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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445063

RESUMO

It is our pleasure to announce the publication of the Special Issue "Regeneration for Spinal Diseases" in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS, ISSN 1422-0067) [...].


Assuntos
Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Humanos , Regeneração , Medicina Regenerativa , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 863, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267313

RESUMO

Organisms comprise multiple interacting parts, but few quantitative studies have analysed multi-element systems, limiting understanding of phenotypic evolution. We investigate how disparity of vertebral morphology varies along the axial column of mammalian carnivores - a chain of 27 subunits - and the extent to which morphological variation have been structured by evolutionary constraints and locomotory adaptation. We find that lumbars and posterior thoracics exhibit high individual disparity but low serial differentiation. They are pervasively recruited into locomotory functions and exhibit relaxed evolutionary constraint. More anterior vertebrae also show signals of locomotory adaptation, but nevertheless have low individual disparity and constrained patterns of evolution, characterised by low-dimensional shape changes. Our findings demonstrate the importance of the thoracolumbar region as an innovation enabling evolutionary versatility of mammalian locomotion. Moreover, they underscore the complexity of phenotypic macroevolution of multi-element systems and that the strength of ecomorphological signal does not have a predictable influence on macroevolutionary outcomes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Carnivoridade/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Microtomografia por Raio-X
3.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 176(2): 283-294, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227681

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: One of the most contentious issues in paleoanthropology is the nature of the last common ancestor of humans and our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos (panins). The numerical composition of the vertebral column has featured prominently, with multiple models predicting distinct patterns of evolution and contexts from which bipedalism evolved. Here, we study total numbers of vertebrae from a large sample of hominoids to quantify variation in and patterns of regional and total numbers of vertebrae in hominoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compile and study a large sample (N = 893) of hominoid vertebral formulae (numbers of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, caudal segments in each specimen) and analyze full vertebral formulae, total numbers of vertebrae, and super-regional numbers of vertebrae: presacral (cervical, thoracic, lumbar) vertebrae and sacrococcygeal vertebrae. We quantify within- and between-taxon variation using heterogeneity and similarity measures derived from population genetics. RESULTS: We find that humans are most similar to African apes in total and super-regional numbers of vertebrae. Additionally, our analyses demonstrate that selection for bipedalism reduced variation in numbers of vertebrae relative to other hominoids. DISCUSSION: The only proposed ancestral vertebral configuration for the last common ancestor of hominins and panins that is consistent with our results is the modal formula demonstrated by chimpanzees and bonobos (7 cervical-13 thoracic-4 lumbar-6 sacral-3 coccygeal). Hox gene expression boundaries suggest that a rostral shift in Hox10/Hox11-mediated complexes could produce the human modal formula from the proposal ancestral and panin modal formula.


Assuntos
Pan troglodytes , Coluna Vertebral , Animais , Antropologia Física , Antropometria , Evolução Biológica , Hominidae/anatomia & histologia , Hominidae/fisiologia , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/anatomia & histologia , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
4.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 4209-4224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188470

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Strontium ranelate (SrR) is an oral pharmaceutical agent for osteoporosis. In recent years, numerous unwanted side effects of oral SrR have been revealed. Therefore, its clinical administration and applications are limited. Hereby, this study aims to develop, formulate, and characterize an effective SrR carrier system for spinal bone regeneration. Methods: Herein, glycol chitosan with hyaluronic acid (HA)-based nanoformulation was used to encapsulate SrR nanoparticles (SrRNPs) through electrostatic interaction. Afterward, the poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA)-based hydrogels were used to encapsulate pre-synthesized SrRNPs (SrRNPs-H). The scanning electron microscope (SEM), TEM, rheometer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to characterize prepared formulations. The rabbit osteoblast and a rat spinal decortication models were used to evaluate and assess the developed formulation biocompatibility and therapeutic efficacy. Results: In vitro and in vivo studies for cytotoxicity and bone regeneration were conducted. The cell viability test showed that SrRNPs exerted no cytotoxic effects in osteoblast in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo analysis for new bone regeneration mechanism was carried out on rat decortication models. Radiographical and histological analysis suggested a higher level of bone regeneration in the SrRNPs-H-implanted groups than in the other experimental groups. Conclusion: Local administration of the newly developed formulated SrR could be a promising alternative therapy to enhance bone regeneration in bone-defect sites in future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Coelhos , Ratos Wistar , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2950, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011979

