with concentrations of IgG in serum, the relationship varies with time after birth. Therefore the target thresholds change with time, increasing error compared to the measurement of concentrations of TP in serum. Similarly, factors other than total concentrations of IgG have a significant effect on the association with ZST test, complicating interpretation. Thus, when direct measurement of concentrations of IgG is not feasible, the recommendation is that concentrations of TP in serum should be used as the diagnostic test for diagnosis of FPT, providing calves are not dehydrated. Using a sample size of 12 calves is suitable for estimating whether the herd-level prevalence of FPT is <20% or >20%, if there are no calves or >5 calves diagnosed with FPT, respectively, but is limited in diagnostic confidence when 1-4 calves test positive. Diagnostic interpretation can be significantly improved if tests of FPT are used alongside information on the likely risk of FPT on the tested farm.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Nova Zelândia
8.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 217: 109881, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450164

RESUMO

Vaccination against Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in pregnant cows is crucial to produce greater immunity in new born calves, especially in late gestation, as this directly affects neonatal immunity. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how late gestation FMD vaccination of pregnant cows affects the maternally derived antibodies in their offspring. Pregnant cows were vaccinated with and without booster vaccination during the 3rd months (early gestation vaccination, EGV) or the 6.5th months (late gestation vaccination, LGV). Their offspring were investigated for passive immunity transfer, maternal antibody duration, and the first vaccination age of calves (when the maternal antibody has waned sufficiently to allow the first vaccination). Antibody titers were analyzed by a virus neutralization test (VNT). A digital Brix refractometer (% Brix) was used to estimate passive antibody transfer efficiency measuring total protein (TP) content of calf blood sera and also colostrum IgG content. Two linear mixed effects models were fitted: one for the antibody titer values of the dams, and the other for the antibody titer values of calves before the vaccination. A marginal fixed effects model was also fitted to explore the effects of the dam titers on the antibody titers of the calves after their vaccinations. As a result, the average neutralizing antibody titers did not differ between the EGV and LGV groups nor were any differences detected between dams that received a booster and those that were not boosted. However, the LGV calves' mean maternally derived antibody titers were significantly higher (p-values = 0.0001 for both groups) and the duration was longer than that of the EGV calves (120 days in LGV, 60 days in EGV, p < 0.05). Since no statistical difference was found between the titers of either group of dams at the beginning of the experiment and parturition, it does not appear that the higher VN titers in LGV calves compared to titers in EGV are directly related to the circulating antibody levels in the dams. Furthermore, the TP value (% Brix) of calf blood sera was higher than>8.4% in both calf groups (9.3 ±â€¯0.33 in LGV and 8.6 ±â€¯0.40 in EGV, p > 0.05) indicating that passive immunity transfer had occurred for both groups. In addition, we found that the % Brix mean colostrum IgG content of the LGV (25.8 ±â€¯1.30) was higher than the EGV (21.8 ±â€¯0.58) dams (p < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation found between the colostrum density of LGV dams and TP (% Brix) value of their offspring (r = 0.73, p < 0.01). Our results show that vaccination during the late gestation period increased the colostrum IgG content of dams of LGV in addition to the maternally derived antibody duration and potentially provided greater protection of the offspring.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Colostro/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Esquemas de Imunização , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação/métodos
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8478-8485, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255264

