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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 845-850, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581164

RESUMO

Use of marijuana at an early age can affect memory, school performance, attention, and learning; conclusions have been mixed regarding its impact on mental health conditions, including psychosis, depression, and anxiety (1-3). Medical marijuana has been legal in Washington since 1998, and in 2012, voters approved the retail sale of marijuana for recreational use to persons aged ≥21 years. The first retail stores opened for business in July 2014. As more states legalize marijuana use by adults aged ≥21 years, the effect of legalization on use by youths will be important to monitor. To guide planning of activities aimed at reducing marijuana use by youths and to inform ongoing policy development, Public Health-Seattle & King County assessed trends and characteristics of past 30-day marijuana use among King County, Washington, public school students in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12. This report used biennial data for 2004-2016 from the Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. Among grade 6 students there was a decreasing trend in self-reported past 30-day marijuana use from 2004 to 2016, while the percentage of grade 8 students who had used marijuana during the past 30 days did not change during that period. Among students in grades 10 and 12, self-reported past 30-day use of marijuana increased from 2004 to 2012, then declined from 2012 to 2016. In 2016, the percentage of students with past 30-day marijuana use in King County was 0.6% among grade 6, 4.1% among grade 8, 13.9% among grade 10, and 25.5% among grade 12 students. Among grade 10 students, 24.0% of past 30-day marijuana users also smoked cigarettes, compared with 1.3% of nonusers. From 2004 to 2016 the prevalence of perception of great risk of harm from regular marijuana use decreased across all grades. Continued surveillance using consistent measures is needed to monitor the impact of marijuana legalization and emerging public health issues, given variable legislation approaches among jurisdictions.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Washington/epidemiologia
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3123-3127, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602862

RESUMO

In the process of transforming and upgrading of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) intelligent manufacturing,the TCM enterprises lack systematic and in-depth research on intelligent manufacturing of TCM,leading to insufficient understanding of relevant concepts,development direction,development content and other aspects,to some extent,causing fuzzy and chaotic phenomena. The theoretical model,as a higher expression level of scientific thinking,has the function of interpretation and prediction,and can provide theoretical basis as well as guide for scientific research. Therefore,this article aims to construct a theoretical model of TCM intelligent manufacturing based on the concept of flexible production and intelligent equipment for some unhealthy phenomena in the development process of TCM intelligent manufacturing. In the TCM intelligent manufacturing system,with theory model as the core,the new-generation information technology was integrated with the TCM manufacturing technology to realize the integration of informationization and industrilization as well as the landing of theoretical model. Then,a 3 D simulation model was established to provide a visual environment for intelligent manufacturing of TCM and simulate the virtual reality throughout the TCM intelligent manufacturing process. The new theoretical model in this paper,to a certain extent,can play a guiding role in the development of TCM intelligent manufacturing,and can also provide reference for the realization of TCM intelligent manufacturing.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Modelos Teóricos , Comércio , Controle de Qualidade
3.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 443-450, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of psychosocial constraints in the sector of mass retail is necessary to set up and guide preventive strategies. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the prevalence of psychosocial constraints among employees working in a large supermarket chains. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted in employees of grocery stores. The study was based on a questionnaire exploring their socio-professional characteristics and on the Karasek questionnaire. RESULTS: 245 workers participated in the study. The average age was 32.4±6.4 years. Sex-ratio was 0.84. Occupational seniority was 6.3 years (min=1 year; max=18 years). The category of employees was the most represented (56%); the cashiers and the executives represented respectively 24.5 and 19.5%. A job strain situation was observed in 28.2 % of cases. It varied significantly with occupational seniority (p=0.03). The employees and the cashiers represented the most exposed posts. A high job demands was observed in 48,2% of the cases. The employees working in a supermarket are more exposed than those working in a minimarket (p<0,001). A low job control was found in 61.2 % of cases. It was more important among the employees having a permanent employment contract (p=0.01). A low job suport was found in 65,3% of cases. A situation of isostrain was observed in 20%. CONCLUSION: According our results, workers in grocery stores are exposed to psychosocial risk factor. The implementation of strategies to reduce stress factors at work is required.