RESUMO

Human motions, such as joint/spinal bending or stretching, often contain information that is useful for orthopedic/neural disease diagnosis, rehabilitation, and prevention. Here, we show a badge-reel-like stretch sensing device with a grating-structured triboelectric nanogenerator exhibiting a stretching sensitivity of 8 V mm-1, a minimum resolution of 0.6 mm, a low hysteresis, and a high durability (over 120 thousand cycles). Experimental and theoretical investigations are performed to define the key features of the device. Studies from human natural daily activities and exercise demonstrate the functionality of the sensor for real-time recording of knee/arm bending, neck/waist twisting, and so on. We also used the device in a spinal laboratory, monitoring human subjects' spine motions, and validated the measurements using the commercial inclinometer and hunchback instrument. We anticipate that the lightweight, precise and durable stretch sensor applied to spinal monitoring could help mitigate the risk of long-term abnormal postural habits induced diseases.


Assuntos
Articulações/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Sistemas Computacionais , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico , Cifose/fisiopatologia , Sistemas Microeletromecânicos/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Movimento/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793608

RESUMO

A plethora of evidence supports the existence of neuromuscular changes in people with chronic spinal pain (neck and low back pain), yet it is unclear whether neuromuscular adaptations persist for people with recurrent spinal pain when in a period of remission. This systematic review aimed to synthesise the evidence on neuromuscular adaptations in people with recurrent spinal pain during a period of remission. Electronic databases, grey literature, and key journals were searched from inception up to the 4th of September 2020. Eligibility criteria included observational studies investigating muscle activity, spine kinematics, muscle properties, sensorimotor control, and neuromuscular performance in adults (≥ 18 years) with recurrent spinal pain during a period of remission. Screening, data extraction, and quality assessment (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale) were conducted independently by two reviewers. Data synthesis was conducted per outcome domain. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model was performed where possible. The overall strength of evidence was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidelines (GRADE). From 8292 records, 27 and five studies were included in a qualitative and quantitative synthesis, respectively. Very low level of evidence supports muscle activity changes in people with recurrent low back pain, especially greater co-contraction, redistribution of muscle activity, and delayed postural control of deeper trunk muscles. Reduced range of motion of the lumbar spine was also found. Meaningful conclusions regarding other outcome domains or people with recurrent neck pain could not be drawn. In conclusion, people with recurrent low back pain during a period of remission show muscle activity and spine kinematics adaptations. Future research should investigate the long-term impact of these changes, as well as adaptations in people with recurrent neck pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Dor Lombar/patologia , Força Muscular , Cervicalgia/patologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Indução de Remissão , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
7.
PLoS Biol ; 19(4): e3001146, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793545

RESUMO

General anesthesia is characterized by reversible loss of consciousness accompanied by transient amnesia. Yet, long-term memory impairment is an undesirable side effect. How different types of general anesthetics (GAs) affect the hippocampus, a brain region central to memory formation and consolidation, is poorly understood. Using extracellular recordings, chronic 2-photon imaging, and behavioral analysis, we monitor the effects of isoflurane (Iso), medetomidine/midazolam/fentanyl (MMF), and ketamine/xylazine (Keta/Xyl) on network activity and structural spine dynamics in the hippocampal CA1 area of adult mice. GAs robustly reduced spiking activity, decorrelated cellular ensembles, albeit with distinct activity signatures, and altered spine dynamics. CA1 network activity under all 3 anesthetics was different to natural sleep. Iso anesthesia most closely resembled unperturbed activity during wakefulness and sleep, and network alterations recovered more readily than with Keta/Xyl and MMF. Correspondingly, memory consolidation was impaired after exposure to Keta/Xyl and MMF, but not Iso. Thus, different anesthetics distinctly alter hippocampal network dynamics, synaptic connectivity, and memory consolidation, with implications for GA strategy appraisal in animal research and clinical settings.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Consolidação da Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Coluna Vertebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Fentanila/farmacologia , Hipocampo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Isoflurano/efeitos adversos , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Medetomidina/efeitos adversos , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Midazolam/farmacologia , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Xilazina/efeitos adversos , Xilazina/farmacologia
8.
J Anat ; 239(3): 747-754, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928628

