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1.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(8): e00221020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495094

RESUMO

The illicit trade of tobacco products, by enabling access to cheaper cigarettes, favors smoking initiation and hinders its cessation, minimizing the effects of price policy and taxes on reducing the demand for tobacco. This is especially the case among populations with lower income and schooling, where smoking is concentrated. Its confrontation requires multisectoral actions, aligned with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported by estimates of the illicit trade magnitude and the analysis of its characteristics. This study analyzes, based on samples of household solid waste collected in 2018 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the conformity of discarded cigarette packages with criteria for their regular commercialization in Brazil, classifying them as legal or illegal. The evaluation was also carried out for the 15 Planning Areas (PA) of the municipality. The Social Progress Index (SPI) was chosen to represent heterogeneities among PA. The average percentage of illegal cigarette packs found was 26.79%, ranging from 3.36% to 46.29% among PA. The PAs with high illegality presented lower Social Progress Index and lower percentages of legal cigarette packages with a price equal to or greater than BRL 7.25. Among the illegal packages, 98.07% were manufactured in Paraguay. The study contributes methodologically to measure the consumption of illegal cigarettes in the second economic capital of Brazil, supporting the National Tobacco Control Policy in the struggle against illicit trade of tobacco products and in the effective implementation of the pricing and tax policy on these products.


Assuntos
Indústria do Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comércio , Humanos , Impostos
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021048, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525776

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine whether the regional density of tobacco outlets in Korea was associated with the likelihood of attempting to quit among smokers. METHODS: This study was designed as a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study. Data from the 2015 Korean Community Health Survey and tobacco outlet registrations in 17 metropolitan cities and provinces with 254 communities in Korea were used for the analysis. In total, 41,013 current smokers (≥19 years of age) were included. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate regional differences associated with smokers' attempts to quit and to evaluate the effects of individual and regional characteristics on quit attempts. RESULTS: Higher tobacco outlet density was associated with lower odds of attempting to quit. Smokers who resided in districts with the highest tobacco outlet density were 18% less likely to attempt quitting (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.98) than smokers who resided in the regions with the lowest tobacco outlet density (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that quit attempts were related to community-level factors, such as tobacco outlet density, as well as other individual factors. These findings support the implementation of national policies restricting the number of tobacco outlets within communities or zones and limiting tobacco marketing in tobacco outlets.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/provisão & distribuição , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 5995008, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475947

RESUMO

Marketing means the strategies and tactics an organization undertakes for attracting consumers to promote the buying or selling of a product or service. Active marketing is about receiving messages from potential buyers to create ways to influence their purchasing decisions. Advertising is one of the most prominent marketing strategies to promote products to consumers. It is well known that advertisement has a significant impact on the sale of certain goods or services. In this paper, we consider two mediums of advertisement, such as Facebook (which is an online medium) and Newspaper (which is a printed medium). We consider a dataset representing the advertising budget (in hundreds of US dollars) of an electronic company and the sales of that company. We apply the quantitative research approach, and the data which are used in this research are secondary data. For analysis purposes, we consider a statistical tool called simple linear regression modeling. To check the significance of the advertising on sale, definite statistical tests are applied. Based on the findings of this research, it is observed that advertising has a significant impact on sales. It is also showed that spending money on advertising through Facebook has better sales than newspapers. The finding of this research shows that the use of computer-based technologies and online mediums has a brighter future for advertising. Furthermore, a new statistical model is introduced using the Z family approach. The proposed model is very interesting and possesses heavy-tailed properties. Finally, the applicability of the proposed model is illustrated by considering the financial dataset.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Mídias Sociais , Comércio , Humanos , Marketing
4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 6035022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475948

RESUMO

In recent years, with the rapid increase of the business volume of housing mortgage loans of commercial banks, the risk of prepayment is increasingly exposed. Prepayment will have a great impact on the duration and convexity of housing mortgage loans of commercial banks and then bring difficulties to the asset liability management of banks. Therefore, empirical research on the changes of duration and convexity of housing mortgage loans caused by prepayment when the market interest rate changes is of great significance for commercial banks to manage interest rate risk exposure. Based on the analysis of the option characteristics of prepayable housing mortgage loan, the CIR model with GARCH(1, 1) is selected to describe the interest rate change path, and the computer simulation method is used to calculate OAS and then calculate the effective duration and effective convexity of housing mortgage loan under different prepayment rates, so as to understand the interest rate risk of housing mortgage loan in the presence of embedded option.