Assuntos
Comércio , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Tunísia/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ ; 366: l5274, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate impact of the introduction of minimum unit pricing in Scotland on household alcohol purchases. DESIGN: Controlled interrupted time series analysis. SETTING: Purchase data from Kantar Worldpanel's household shopping panel for 2015-18. PARTICIPANTS: 5325 Scottish households, 54 807 English households as controls, and 10 040 households in northern England to control for potential cross border effects. INTERVENTIONS: Introduction of a minimum price of 50p (€0.55; $0.61) per UK unit (6.25p per gram) for the sale of alcohol in Scotland on 1 May 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Price per gram of alcohol, number of grams of alcohol purchased from off-trade by households, and weekly household expenditure on alcohol. RESULTS: The introduction of minimum unit pricing in Scotland was associated with an increase in purchase price of 0.64p per gram of alcohol (95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.75), a reduction in weekly purchases of 9.5 g of alcohol per adult per household (5.1 to 13.9), and a non-significant increase in weekly expenditure on alcohol per household of 61p (-5 to 127). The increase in purchase price was higher in lower income households and in households that purchased the largest amount of alcohol. The reduction in purchased grams of alcohol was greater in lower income households and only occurred in the top fifth of households by income that purchased the greatest amount of alcohol, where the reduction was 15 g of alcohol per week (6 to 24). Changes in weekly expenditure were not systematically related to household income but increased with increasing household purchases. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of immediate impact, the introduction of minimum unit pricing appears to have been successful in reducing the amount of alcohol purchased by households in Scotland. The action was targeted, in that reductions of purchased alcohol only occurred in the households that bought the most alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Reino Unido
6.
BMJ ; 366: l4786, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the potential impact on body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity of a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: General adult population of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 36 324 households with data on product level household expenditure from UK Kantar FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) panel for January 2012 to December 2013. Data were used to estimate changes in energy (kcal, 1 kcal=4.18 kJ=0.00418 MJ) purchase associated with a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks. Data for 2544 adults from waves 5 to 8 of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2012-16) were used to estimate resulting changes in BMI and prevalence of obesity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The effect on per person take home energy purchases of a 20% price increase for three categories of high sugar snacks: confectionery (including chocolate), biscuits, and cakes. Health outcomes resulting from the price increase were measured as changes in weight, BMI (not overweight (BMI <25), overweight (BMI ≥25 and <30), and obese (BMI ≥30)), and prevalence of obesity. Results were stratified by household income and BMI. RESULTS: For income groups combined, the average reduction in energy consumption for a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks was estimated to be 8.9×103 kcal (95% confidence interval -13.1×103 to -4.2×103 kcal). Using a static weight loss model, BMI was estimated to decrease by 0.53 (95% confidence interval -1.01 to -0.06) on average across all categories and income groups. This change could reduce the UK prevalence of obesity by 2.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval -3.7 to -1.7 percentage points) after one year. The impact of a 20% price increase in high sugar snacks on energy purchase was largest in low income households classified as obese and smallest in high income households classified as not overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing the price of high sugar snacks by 20% could reduce energy intake, BMI, and prevalence of obesity. This finding was in a UK context and was double that modelled for a similar price increase in sugar sweetened beverages.


Assuntos
Comércio , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Lanches , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Impostos , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Global Health ; 15(1): 57, 2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533850