RESUMO

Locomotor force production imposes strong demands on organismal form. Thus, the evolution of novel locomotor modes is often associated with morphological adaptations that help to meet those demands. In the goby lineage of fishes, most species are marine and use their fused pelvic fins to facilitate station holding in wave-swept environments. However, several groups of gobies have evolved an amphidromous lifecycle, in which larvae develop in the ocean but juveniles migrate to freshwater for their adult phase. In many of these species, the pelvic fins have been co-opted to aid in climbing waterfalls during upstream migrations to adult habitats. During horizontal swimming, forces are produced by axial musculature pulling on the vertebral column. However, during vertical climbing, gravity also exerts forces along the length of the vertebral column. In this study, we searched for novel aspects of vertebral column form that might be associated with the distinctive locomotor strategies of climbing gobies. We predicted that stiffness would vary along the length of the vertebral column due to competing demands for stability of the suction disk anteriorly and flexibility for axial thrust production posteriorly. We also predicted that derived, climbing goby species would require stiffer backbones to aid in vertical thrust production compared to non-climbing species. To test these predictions, we used microcomputed tomography scans to compare vertebral anatomy (centrum length, centrum width, and intervertebral space) along the vertebral column for five gobioid species that differ in climbing ability. Our results support our second prediction, that gobies are more flexible in the posterior portion of the body. However, the main variation in vertebral column form associated with climbing ability was the presence of larger intervertebral spaces in Sicyopterus stimpsoni, a species that uses a distinctive inching behavior to climb. These results build on past kinematic studies of goby climbing performance and lend insights into how the underlying vertebral structure of these fishes may enable their novel locomotion.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Locomoção/fisiologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
9.
Am J Hum Biol ; 33(2): e23583, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Age, sedentary activity, central adiposity, and inflammation have all been independently associated with bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed how the effects of sedentary activity and central adiposity on BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck change across early to late adulthood and whether these relationships are mediated by inflammation. METHODS: We analyzed data from 7135 women and men 20 years of age and older from NHANES 2007 to 2010. Anthropometrics, sedentary activity (min/day), serum CRP (mg/dl), and BMD (gm/cm2 measured by DXA scans) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. Data were compared by age and sex groups and through causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: The effect of waist circumference on BMD was significantly mediated by serum CRP at both skeletal sites in men and at the femoral neck in women. Sedentary activity did not have a direct relationship to BMD but was mediated by waist circumference in men. Least square means differed significantly by sex and age groups with a general age-related decline in BMD at both skeletal sites. CONCLUSIONS: We found that central adiposity, independent of overall body size and composition as measured through BMI, has an inverse relationship with BMD that is mediated by serum CRP. In addition, the negative impact of increased sedentism acted through changes in central adiposity (waist circumference) but only in men. Although low bone density and osteoporosis are often considered degenerative diseases that primarily impact postmenopausal women, our findings show that sedentary activity and central adiposity impact bone density beginning in early adulthood in both women and men.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Densidade Óssea , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zoology (Jena) ; 146: 125922, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770517