Assuntos
Comércio , Habitação , Simulação por Computador
5.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 6-16, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465406

RESUMO

Across the world, there is an increasing tendency for businesses to rely on best practices, based on the assumption that they provide proven, credible and efficient solutions. In-depth scrutiny of 'best practicism', however, paints a different picture of its effectiveness; indeed, the adoption of best practices is commonly ineffective due to their misapplication or the use of unsupported assumptions. This article explores the use of best practices in the business resilience profession and describes reasons why assumptions about them are often incorrect. Cautions about best practices focus on the importance of change processes, underestimating problem complexity, and the influence of confirmation bias. These factors, and ways to address them, are described in the context of business resilience.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Comércio
6.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 44-52, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465409

RESUMO

With the world becoming increasingly complex and uncertain, the disruptions that businesses face are becoming increasingly unpredictable. Traditional approaches to business continuity planning must therefore evolve to enhance organisational resilience. As this paper will discuss, it is vital to ensure a balance between detailed planning and flexibility and adaptability. This can be achieved through: 1) creating closer links between business continuity and strategic management; 2) embedding a culture of resilience throughout the organisation; 3) decentralising business continuity planning and enabling teams and departments to design and own their own plans; 4) making planning principles- based; and 5) exercising more frequently. This paper argues that planning must be based on principles and outcomes rather than processes, and how it must, to be integrated within broader risk management and strategy functions to be inclusive of everyone, from the staff all the way up to the board. In short, preparedness and resilience must become part of their DNA.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Comércio , Humanos , Organizações , Gestão de Riscos
7.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 53-64, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465410

RESUMO

A pandemic is a unique natural disaster that will pose challenges for any organisation. During the COVID-19 pandemic, for example, organisations of all types have struggled to maintain operations while assuring the health and wellbeing of the various persons who work on their behalf. Certainly, many organisations have found that their risk management and business continuity plans fail to consider adequately the disruption associated with a pandemic caused by a novel pathogen. As this paper discusses, this suggests a need to revisit risk assessments and business impact analyses; the assumptions and timeframes on which they are based; and the plans that they have generated. The paper argues that static plans are ill-suited to address the evolving threat of pandemic, and that effective planning and management of pandemic response must be dynamic in nature.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Planejamento em Desastres , Comércio , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
10.
F1000Res ; 10: 285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457241

RESUMO

Background: There have been many studies conducted on succession, which can be considered as the most important issue in family businesses. However, most of these previous studies have focused only on the early stage of succession, uncovering the role of the predecessor and the successor. Only a few studies have made efforts to examine the total lifecycle of succession. The purpose of this study is to explore the process of the transition in successors' behavior and mindset while managing long-lived small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises throughout the lifecycle of succession. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six successors of small and medium-sized manufacturing companies who are more than half a century old. Their answers were analyzed using the Modified-GTA method to construct a hypothetical model. Results: In total, 46 concepts, four categories, 17 subcategories, and one core category were generated. An analysis result diagram using all concepts and categories was formed. From the observation of this diagram, the successors gained confidence in management through the dilemma between autonomy and constraint in the early stage of succession, which was found in previous research. Following the initial stage, the successors responded to the crisis caused by market constraints and created autonomous strategies in their businesses. Conclusions: By experiencing repetitive crises, the successors tend to acquire new perspectives toward the naturally occurring crises. This change of premise by the successors is considered as the process of double-loop learning. Relationships inside and outside the company influence the generation of this viewpoint. From a long-term perspective, a sense of unity with employees, stable employment, and the pursuit of enjoyment constitute the successors' own values in this model.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Comércio , Japão , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 3250700, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504521

RESUMO

In order to make up for the shortcomings of current performance evaluation methods, this paper proposes a new method of enterprise performance evaluation, discusses the construction principle of the evaluation index, and proposes a method of enterprise supply chain overall performance evaluation based on the discrete Hopfield neural network (DHNN) algorithm. Enterprise supply chain (SC) is an important way for enterprises to conduct business with other strategic partners in the market, and the improvement of SC performance is an important way to improve the core competitiveness of enterprises, so it is of great value to study the performance evaluation and index design of the enterprise SC. This method calculates the level value of the overall performance of the SC. This level value is a value between 0 and 1. The higher the value, the higher the overall performance level of the SC. Therefore, when evaluating the overall performance of the SC, appropriate index weights must be selected according to the characteristics of the industry, which helps to objectively evaluate the overall performance of the SC.