RESUMO

Several physiological and metabolic changes take place in dairy ruminants around parturition (late pregnancy, parturition, and early lactation). Dairy species are genetically selected for their higher milk production compared with non-dairy species. This fact causes a constant stress that impairs the immune status of the animal, with consequences for its welfare and performance. In the present study, we assessed the immune status of high-yield dairy sheep and goats by quantifying IgG and IgM concentrations, as well as chitotriosidase (ChT) and complement system [total complement system (TC) and alternative complement pathway (AC)] activity in blood plasma around parturition. We also measured IgG and IgM concentrations and ChT activity in colostrum and milk during the first 40 d postpartum. The lowest blood IgG concentration was at parturition in both species. We detected no differences in blood IgG concentrations between species. Blood IgM concentrations were constant in both species throughout the study period. However, blood IgM concentrations were greater in sheep than in goats. Blood ChT activity was greater in goats than in sheep, and both species showed constant activity of this enzyme throughout the study period. We observed no differences in complement system (TC and AC) activity between sheep and goats. In addition, both TC and AC activity were constant in both species throughout the experiment. In general, IgG and IgM concentrations were greater in sheep colostrum than in goat colostrum, but these differences disappeared after d 4 (IgG) and d 3 (IgM) postpartum. In both species, the highest IgG and IgM concentrations were measured in colostrum, gradually decreasing during the first days postpartum. Chitotriosidase activity decreased in both species from colostrum to milk, although goats always showed greater ChT activity than sheep. Both sheep and goats seemed to be more susceptible to infectious diseases around parturition. As well, goats showed greater ChT activity in blood, colostrum, and milk than sheep. This fact may give these animals additional protection against parasite and fungal infections.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Cabras/imunologia , Parto/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia , Animais , Colostro/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Feminino , Cabras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hexosaminidases/análise , Hexosaminidases/sangue , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/análise , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactação/imunologia , Leite/imunologia , Período Pós-Parto/imunologia , Gravidez , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8352-8366, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255273

RESUMO

Calf preweaning morbidity and mortality risks have been reported as high in several countries, with average values approximating 35 and 7%, respectively. However, limited data are available for calf morbidity and mortality risks on Australian dairy farms. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate current calf management practices on dairy farms in Australia and their association with herd-level morbidity and mortality using a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study; and (2) to estimate the prevalence of common enteropathogens causing diarrhea, the failure of passive transfer of immunity, and poor colostrum quality in a sample of Australian dairy farms. We analyzed 106 completed questionnaires and samples from 23 farms (202 fecal, 253 calf serum, and 221 colostrum samples). Morbidity and mortality risks reported by farmers in preweaned heifers were 23.8 and 5.6%, respectively. These risks were above the Australian dairy industry targets in 75.5 and 66.7% of respondents. The zoonotic pathogens Cryptosporidium spp. and Salmonella spp. were the most prevalent enteropathogens, with a true prevalence of 40.9 and 25.2%, respectively. Salmonella O-group D was present in 67.9% of Salmonella-positive samples, followed by O-groups B (17.9%) and C (10.7%). Failure of transfer of passive immunity (IgG <10 g/L) was observed in 41.9% of calves (mean herd-level prevalence of 36.2%), and only 19.5% of colostrum samples met the standards for immunoglobulin content and microbiological quality. Collectively, these data indicate that there is still considerable room for improvement in calf-rearing practices on Australian dairy farms, particularly with regard to colostrum management and feeding hygiene.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro , Indústria de Laticínios , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Austrália , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Colostro/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Fezes , Feminino , Higiene , Gravidez , Prevalência
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8376-8384, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301846

RESUMO

Little is known about the influence of maternal antibodies and immune cells transferred through colostrum on the immune responses of calves to the currently used foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines. Here we evaluated the humoral and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination of colostrum-deprived calves and calves that received equivalent amounts of colostrum preparations that differed in the presence or absence of maternal immune cells but contained the same quantity and quality of anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) antibodies. Three groups of 32-d-old calves (n = 3 per group) were deprived of colostrum and fed either whole immune colostrum or a cell-free colostrum preparation containing only anti-FMDV antibodies. All groups were immunized with 1 dose of an oil-adjuvanted commercial vaccine. Blood samples were collected periodically before vaccination and weekly after vaccination. Immune responses specific to FMDV were assessed based on T-cell proliferation, IFN-γ production, total and neutralizing serum antibodies, and isotype profile. All vaccinated calves developed IFN-γ and lymphoproliferative responses, irrespective of the colostrum received. Colostrum-deprived animals responded to vaccination with a primary IgM response followed by an increase of IgG1 titers. Conversely, antibody titers decreased in all colostrum-fed calves after vaccination. This study demonstrates for the first time that maternal immune cells transferred to the calves through colostrum do not modify immune responses to FMD vaccine, and it confirms the interference of maternal antibodies in the induction of humoral but not cell-mediated immune responses.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Imunidade Celular , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Gravidez , Vacinação/veterinária
12.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3426-3439, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233597