RESUMO

Despite being commonly recognized by the general public, knowledge about the biology and life-history of electric rays is still scarce. Globally, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, more of the 80% of the species belonging to the Torpedinidae family are, indeed, classified as Data Deficient, so as, in most of the cases, no proper management measures are available for the conservation of these species. For this reason, the main goal of this study is to provide new information on life-history traits of three species inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea. Age and growth were estimated through direct annuli count of 146 vertebral centra sections of Torpedo marmorata. Females' growth pattern was found to be better described by a S-shaped function (Gompertz L∞ = 622mm TL; k = 0.15; IP=2.75 years), while males' by a logarithmic one (von Bertalanffy L∞ = 485mm TL; k = 0.14; t0 = -2.28). The oldest female and male were aged 17 (560mm TL) and 11 (432mm TL), respectively. Females (L50=379mm TL and A50=5.5 years) appeared to mature later than males (L50=272mm TL and A50=3.8 years), also attaining bigger sizes. Despite the observation of late-pregnant females being found only in autumn and regressing ones in autumn and winter, the presence of juveniles during the whole year may indicate a longer reproductive period. The stomach content analysis identified T. marmorata as a top predator (TROPH=4.38) with a very narrow trophic niche (Bi=0.22), extremely specialized in feeding on bony fishes. In addition, this work provides new and updated information on T. torpedo and the rare Tetronarce nobiliana growth, reproductive features and diet. Therefore, offering new essential data to assess the population conditions of all Torpedinidae species that inhabit the Mediterranean Sea, will lead to effective conservation plans.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Rajidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
11.
Gait Posture ; 85: 298-303, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smartphones have become increasingly more popular and complicated tasks can be performed with these devices. However, the increasing use is associated with shoulder and neck pain, as well as with psychological addiction. RESEARCH QUESTION: Do different smartphone tasks lead to changes in spinal posture and pelvic position? Is there a relationship between smartphone addiction and changes in posture? METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 50 participants was performed. Test subjects completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale and the SF-36 health questionnaire. Subjects spinal posture and pelvic position during different smartphone tasks were measured through a surface topography system. The different tasks were: standing in an upright position, simulating a phone call, texting with one or two hands during standing or while walking on a treadmill. Paired T-tests and ANOVA tests were performed to evaluate differences. The Kendall rank test was used to investigate the association between clinical scores and changes in spinal posture. RESULTS: All smartphone tasks lead to a significant increase in thoracic kyphosis and trunk inclination during standing and while walking. A significant increased lumbar lordosis was also found. Texting with one or two hands correlated with increased surface rotation. No associations between smartphone addiction and changes of the spinal posture were reported. SIGNIFICANCE: This represents the first surface topography study that investigated the influence of different smartphone tasks on the spinal posture and pelvic position during standing and while walking. With the results of this study we demonstrated that smartphone use leads to significant changes of sagittal and frontal spine parameters. Further research should focus on the evaluation of possible detrimental effects of long-term smartphone use on the spinal posture and on the development of preventive measures.


Assuntos
Pelve/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Smartphone , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Mãos , Humanos , Cifose/fisiopatologia , Lordose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Cervicalgia , Posição Ortostática , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Tronco , Caminhada
12.
Hum Mov Sci ; 76: 102766, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549936

RESUMO

Cognitive motor interference (CMI) is a psychomotor phenomenon characterized by alterations in kinematic spatial-temporal parameters during concurrent cognitive and motor tasks (i.e. dual-tasking). Previous literature has demonstrated that cognitive-motor dual-tasking induces alterations gait parameters; however, the influence of CMI on spine reflexive motion has yet to be researched. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of cognitive-motor dual-tasking during unexpected spine loading, in particular focusing on paraspinal muscle responses and spine sub-regional kinematic responses. To do this, the spine was perturbed by unexpectedly dropping a 6.8 kg mass into the participants' hands during cognitive dual-task and control conditions. Intersegmental spine angles, paraspinal muscle onset latencies, baseline activations, and response magnitudes were measured. The results demonstrated that participants experienced greater spine flexion at all intersegmental levels during the cognitive dual-task condition compared to the control condition. Additionally, muscle onset latencies were significantly delayed in three of the four paraspinal muscles studied when performing the cognitive-motor dual-task. These results demonstrate that the additional cognitive load led to delayed muscle activation responses and subsequently greater intersegmental lumbar spine flexion in response to a sudden loading perturbation. This suggests that cognitive-motor dual-tasking may increase the risk of developing an acute spine injury under similar conditions.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Movimento , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Região Lombossacral , Masculino , Postura , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sport Rehabil ; 30(5): 786-793, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465760