RESUMO

In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee approved the addition of 16 cancer medicines to the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), bringing the total number of cancer medicines on the list to 46. This change represented the first major revision to the EML oncology section in recent history and reinforces international recognition of the need to ensure access and affordability for cancer treatments. Importantly, many low and middle-income countries rely on the EML, as well as the children's EML, as a guide to establish national formularies, and moreover use these lists as tools to negotiate medicine pricing. However, EML inclusion is only one component that impacts cancer treatment access. More specifically, factors such as intellectual property rights and international trade agreements can interact with EML inclusion, drug pricing, and accessibility. To better understand this dynamic, we conducted an interdisciplinary review of the patent status of EML cancer medicines compared to other EML noncommunicable disease medicines using the 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st editions of the list. We also explored the interaction of intellectual property rights with the international trade regime and how trade agreements can and do impact cancer treatment access and affordability. Based on this analysis, we conclude that patent status is simply one factor in the complex international environment of health systems, IPR policies, and trade regimes and that aligning these oftentimes disparate interests will require shared global governance across the cancer care continuum.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Comércio/organização & administração , Medicamentos Essenciais , Propriedade Intelectual , Cooperação Internacional , Políticas , Antineoplásicos/economia , Antineoplásicos/provisão & distribução , Custos e Análise de Custo , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
10.
J Environ Manage ; 251: 109566, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539704

RESUMO

This study aims to quantify global CH4 and N2O footprints in 2012 in terms of 181 economies and 20 world regions based on the official national emission accounts from the UNFCCC database and the global multi-region input-output accounts from the EORA database. Global total CH4 and N2O emissions increased by 15.0% in 2012 compared to 1990, mainly driven by increasing demands of agricultural and energy products. Mainland China, Western Europe, the USA, Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa were identified as the largest five CH4 footprint contributors (55.6% of the global total), while Mainland China, the USA, Western Europe, Brazil and Sub-Saharan Africa as the largest N2O footprint contributors (59.2% of the global total). In most developed economies, the CH4 and N2O footprints were much higher than their emissions on the production side, but opposite picture is observed in emerging economies. 36.4% and 24.8% of the global CH4 and N2O emissions in 2012 were associated with international trade, respectively. Substantial energy-related CH4 and agricultural CH4 and N2O emissions were transferred from developed countries to developing countries. Several nations within Kyoto targets have reduced their CH4 and N2O emissions significantly between 1990 and 2012, but the generally-believed success is challenged when viewing from the consumption side. Mainland China, Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil, Middle East and India witnessed prominent increase of CH4 and N2O footprints in the same period. The structure and spatial patterns of global CH4 and N2O footprints shed light on the role of consumption-side actions and international cooperation for future non-CO2 GHG emission reduction.


Assuntos
Metano , Óxido Nitroso , Brasil , China , Comércio , Europa (Continente) , Índia , Internacionalidade , Oriente Médio
12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465647

RESUMO

The article presents an assessment of the economic damage associated with smoking for the period of 2009-2016. The obtained data on the prevalence of tobacco dependence for 2009-2016 showed, on the one hand, a decrease in tobacco dependence among the population surveyed, and on the other hand, an increase in the share of consumer spending on tobacco products and of an index of the physical volume of retail sales of tobacco products. The study included an analysis of the incidence of diseases associated with smoking, as well as an analysis of the attendance of medical care for patients with tobacco-related diseases.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Comércio , Humanos , Prevalência , Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/economia
13.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109393, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450200

RESUMO

The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol came to an end in 2012 and more developing countries began to participate in the new phase of world carbon emission reduction. Kazakhstan is an important energy export country and a pivot of the "Belt and Road Initiative" (BRI). Despite its emissions are relatively small compared with huge emitters such as China and the US, Kazakhstan also faces great pressure in terms of CO2 emission reduction and green development. Accurately accounting CO2 emissions in Kazakhstan from both production and consumption perspectives is the first step for further emissions control actions. This paper constructs production-based CO2 emission inventories for Kazakhstan from 2012 to 2016, and then further analyses the demand-driven emissions within the domestic market and international trade (exports and imports) using environmentally extended input-output analysis. The production-based inventory includes 43 energy products and 30 sectors to provide detailed data for CO2 emissions in Kazakhstan. The consumption-based accounting results showed that certain sectors like construction drive more emissions and that the fuel consumption in different sectors varies. Furthermore, Russia and China are major consumers of Kazakhstan's energy and associated emissions, with the construction sector playing the most important role in it. The results suggested that both technology and policy actions should be taken into account to reduce CO2 emissions and that the BRI is also a good chance for Kazakhstan to develop a "Green Economy".