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum addition to diets in late gestation and lactation on the reproductive performance and gut microbiota for sows. A total of 180 healthy Landrace × Yorkshire sows at 90 d of gestation were randomly assigned to one of four groups, with 45 replicates per group, receiving a basal commercial diet (Control, 0% C. butyricum) or diet added with 0.1% C. butyricum (1 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), 0.2% C. butyricum (2 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), 0.4% C. butyricum (4 × 108 CFU/kg of feed), respectively. The experiment was conducted from 90 d of gestation to weaning at 21 d of lactation. The results showed that the interval between piglet born was linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, and the duration of farrowing was significantly (quadratic, P < 0.05) shortened as C. butyricum addition increased. There was a linear (P < 0.05) increase in litter weight at weaning and litter weight gain. The concentrations of IgG and IgM in colostrum, and IgM in milk were linearly increased (P < 0.05) as C. butyricum addition. Serum MDA concentrations of sows at parturition and 14 d in lactation, and piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were linearly (P < 0.05) decreased, respectively. The serum total antioxidant capacity concentrations of sows at parturition and 14 and 21 d in lactation, and piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were linearly (P < 0.05) increased as C. butyricum addition, respectively. There was a linear decrease in the serum endotoxin concentration of sows on 21 d in lactation (P < 0.05). The serum cortisol concentrations of piglets at 14 and 21 d of age were both significantly (quadratic, P < 0.05) decreased. The 0.2% C. butyricum increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes (P = 0.016) at phylum level, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Prevotella_1, Prevotellaceae_UCG-003, Prevotella_9, Alloprevotella (P < 0.05) at genus level, and decreased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria (P < 0.001) at phylum level, and Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Streptococcus, Escheruchia-Shigella, Sphingomonas, Succinivibrio (P < 0.05) at genus level and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P = 0.020). In conclusion, the present research indicated that dietary addition with C. butyricum could shorten the duration of farrowing and enhance the growth performance of suckling piglets. Moreover, 0.2% C. butyricum administration to sows changed the composition of intestinal microbiota, especially increased the relative abundance of Prevotella.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Clostridium butyricum/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Reprodução , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Colostro/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Lactação , Leite/imunologia , Parto , Gravidez , Suínos/imunologia , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Planta Med ; 85(11-12): 1016-1023, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212319

RESUMO

Nectarine (Prunus persica var. nucipersica) is a worldwide appreciated edible subspecies, with a high nutritional value and benefits on human health due to its phenolic content. Despite the large consumption of the fruit, the potential use of its kernel is poorly studied. Herein, the potential pharmacological activities and the phenolic constituents of an alcoholic extract of kernel nectarine fruits were investigated. Administering nectarine kernel extract (50 and 100 mg/kg, respectively) in rats reduced paw edema after carrageenan injection by 11 and 47% in 1 h, 24 and 33% in 2 h, and 23 and 32% in 4 h, when compared to the controls. At the higher dose (100 mg/kg), nectarine kernel extract increased the reaction time in the hot-plate model and produced a significant decrease in the rectal temperature of the pyretic rats, while both doses produced 52 and 59% of writhing inhibition compared to the control group. Total polyphenolic (55.91 ± 5.78 mg/g) and flavonoid (29.89 ± 0.55 mg/g) content indicated that the extract is a promising source of these constituents. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, such as naringenin and apigenin glycosides. The cyanogenic glycosides amigdalin and prunasin were also detected. These results highlight the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of nectarine kernel alcoholic extract, together with significant phenolic content, promoting its exploitation as a source of bioactive molecules.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antipiréticos/farmacologia , Nozes/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prunus persica/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antipiréticos/isolamento & purificação , Colostro/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7459-7463, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202644