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Baseball pitching is a coordinated movement involving the spine. A previous study indicated that increased thoracic kyphosis angle in a standing position was a risk factor for medial elbow injuries in youth baseball players. However, spinal alignments in single-leg standing and their relationships with medial elbow injuries, scapular alignment, or hip joint range of motion are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the difference in spinal alignment between standing and single-leg standing positions in youth baseball players and analyze their relationship with elbow injuries, scapular alignment, or hip joint range of motion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: There were 51 youth baseball players with medial epicondylar fragmentation (medial elbow injury group) and 102 healthy youth baseball players (control group). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and trunk inclination angles during standing and single-leg standing, forward scapular posture, and hip joint range of motion. RESULTS: In the single-leg standing position, the thoracic kyphosis and backward trunk inclination angles were significantly higher in the medial elbow injury group than in the control group (P = .016 and P = .046, respectively). In the standing position, no significant difference was observed between both groups. The thoracic kyphosis angle in single-leg standing was positively correlated with the bilateral forward scapular posture in the medial elbow injury (P = .008 and P < .001 on the throwing and nonthrowing sides, respectively) and control (P = .010 and P = .032 on the throwing and nonthrowing sides, respectively) groups. CONCLUSIONS: High thoracic kyphosis and backward trunk inclination angles are characteristics during single-leg standing in youth baseball players with medial elbow injuries. Spinal alignment measurement in single-leg standing may be useful for identifying youth baseball players who are at risk for sustaining medial elbow injury.


Assuntos
Beisebol/lesões , Cotovelo/lesões , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Posição Ortostática , Beisebol/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Japão , Cifose/fisiopatologia , Lordose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Postura/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Escápula/anatomia & histologia , Escápula/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Esportes Juvenis/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2359, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504851

RESUMO

In order to classify and analyze the parameters of upper body posture, a baseline in form of standard values is demanded. To this date, standard values have only been published for healthy young women. Data for female adults between 51 and 60 years are lacking. 101 symptom-free female volunteers aged 51-60 (55.16 ± 2.89) years. The mean height of the volunteers was 1.66 ± 0.62 m, with a mean body weight of 69.3 ± 11.88 kg and an average BMI of 25.02 ± 4.55 kg/m2. By means of video raster stereography, a 3D-scan of the upper back surface was measured in a habitual standing position. The confidence interval, tolerance range and ICCs were calculated for all parameters. The habitual standing position is almost symmetrical in the frontal plane the most prominent deviation being a slightly more ventral position of the left shoulder blade in comparison to the right. The upper body (spine position) is inclined ventrally with a minor tilt to the left. In the sagittal plane, the kyphosis angle of the thoracic spine is greater than the lordosis angle of the lumbar spine. The pelvis is virtually evenly balanced with deviations from an ideal position falling under the measurement error margin of 1 mm/1°. There were also BMI influenced postural variations in the sagittal plane and shoulder distance. The ICCs are calculated from three repeated measurements and all parameters can be classified as "almost perfect". Deflections from an ideally symmetric spinal alignment in women aged 51-60 years are small-scaled, with a minimal frontal-left inclination and accentuated sigmoidal shape of the spine. Postural parameters presented in this survey allow for comparisons with other studies as well as the evaluation of clinical diagnostics and applications.


Assuntos
Postura/fisiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Cifose/epidemiologia , Cifose/fisiopatologia , Lordose/epidemiologia , Lordose/fisiopatologia , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Região Lombossacral/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Posição Ortostática
15.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(6): 2429-2457, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427948

RESUMO

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexuses within the ventricles of the brain and circulates through the subarachnoid space of the skull and spinal column to provide buoyancy to and maintain fluid homeostasis of the brain and spinal cord. The question of how CSF drains from the subarachnoid space has long puzzled scientists and clinicians. For many decades, it was believed that arachnoid villi or granulations, outcroppings of arachnoid tissue that project into the dural venous sinuses, served as the major outflow route. However, this concept has been increasingly challenged in recent years, as physiological and imaging evidence from several species has accumulated showing that tracers injected into the CSF can instead be found within lymphatic vessels draining from the cranium and spine. With the recent high-profile rediscovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels located in the dura mater, another debate has emerged regarding the exact anatomical pathway(s) for CSF to reach the lymphatic system, with one side favoring direct efflux to the dural lymphatic vessels within the skull and spinal column and another side advocating for pathways along exiting cranial and spinal nerves. In this review, a summary of the historical and contemporary evidence for the different outflow pathways will be presented, allowing the reader to gain further perspective on the recent advances in the field. An improved understanding of this fundamental physiological process may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for a wide range of neurological conditions, including hydrocephalus, neurodegeneration and multiple sclerosis.