Assuntos
Indústrias , Redes Neurais de Computação , Comércio
13.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9863155, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539772

RESUMO

Computer technology plays a prominent role in almost every aspect of daily life including education, health care, online shopping, advertising, and even in homes. Computers help to make daily tasks much easier and convenient. Among social media, YouTube is a well-known social sharing networking service. As more and more people join social media and become everyday users, brands have also increased their online engagement. However, it is still unclear how to effectively measure value and return on advertising using social media. As of 2021, more than 31 million YouTube channels around the globe have been opened. In this paper, we consider YouTube advertising to check its effectiveness and benefits gained. Certain statistical tools are adopted to measure the extent of advertising benefits and their correlation in creating effective advertising campaigns on YouTube. Simple linear regression analysis is performed on the data representing the YouTube advertising budget of a company and the sales data of that company. Furthermore, we develop a new statistical distribution to provide the best description of the YouTube advertising data. The result of this research shows that YouTube is an effective medium for advertising and has a strong relationship with sales.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Mídias Sociais , Comércio , Humanos , Análise de Regressão
14.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 395-411, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542107

RESUMO

Rising per capita consumption, economic growth, and urbanisation, particularly in developing countries, have been driving an increased global demand for food. These changing socio-economic trends, which have greatly influenced changes in dietary patterns globally and, more specifically, have increased consumption of livestock products in developing countries, are expected to endure and to place new pressures on livestock-sector infrastructure and the delivery of veterinary services. This paper summarises current trade in meat and presents plausible projections for the future. It highlights the impact of animal disease on trade and considers the effect of ongoing disease outbreaks, particularly the outbreaks of African swine fever and COVID-19, on current and future trade dynamics. The authors analysed published statistics on the demand for, and international trade in, livestock products at national and regional levels and made projections of the same up to 2050, generated from an integrated model of the global agricultural and food system. The resulting analyses identified patterns of trade consistent with growing populations, increasing incomes and changing diets in developing countries. The analyses also pointed to slow expansion of livestock production, and the impacts of countries' disease status on livestock trade. For most of the livestock products analysed, economic model projections indicate increased consolidation of production and exports among a few countries. Marked increases in the trade in livestock products suggest a changing role for Veterinary Services in facilitating trade and extension in the years to come.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana , COVID-19 , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Comércio , Países em Desenvolvimento , Internacionalidade , Gado , SARS-CoV-2 , Suínos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1516, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detection of the seasonal patterns of healthy and unhealthy behavior could be helpful for designing individual and population health interventions programs. This study investigates the seasonal variation in sales of common types of products in Poland and Polish Google queries related to healthy behavior. METHODS: Data of index sales from a large Polish retail store franchise, from January 2014 to August 2019, has been analyzed. The commercial data included twelve types of products. The interest of Google users was investigated using Google Trends statistics for the same period for six lifestyle-related topics. The seasonality was checked using time series analysis. RESULTS: Six of the consumer goods (dairy, ready-made meals, salty snacks, meats, beer, and cigarettes) were most commonly purchased in summer months, four (processed fish, food fats, wine, and alcohol 30%+) in December, and two (bread and sweets) in October. The lowest sales indexes were observed mostly in February. The interest in four topics that have been analyzed ("Diet," "Dietitian," "Weight loss," and "Gym"), was highest in January, while interest in "Dietary supplements" was high in February, and "Running" in May. The search volume of the Google topics were the lowest in December. CONCLUSION: The purchase of food, drinks, and cigarettes, and the interest in information regarding different components of a healthy lifestyle has seasonal variation. New Year and Lent might be good periods to encourage healthy behavior. The motivation may decrease in summer and during Christmas.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Ferramenta de Busca , Animais , Comércio , Humanos , Polônia , Estações do Ano
17.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117559, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438489

RESUMO

The benefits of the artificial fixation of reactive nitrogen (Nr, nitrogen [N] compounds other than dinitrogen), in the form of N fertilizers and materials are huge, while at the same time posing substantial threats to human and ecosystem health by the release of Nr to the environment. To achieve sustainable N use, Nr loss to the environment must be reduced. An N-budget approach at the national level would allow us to fully grasp the whole picture of Nr loss to the environment through the quantification of important N flows in the country. In this study, the N budgets in Japan were estimated from 2000 to 2015 using available statistics, datasets, and literature. The net N inflow to Japanese human sectors in 2010 was 6180 Gg N yr-1 in total. With 420 Gg N yr-1 accumulating in human settlements, 5760 Gg N yr-1 was released from the human sector, of which 1960 Gg N yr-1 was lost to the environment as Nr (64% to air and 36% to waters), and the remainder assumed as dinitrogen. Nr loss decreased in both atmospheric emissions and loss to terrestrial water over time. The distinct reduction in the atmospheric emissions of nitrogen oxides from transportation, at -4.3% yr-1, was attributed to both emission controls and a decrease in energy consumption. Reductions in runoff and leaching from land as well as the discharge of treated water were found, at -1.0% yr-1 for both. The aging of Japan's population coincided with the reductions in the per capita supply and consumption of food and energy. Future challenges for Japan lie in further reducing N waste and adapting its N flows in international trade to adopt more sustainable options considering the reduced demand due to the aging population.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Idoso , Agricultura , Comércio , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Japão , Nitrogênio/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444509