RESUMO

Transition milk is a source of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and could potentially be used to provide calves with passive immunity, when the IgG concentration is ≥50 g/L. Assessment of IgG concentrations in transition milk would be required before feeding and could be conducted using cow-side tests such as refractometers. Currently, limited information is available on the ability of refractometers to assess transition milk quality. We hypothesized that digital refractometry could be used to provide an accurate cow-side assessment of IgG concentrations in colostrum and transition milk, and IgG concentration in colostrum and one or more transition milking in an Irish herd is >50 g/L. The objectives of this study were to determine the IgG concentrations in colostrum and first, second, third, fourth, and fifth transition milk, and determine the utility of a digital refractometer in assessing quality of colostrum and transition milk produced by cows in a pasture-based dairy production system. A convenient sample of 75 dairy cows were enrolled. Colostrum and transition milk IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. Sensitivity and specificity of the refractometer were determined and cut-off points that maximized sensitivity and specificity were determined using receiver operating characteristic curves. Median (range) IgG concentrations in colostrum and first, second, third, fourth, and fifth milking were 99.6, 43.5, 12.5, 5.3, 1.9, and 1.8 g/L, respectively. The sensitivity (0.8-1) of digital refractometry in identifying samples with low IgG concentrations in colostrum, first, second, and third transition milk was acceptable. In contrast, digital refractometry was not useful for assessing IgG concentrations in the fourth and fifth milking due to low IgG concentrations.


Assuntos
Colostro/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Refratometria/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Imunodifusão/veterinária , Leite , Gravidez , Curva ROC , Refratometria/instrumentação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 317(1): G67-G77, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091150

RESUMO

Prenatal inflammation may predispose to preterm birth and postnatal inflammatory disorders such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Bioactive milk ingredients may help to support gut maturation in such neonates, but mother's milk is often insufficient after preterm birth. We hypothesized that supplementation with bioactive ingredients from bovine milk [osteopontin (OPN), caseinoglycomacropeptide (CGMP), colostrum (COL)] supports gut, immunity, and NEC resistance in neonates born preterm after gram-negative infection before birth. Using preterm pigs as a model for preterm infants, fetal pigs were given intraamniotic injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 mg/fetus) and delivered 3 days later (90% gestation). For 5 days, groups of LPS-exposed pigs were fed formula (FOR), bovine colostrum (COL), or formula enriched with OPN or CGMP. LPS induced intraamniotic inflammation and postnatal systemic inflammation but limited effects on postnatal gut parameters and NEC. Relative to FOR, COL feeding to LPS-exposed pigs showed less diarrhea, NEC severity, reduced gut IL-1ß and IL-8 levels, greater gut goblet cell density and digestive enzyme activities, and blood helper T-cell fraction. CGMP improved neonatal arousal and gut lactase activities and reduced LPS-induced IL-8 secretion in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro. Finally, OPN tended to reduce diarrhea and stimulated IEC proliferation in vitro. No effects on villus morphology, circulating cytokines, or colonic microbiota were observed among groups. In conclusion, bioactive milk ingredients exerted only modest effects on gut and systemic immune parameters in preterm pigs exposed to prenatal inflammation. Short-term, prenatal exposure to inflammation may render the gut less sensitive to immune-modulatory milk effects. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Prenatal inflammation is a risk factor for preterm birth and postnatal complications including infections. However, from clinical studies, it is difficult to separate the effects of only prenatal inflammation from preterm birth. Using cesarean-delivered preterm pigs with prenatal inflammation, we documented some beneficial gut effects of bioactive milk diets relative to formula, but prenatal inflammation appeared to decrease the sensitivity of enteral feeding. Special treatments and diets may be required for this neonatal population.