Assuntos
Aracnoide-Máter/fisiologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/fisiologia , Vasos Linfáticos/fisiologia , Animais , Nervos Cranianos/fisiologia , Osso Etmoide/fisiologia , Humanos , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Linfonodos/patologia , Vasos Linfáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
16.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 6(1): 68-83, ene. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202400

RESUMO

Se considera que la actividad física regulada y sistematizada conlleva beneficios para la salud en diferentes ámbitos para el adulto mayor, ya sean: composición corporal, sistema cardiovascular, nivel metabólico y endócrino, fuerza muscular, huesos, articulaciones y flexibilidad. OBJETIVO: Evaluar y comparar los ángulos de la columna entre dos grupos de adultos mayores: activos y sedentarios, utilizando el método de flexicurva. MÉTODOS: Para este estudio participaron 30 adultos mayores, de los cuales se dividieron en dos grupos: 15 activos y 15 sedentarios (no presentaron diferencias cuanto a características antropométricas), entre 65 y 74 años. Para medir los ángulos de la columna vertebral (cervical, torácica y lumbar) se utiliza la flexicurva y el software Biomec Flex V.3.0. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo como resultado una diferencia significativa entre grupos en la medida de la columna cervical, donde solo los adultos mayores activos presentan medidas dentro de los parámetros normales, y los sedentarios presentaron hiperlordosis cervical. Las medidas de la columna lumbar presentaron valores de rectificación de la curvatura para ambos grupos (de acuerdo con los valores de referencia de la literatura). CONCLUSIÓN: La curvatura de la columna cervical se mostró afectada en adultos mayores sedentarios del presente estudio, en comparación la curvatura de la columna de los adultos mayores activos. Además la rectificación de la curvatura de la columna lumbar y los cambios debido a esta postura deben ser considerados en la planificación de ejercicio físico en esta población


Regulated and systematized physical activity is considered to have health benefits in different areas for the older adult, like: body composition, cardiovascular system, metabolic and endocrine level, muscle strength, bones, joints and flexibility. Purpose. Evaluate and compare the spinal angles between two groups of elderly people: active and sedentary, using the flexicurve method. METHODS: Participated 30 elderly people, of which they were divided into two groups: 15 active and 15 sedentary (they did not present differences for anthropometric characteristics), between 65 and 74 years old. To measure the angles of the vertebral column (cervical, thoracic and lumbar) the flexicurve and the Biomec Flex software V.3.0 are used. RESULTS: Significant difference was obtained between groups in the measurement of the cervical spine, where only active older adults presented measurements within normal parameters, and sedentary older adults presented cervical hyperlordosis. The lumbar spine measurements presented curvature rectification values ​​for both groups (according to the reference values ​​of the literature). CONCLUSION: The curvature of the cervical spine was affected in sedentary older adults in the present study, compared to the curvature of the spine in active older adults. Furthermore, the rectification of the curvature of the lumbar spine and the changes due to this posture should be considered in the planning of physical exercise in this population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Comportamento Sedentário , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Postura/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Força Muscular , Antropometria , Fotogrametria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(3): 581-589, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lumbar bone stress injuries (LBSI) are the most prevalent injury in cricket. Although fast bowling technique has been implicated in the etiology of LBSI, no previous study has attempted to prospectively analyze fast bowling technique and its relationship to LBSI. The aim of this study was to explore technique differences between elite cricket fast bowlers with and without subsequent LBSI. METHODS: Kinematic and kinetic technique parameters previously associated with LBSI were determined for 50 elite male fast bowlers. Group means were compared using independent-samples t-tests to identify differences between bowlers with and without a prospective LBSI. Significant parameters were advanced as candidate variables for a binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of the 50 bowlers, 39 sustained a prospective LBSI. Significant differences were found between injured and noninjured bowlers in rear knee angle, rear hip angle, thoracolumbar side flexion angle, and thoracolumbar rotation angle at back foot contact; the front hip angle, pelvic tilt orientation, and lumbopelvic angle at front foot contact; and the thoracolumbar side flexion angle at ball release and the maximal front hip angle and ipsilateral pelvic drop orientation. A binary logistic model, consisting of rear hip angle at back foot contact and lumbopelvic angle at front foot contact, correctly predicted 88% of fast bowlers according to injury history and significantly increased the odds of sustaining an LBSI (odds ratio, 0.88 and 1.25, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lumbopelvic motion is implicated in the etiology of LBSI in fast bowling, with inadequate lumbopelvifemoral complex control as a potential cause. This research will aid the identification of fast bowlers at risk of LBSI, as well as enhancing coaching and rehabilitation of fast bowlers from LBSI.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Críquete/lesões , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Atletas , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Críquete/fisiologia , Pé/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Postura/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Fish Biol ; 98(4): 995-1006, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239680