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Comércio , China , Internacionalidade , Cazaquistão
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1037, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient package inserts (PPIs) should provide accurate, sufficient, and clear information for patients as well as health care professionals. The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare the PPIs of local and imported anti-diabetic agents in the Palestinian market. METHODS: Eighteen leaflets were collected and analysed based on the completeness of 31 criteria using a scoring method, then the quantity of information was assessed by applying word counting of 17 headings and subheadings. Statistical comparisons of the word count for all products were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test with mean ranks. Then the mean ranks for differences in word counts were adjusted to calculate the fold-difference statistic by dividing the higher mean rank by the lower mean rank. RESULTS: In general, the PPIs of imported agents scored better than local PPIs, but none of the inserts fulfilled the whole criteria. Thirteen out of thirty-one criteria were available in all products. None of these agents had provided any information about duration of use, instructions to convert tablets into liquids forms, pharmacokinetics, or shelf life. Moreover, mechanism of action and maximum dose were deficient in all local PPIs (0.0%), while they were included in 37.5 and 62.5% of imported PPIs, respectively. Furthermore, 90.0% of local PPIs lacked information about drug dose, 80.0% didn't mention any instructions regarding effects on ability to drive or possibility of tablet splitting, and 60.0% didn't involve orders about possibility of tablet crushing. Local PPIs provided inadequate and less detailed instructions regarding many aspects, since the estimated mean rank of local and imported PPIs demonstrated a range of difference from 1.04-fold for missing dose to 2.64-fold for warning and precautions. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences were being identified, with excellence being assigned to imported PPIs. So, it is worth suggesting some necessary modifications in PPI topography and sequence structure of local diabetic agents. Experts in Palestinian Ministry of Health should implement regulatory guidelines to improve the quality and quantity of information provided by local PPIs. This optimisation could become a step forward toward optimal health practice in our society.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Medicamentos/normas , Hipoglicemiantes , Administração Oral , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Oriente Médio
15.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(7): 443-448, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408598

RESUMO

The problem of import substitution in the Russian medical device market for in vitro diagnostics (MDivd) has not been solved, despite a number of measures taken by the government of the Russian Federation since 2011. The reasons hampering this process are the lack of modern analytical equipment of domestic production and deficiencies of the current regulatory system for MDivd circulation in the market. It is proposed the transition from licensing system of MDivd registration to notification system as a radical measure to solve the problem of import substitution.


Assuntos
Comércio , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/economia , Federação Russa
16.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(1): 22-31, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462360

RESUMO

One of the goals of the business impact analysis (BIA) process is to establish recovery objectives. Having established recovery objectives, the next step is to assess whether one's IT portfolio can actually meet those objectives. Unfortunately, there is no well-defined and prescriptive process for this. This article describes a model that can be customised and applied in any organisation to take an IT-centric view to assessing resilience capabilities. The first stage of this process is to gather IT-specific data, either through a questionnaire or by querying the configuration management database directly. The next step is to leverage a set of scoring rubrics in order to assess the capabilities of each application with respect to meeting recovery point objectives, recovery time objectives and service-level targets, as well as the strength of staffing, documentation and disaster recovery plans. The output of the model is a composite score for each application (based upon an aggregate capability score and a weighting factor) that identifies those services in the IT portfolio with the greatest gaps in their capabilities (ie those services in greatest need of remediation). The logic of the model can either be built with spreadsheets or automated through business continuity management planning platforms.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Tecnologia da Informação , Comércio
17.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 13(1): 40-51, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462362

RESUMO

The East Bay Municipal Utility District provides drinking water to 1.4 million customers and treats wastewater for 685,000 customers on the east side of San Francisco Bay in Northern California. The district's products and services are vital for public health, fire protection, economic development and quality of life. The district's award-winning business continuity programme is considered a model for the water and wastewater industry. This article discusses how the district approaches succession planning - the process of identifying and developing designated individuals who can replace critical roles in leadership or critical positions when those staff members become unavailable for any reason - with particular respect to the elected board of directors.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes , Comércio , Humanos , São Francisco
18.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1923-1924, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438409