Assuntos
Caseínas/administração & dosagem , Corioamnionite/dietoterapia , Enterocolite Necrosante/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Fortificados , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Fórmulas Infantis , Intestinos/imunologia , Osteopontina/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Nascimento Prematuro , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Caseínas/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Corioamnionite/induzido quimicamente , Corioamnionite/imunologia , Corioamnionite/metabolismo , Colostro/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/imunologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Absorção Intestinal , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Valor Nutritivo , Osteopontina/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Permeabilidade , Gravidez , Sus scrofa
16.
Animal ; 13(11): 2621-2629, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062681

RESUMO

Failed transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) in dairy calves - which is often due to the low amount of colostrum provided within a few hours after birth - remains a crucial issue. Enabling dairy calves to nurse colostrum from their dams could be useful in increasing intake and thus avoiding FTPI, but further potential effects on the health and welfare of both calves and dams should also be considered. In this study, 107 calf-dam pairs from two Italian dairy farms were alternately assigned to one of the following colostrum provision methods (CPMs): 'hand-fed method' (HFM) - the calf was separated from the dam immediately after birth and colostrum was provided by nipple-bottle (n = 50); 'nursing method' (NM) - the calf nursed colostrum from the dam for the first 12 h of life without farmer assistance (n = 30); and 'mixed method' (MM) - the nursing calf received a supplementary colostrum meal by nipple-bottle (n = 27). Serum of calves (1 to 5 days of age) and samples of their first colostrum meal were analysed by electrophoresis to assess immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration. Additionally, behavioural indicators of separation distress (calf and dam vocalisations; calf refusal of the first meal after separation; undesirable dam behaviour at milking) in the following 24 h were recorded as binary variables (Yes/No), and the health status of calves (disease occurrence and mortality) and dams (postpartum disorders and mastitis occurrence) were monitored for the first 3 months of life and 7 days after parturition, respectively. The lowest FTPI occurrence (calf serum Ig concentration <10.0 g/l) was found in the MM (11.1%) and the HFM (22.0%) compared with the NM (60.0%) (P<0.05), and the highest percentage of calves with optimal transfer of passive immunity (serum Ig concentration ≥16.0 g/l) was observed in the MM (55.6%). The lowest calf-dam separation distress was observed in the HFM (P<0.05). The highest calf disease occurrence was recorded in the HFM (64.0%) and the lowest in the NM (33.3%), with an intermediate value for the MM (44.4%) (P<0.05). No effect of the CPM was observed on dam health or calf mortality (P>0.05). The results of this study indicated that providing calves with a supplementary colostrum meal in addition to nursing from the dam (MM) is truly effective in maximizing passive immunity transfer. Anyway, specific strategies should be studied to minimise calf-dam separation distress.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Bovinos/imunologia , Colostro/imunologia , Imunização Passiva/veterinária , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Itália , Parto , Gravidez
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 120-128, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955799