RESUMO

Point-of-sale policies such as warnings and taxes are promising tools for improving the nutritional quality of food purchases. Research studies conducted in naturalistic store laboratories could improve the quality of evidence about point-of-sale interventions by allowing for realistic exposure in a controlled setting. This study aimed to assess whether purchasing behavior in a naturalistic store laboratory setting was similar to real-life purchasing behavior and to evaluate participants' perceptions of store realism and the acceptability of research study protocols in this setting. In a longitudinal observational study in 2019, Latinx parents in North Carolina (n = 61) attended five weekly visits at the UNC Mini Mart, a naturalistic store laboratory that resembled a small convenience store. At each visit, participants purchased a week's supply of beverages. Purchases of beverages in the Mini Mart were compared to participants' purchases from receipts submitted the week prior to the study. Analyses compared the percentage of participants buying sugary drinks and non-sugary drinks in the Mini Mart vs. in real stores using Chi-Square tests with Fisher's p. The percentage of parents who purchased sugary drinks in the Mini Mart (93%) was not significantly different from the percentage who purchased sugary drinks during the week before the study (74%, p = 0.28). The percentage purchasing non-sugary drinks was similar in the two settings (85% in the Mini Mart vs. 85% from receipts, p = 0.33). Nearly all participants reported that their Mini Mart purchases were similar to real-life purchases (96%); the Mini Mart felt like a real store (94%); they could find all the beverages they were looking for (92%); and they could imagine doing their real-life beverage shopping in the Mini Mart (92%). Moreover, retention was high, with 97% of participants attending the final study visit. These results indicate that naturalistic store laboratories are a promising method for increasing the ecological validity of trials to evaluate point-of-sale interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Laboratórios , Bebidas , Comércio , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Política Nutricional
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444043

RESUMO

Authorized remanufacturing is an important means to achieve green manufacturing and carbon neutrality. In this study, a game theory model between a manufacturer and a remanufacturer was constructed to analyze the impact of government subsidies and carbon tax policies on authorized remanufacturing. Based on the game theory model, the effects of two government policies on the optimal solution, namely, the unit cost of remanufacturing product authorization and the waste product recovery rate, were compared and analyzed. This analysis could provide a reference for the government to improve and formulate relevant remanufacturing policies. The main results are as follows: government subsidy policies may increase the unit cost of remanufacturing product authorization and the rates of waste product recovery; government carbon tax policies may not affect the unit cost of remanufacturing product authorization, and increase the rates of waste product recovery; the government subsidy policy may not affect the unit retail price of new products, and reduces the unit retail price of remanufactured products; the government subsidy and carbon tax policies may reduce sales of new products and increase sales of remanufactured products; the government subsidies may increase the revenue of the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and the remanufacturer; and the government carbon tax policies may increase the revenue of the remanufacturer. However, government carbon tax policies increase the revenue of the OEM only when the new product carbon tax amount is higher than a certain threshold. The impact of the two policies on the environment is related to the ratio of the two products' impact on the environment, i.e., the quota ratio between the unit government carbon tax of the new product and the unit government subsidy of the remanufactured product. Finally, the consumer surplus is maximized when the government adopts the subsidy policy and lowest when the government adopts the carbon tax policy.


Assuntos
Carbono , Comércio , Financiamento Governamental , Teoria do Jogo , Políticas
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444223

RESUMO

Among U.S. adolescents, foods/beverages that are store-bought (i.e., from grocery and convenience stores) are significant contributors of energy intake. However, it remains unclear (1) what foods/beverages are consumed by U.S. adolescents from grocery and convenience stores and (2) if there are differences in foods/beverages consumed by store type. Therefore, we analyzed 29,216 eating occasions from adolescents (12-19 years; n = 4065) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018 to report food/beverage groups and nutrients consumed from grocery and convenience stores. Differences in food/beverage groups and nutrient densities by store type were calculated using multiple logistic and linear regressions. Adolescents were more likely to consume "Beverages" and "Snacks and Sweets" and less likely to consume "Grains", "Protein", "Milk and Dairy", "Condiments and Sauces", and "Fruits" from convenience compared to grocery stores (all p < 0.0025). Foods/beverages from convenience stores were higher in carbohydrates, total sugar, and added sugar and lower in protein, fat, saturated fat, sodium, and fiber than those from grocery stores (all p < 0.0025). In conclusion, while foods/beverages from convenience stores are more energy-dense and nutrient-poor, there is a critical need to increase the availability, accessibility, and affordability of healthier foods/beverages in both store types to encourage healthier dietary behaviors among U.S. adolescents.


Assuntos
Bebidas , Ingestão de Energia , Adolescente , Comércio , Dieta , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Lanches
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