RESUMO

Medaka (O. latipes) and zebrafish (D. rerio) are two teleost fish increasingly used as models to study human skeletal diseases. Although they are similar in size, swimming pattern and many other characteristics, these two species are very distant from an evolutionary point of view (by at least 100 million years). A prominent difference between the skeletons of medaka and zebrafish is the total absence of osteocytes in medaka (anosteocytic), while zebrafish bone contains numerous osteocytes (osteocytic). This fundamental difference suggests the possibility that the bony elements of their skeleton may be different in a variety of other aspects, structural, mechanical or both, particularly in heavily loaded bones like the vertebrae. Here we report on the results of a comparative study that aimed to determine the similarities and differences in medaka and zebrafish vertebrae in terms of their macro- to nanostructure, composition and mechanical properties. Our results reveal many similarities between medaka and zebrafish vertebrae, making the lack or presence of osteocytes the only major difference between the bones of these two species.


Assuntos
Oryzias/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/química , Peixe-Zebra/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Osteócitos , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Natação
19.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 46(7): E426-E432, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181766

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Within-subject design of an experimental study. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of smartphone use on the activity level of the lumbar erector spinae muscles and spine kinematics during walking. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Using a smartphone while walking makes the user hold the phone steady and look downward to interact with the phone. Walking with this non-natural posture of the head and the arms may alter the spine kinematics and increase the muscular load on the low back extensor muscles. METHODS: Twenty healthy young individuals participated in the laboratory experiment. Each participant walked on a treadmill in five different conditions: normal walking without using a phone, conducting one-handed browsing while walking, two-handed texting while walking, walking with one arm bound, and walking with both arms bound. Spine kinematics variables and the myoelectric activity levels of the lumbar erector spinae muscles were quantified and compared between the five walking conditions. RESULTS: Participants walked with significantly (P < 0.05) more thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis when using a phone compared to when walking without using the phone. The median level of muscle activity was also 16.5% (browsing) to 31.8% (texting) greater for the two smartphone use conditions than for the normal walking condition, and the differences were significant (P < .05). Between the normal walking and the two bound arm walking conditions, no significant difference in the muscle activity was found. CONCLUSION: Study results show that the concurrent use of a smartphone while walking could pose a larger muscular load to the lumbar erector spinae muscles than that of normal walking. Habitual use of a smartphone while walking could be a risk factor for low back musculoskeletal problems.Level of Evidence: N/A.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Músculos Paraespinais/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Smartphone , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Eletromiografia/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico , Cifose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Smartphone/tendências , Envio de Mensagens de Texto/tendências , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21519, 2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33298988

RESUMO

Numerous spine Finite Element (FE) models have been developed to assess spinal tolerances, spinal loadings and low back pain-related issues. However, justified simplifications, in terms of tissue decomposition and inclusion, for such a complex system may overlook crucial information. Thus, the purpose of this research was to develop and validate a comprehensive and representative spine FE model inclusive of an accurate representation of all major torso elements. A comprehensive model comprised of 273 tissues was developed via a novel FE meshing method to enhance computational feasibility. A comprehensive set of indirect validation tests were carried out to validate every aspect of the model. Under an increasing angular displacement of 24°-41°, the lumbar spine recorded an increasing moment from 5.5 to 9.3 Nm with an increase in IVD pressures from 0.41 to 0.66 MPa. Under forward flexion, vertical vertebral displacements simulated a 6% and 13% maximum discrepancy for intra-abdominal and intramuscular pressure results, all closely resembling previously documented in silico measured values. The developed state-of-the-art model includes most physiological tissues known to contribute to spinal loadings. Given the simulation's accuracy, confirmed by its validation tests, the developed model may serve as a reliable spinal assessment tool.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/fisiologia , Postura , Pressão , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Rotação , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Tronco , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia
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