RESUMO

Management improvement was strongly required at public hospital and Local Incorporated Administrative Agency hospitals in Japan. We analysed financial statements of 880 public hospitals using Business Intelligence System. In order to raise the efficiency of management, it is important to have patients with a high profitability (seriously ill patients) at municipal hospitals; whereas, in Local Incorporated Administrative Agency hospitals, avoiding producing ordinary losses and not incurring excessive expenses will be important for management improvement.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos , Comércio , Administração Financeira de Hospitais , Humanos , Inteligência , Japão
19.
J Environ Manage ; 249: 109370, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401447

RESUMO

Using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition methods within the multi-region input-output analytical framework, this paper investigates global energy-related sulfur oxides emissions transferring via trade, so as to reveal spatial characteristics of the pollutant emissions flows, and explores driving factors of the changes of sulfur dioxide emissions embodied in trade (SEET) for 39 major countries for the period 1995-2011. One important finding from this study is that the global SEET mainly flew from developing countries like China to highly developed economies like the U.S., the EU, and Japan. However, of particular concern is that for some countries like Canada and Australia with ample resources and wealthy regions, they had been gradually becoming the net sulfur dioxide emissions exporters in global trade since 1995. Another important finding is that economic development had played a significant role in promoting the global SEET growth, and the expanse of population scale had a slight and positive driving effect on increasing the sulfur oxides emissions embodied in trade for a large proportion of 39 countries, but some coping strategies like improving energy intensity, increasing the proportion of clean energy in the total energy consumption, and optimizing industrial structure could effectively lower the sulfur oxides emissions embodied in trade in a group of 39 countries.


Assuntos
Comércio , Óxidos de Enxofre , Austrália , Canadá , Dióxido de Carbono , China , Internacionalidade , Japão
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 738, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The technique most frequently used to genotype HCV is quantitative RT-PCR. This technique is unable to provide an accurate genotype/subtype for many samples; we decided to develop an in-house method with the goal of accurately identifying the genotype of all samples. As a Belgium National Centre of reference for hepatitis, we developed in-house sequencing not only for 5'UTR and core regions starting from VERSANT LiPA amplicons but also for NS5B regions. The sequencing of VERSANT LiPA amplicons might be useful for many laboratories worldwide using the VERSANT LiPA assay to overcome undetermined results. METHODS: 100 samples from Hepatitis C virus infected patients analysed by the VERSANT HCV Genotype 2.0 LiPA Assay covering frequent HCV types and subtypes were included in this study. NS5B, 5'UTR and Core home-made sequencing were then performed on these samples. The sequences obtained were compared with the HCV genomic BLAST bank. RESULTS: All the samples were characterised by the VERSANT LiPA assay (8 G1a, 17 G1b, 6 G2, 11 G3, 13 G4, and 10 G6). It was not possible to discriminate between G6 and G1 by the VERSANT LiPA assay for 8 samples and 27 had an undetermined genotype. Forty-one samples were sequenced for the three regions: NS5B, 5'UTR and Core. Twenty-three samples were sequenced for two regions: 5' UTR and Core and 36 samples were sequenced only for NS5B. Of the 100 samples included, 64 samples were analysed for 5'UTR and Core sequencing and 79 samples were analysed for NS5B sequencing. The global agreement between VERSANT LiPA assay and sequencing was greater than 95%. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we describe a new, original method to confirm HCV genotypes of samples not discriminated by a commercial assay, using amplicons already obtained by the screening method, here the VERSANT LiPA assay. This method thus saves one step if a confirmation assay is needed and might be of usefulness for many laboratories worldwide performing VERSANT LiPA assay in particular.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Sonda Molecular , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Sequência de Bases , Comércio , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem/economia , Hepacivirus/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Técnicas de Sonda Molecular/economia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/economia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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