RESUMO

We have previously reported the generation of the attenuated KNU-141112-S DEL5/ORF3 virus by continuous propagation of highly virulent G2b porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Vero cells. The present study aimed to assess the safety of S DEL5/ORF3 and to evaluate its effectiveness as a live vaccine for prime-booster vaccinations. Reversion to virulence experiments revealed that the S DEL5/ORF3 strain retains its attenuated phenotype and genetic stability after five successive passages in susceptible piglets. Pregnant sows were primed orally with an S DEL5/ORF3 live vaccine and boosted intramuscularly twice with a commercial killed vaccine at 2-week intervals prior to parturition. This sow vaccination regimen completely protected nursing piglets against virulent G2b challenge, as evidenced by the increase in survival rate from 0% to 100% and the significant reduction in diarrhea intensity, including the amount and duration of PEDV fecal shedding. In addition, despite a 2-3 day period of weight loss in piglets from vaccinated sows after challenge, their daily weight gain was recovered at 7 days post-challenge and became similar to that of unchallenged pigs from unvaccinated sows over the course of the experiment. Furthermore, strong antibody responses to PEDV were verified in the sera and colostrum of immunized sows with the prime-boost treatment and their offspring. Altogether, our data demonstrated that the attenuated S DEL5/ORF3 strain guarantees the safety to host animals with no reversion to virulence and is suitable as an effective primary live vaccine providing durable maternal lactogenic immunity for passive piglet protection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Potência de Vacina , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Colostro/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Genótipo , Imunização Secundária , Injeções Intramusculares , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/genética , Gravidez , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Virulência , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(4)2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-toxin (CPB) is the major virulence factor of Clostridium perfringens type C, causing hemorrhagic enteritis in newborn pigs but also other animals and humans. Vaccines containing inactivated CPB are known to induce protective antibody titers in sow colostrum and neutralization of the CPB activity is thought to be essential for protective immunity in newborn piglets. However, no method is available to quantify the neutralizing effect of vaccine-induced antibody titers in pigs. (2) Methods: We developed a novel assay for the quantification of neutralizing anti-CPB antibodies. Sera and colostrum of sows immunized with a commercial C. perfringens type A and C vaccine was used to determine neutralizing effects on CPB induced cytotoxicity in endothelial cells. Antibody titers of sows and their piglets were determined and compared to results obtained by an ELISA. (3) Results: Vaccinated sows developed neutralizing antibodies against CPB in serum and colostrum. Multiparous sows developed higher serum and colostrum antibody titers after booster vaccinations than uniparous sows. The antibody titers of sows and those of their piglets correlated highly. Piglets from vaccinated sows were protected against intraperitoneal challenge with C. perfringens type C supernatant. (4) Conclusions: The test based on primary porcine endothelial cells quantifies neutralizing antibody activity in serum and colostrum of vaccinated sows and could be used to reduce and refine animal experimentation during vaccine development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Colostro/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Bioensaio , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Feminino , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Suínos , Vacinação
19.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999350

RESUMO

A sufficient supply of colostral antibodies within the first hours of life is crucial for the development and the health status in young calves. It is rational to examine the immunoglobulin uptake of single animals, but particularly on a herd basis, during herd controls and consultations. This enables economical calf rearing in accordance with animal welfare. Because of the costly, laboratory-dependent and in part time-consuming direct measurement of the absorbed immunoglobulins using radial immunodiffusion (RID) or ELISA, multiple studies attempted to develop indirect methods, which would be affordable and operational in the field. These aim to draw an inference for the absorbed quantity of colostral antibodies based on other correlated parameters. Multiple validations showed in part significant differences between various methods concerning specificity and sensitivity in comparison to the direct methods. In addition to RID and ELISA, this article presents the measurement of the γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity, the determination of the total serum protein concentration using refractometry and the zinc sulphate turbidity test, and describes the advantages and disadvantages of their application. Refractory measurement and determination of the GGT activity represent a valuable alternative to a laboratory-dependent immunoglobulin G measurement. Nevertheless, there is no ideal rapid test method, such that several influencing factors have to be considered.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Bovinos/sangue , Colostro/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/economia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Imunodifusão/economia , Imunodifusão/métodos , Imunodifusão/veterinária , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria/veterinária , Refratometria/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 4857-4869, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981494

RESUMO

Human rotaviruses represent a major cause of severe diarrheal disease in infants and young children. The limited impact of oral vaccines on global estimates of rotavirus mortality and the suboptimal use of oral rehydration justify the need for alternative prophylactic and therapeutic strategies, especially for immunocompromised hosts. The protective effects of colostrum-the first milk produced during the initial 24 to 48 h after parturition-are well documented in the literature. In particular, the ingestion of hyperimmune bovine colostrum has been proposed as an alternative preventive approach against human rotavirus gastroenteritis. Although the immunization of pregnant cows with human rotavirus boosts the release of specific immunoglobulin G in bovine colostrum, it raises regulatory and safety issues. In this study, we demonstrated that the conventional bovine rotavirus vaccine is sufficient to enhance the anti-human rotavirus protective efficacy of bovine colostrum, thus providing a conservative approach to produce hyperimmune bovine colostrum, making it exploitable as a functional food.


Assuntos
Colostro/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Gravidez , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Células Vero
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