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Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 19-35, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191344


La pandemia de COVID-19 tiene un origen zoonótico: fue transmitida de los animales a los humanos. Lo mismo ha sucedido con otras epidemias recientes (como las causadas por los virus SARS-CoV-1 y H7N9, entre otros). Estas epidemias surgieron en un contexto de explotación animal: el comercio de animales silvestres. Mucha gente ha pedido la prohibición total de la venta de animales silvestres en mercados. Sin embargo, la prohibición puede ser contraproducente y tener peores consecuencias tanto para los animales como para la salud pública. Este artículo argumenta en contra de una prohibición total y a favor de una regulación progresiva que tome en cuenta el bienestar de los animales, pero que tenga como finalidad última la desaparición del comercio de animales silvestres

The COVID-19 pandemic has a zoonotic origin: it was transmitted from animals to humans. The same has happened with other recent epidemics (such as those caused by the virus SARS-CoV-1 and H7N9, among others). These epidemics arose in a context of animal exploitation: the trade in wildlife. Many people have asked for a blanket ban of wildlife trade in wet markets. However, a blanket ban may be counterproductive and have worse consequences both for the animals and for public health. This paper argues against a blanket ban and argues for a progressive regulation that takes into account the welfare of animals, but that has as its final goal the disappearance of trade in wildlife

La pandèmia de la COVID-19 té un origen zoonòtic: es va transmetre dels animals als humans. El mateix ha passat amb altres epidèmies recents (com les causades pels virus SARS-CoV-1 I H7N9, entre d'altres). Aquestes epidèmies van sorgir en un context d'explotació animal: el comerç d'animals silvestres. Molta gent ha demanat la prohibició total de la venda d'animals silvestres en mercats. No obstant això, la prohibició pot ser contraproduent I tenir pitjors conseqüències tant per als animals com per a la salut pública. Aquest article argumenta en contra d'una prohibició total I a favor d'una regulació progressiva que tingui en compte el benestar dels animals, però que tingui com a finalitat última la desaparició del comerç d'animals silvestres

Humanos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 75, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008462


BACKGROUND: The world is facing an unprecedented outbreak affecting all aspects of human lives which is caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the virus novelty, healthcare systems are challenged by a high rate of patients and the shortage of medical products. To address an increased need for essential medical products, national authorities, worldwide, made various legislative concessions. This has led to essential medical products being produced by automotive, textile and other companies from various industries and approved under the emergency use authorizations or legal concessions of national regulatory bodies. This paper presents a narrative commentary of the available documentation on emergency use authorizations and legal concessions for medical products during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The basis for narrative commentary includes scientific articles published in Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Embase databases, official publications of international organizations: Food and Drug Agency (FDA), World Health Organisation (WHO), World Bank and United Nations (UN), and national regulatory agency reports in native languages (English, German, Bosnian, and Croatian) published from November 1, 2019 to May 1, 2020. This paper focuses on three types of essential medical products: mechanical ventilators, personal protective equipment (PPE) and diagnostic tests. Evidence-informed commentary of available data and potential identified risks of emergency use authorizations and legal concessions is presented. DISCUSSION: It is recognized that now more than ever, raising global awareness and knowledge about the importance of respecting the essential requirements is needed to guarantee the appropriate quality, performance and safety of medical products, especially during outbreak situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency use authorizations for production, import and approval of medical products should be strictly specified and clearly targeted from case to case and should not be general or universal for all medical products, because all of them are associated with different risk level. CONCLUSION: Presented considerations and experiences should be taken as a guide for all possible future outbreak situations to prevent improvised reactions of national regulatory bodies.

Betacoronavirus , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Manufatureira/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/provisão & distribução , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Falha de Equipamento , União Europeia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Ventiladores Mecânicos/normas
Science ; 370(6513): 164-165, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033201

Biota , Comércio
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050600


Disparities in dietary behaviors have been directly linked to the food environment, including access to retail food outlets. The Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to major changes in the distribution, sale, purchase, preparation, and consumption of food in the United States (US). This paper reflects on those changes and provides recommendations for research to understand the impact of the pandemic on the retail food environment (RFE) and consumer behavior. Using the Retail Food Environment and Customer Interaction Model, we describe the impact of COVID-19 in four key areas: (1) community, state, tribal, and federal policy; (2) retail actors, business models, and sources; (3) customer experiences; and (4) dietary intake. We discuss how previously existing vulnerabilities and inequalities based on race, ethnicity, class, and geographic location were worsened by the pandemic. We recommend approaches for building a more just and equitable RFE, including understanding the impacts of changing shopping behaviors and adaptations to federal nutrition assistance as well as how small food business can be made more sustainable. By better understanding the RFE adaptations that have characterized the COVID-19 pandemic, we hope to gain greater insight into how our food system can become more resilient in the future.

Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta Saudável , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066059


Background. Public markets were exempted from the restrictive regulations instituted to limit the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In the early stage of the pandemic, we assessed people's knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on public markets towards COVID-19. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 16 to 29 April 2020 among sellers and customers frequenting the food sections of ten public markets in three large cities (Kolwezi, Likasi, and Lubumbashi) and one small town (Lwambo) of the former Katanga province. We administered a questionnaire on knowledge (about clinical characteristics, transmission and prevention) and on attitudes in relation to COVID-19. We also observed prevailing practices (hand-washing and mask-wearing). Results: Of the 347 included participants (83% women, 83% sellers), most had low socioeconomic status and a low level of education. Only 30% of participants had correct knowledge of COVID-19. The majority of the respondents (88%) showed no confidence in the government's ability to manage the upcoming pandemic crisis. Nearly all respondents (98%) were concerned about the associated increase in food insecurity. Preventive practices were rarely in place. Conclusion: For an effective implementation of measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Africa, appropriate health education programs to improve knowledge and attitudes are warranted among the population frequenting public markets.

Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
J Environ Manage ; 263: 110332, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883471


The carbon-emission transfer between two representative developing economies - China and Africa - behind the international trade has aroused quite a few controversies, which have not been fully estimated and understood yet. In this paper, the Multiregional Input-Output (MRIO) method is applied to the participants of Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) from the global perspective to reveal the roles both China and Africa have played in the global supply chain as either the original emitter or the final consumer, and to depict the evolution pattern of carbon transfer via Sino-Africa trade from the year 2000-2015. The findings are as follows: 1) China has played the role of net exporter of embodied carbon-emission in Sino-Africa trade, for the amount of emitted carbon China had born yet resulted by consumption in Africa well surpassed that vice versa. 2) Compared to the carbon-emission flows embodied in EU-Africa and US-Africa trades, China has shouldered more carbon-emission derived from Africa's consumption. 3) The sectoral contribution and intensities of embodied carbon-emission correspond to the trading pattern between China and Africa, which stems from the two parties' comparative advantages and economic complementarity. 4) The intensities of embodied carbon-emission on both sides are declining towards a rosy prospect, which indicates an improving carbon-emission efficiency of both economies. From a global perspective, both China and Africa play a positive part in carbon-emission reduction. The results in this study can facilitate low-carbon and high-efficiency trading link between the two economies.

Comércio , Internacionalidade , África , Carbono , China
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942766


This paper examines the linkages in financial markets during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak. For this purpose, daily stock market returns were used over the period of December 31, 2019-April 20, 2020 for the following economies: USA, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, UK, China, and Romania. The study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to explore whether the Romanian stock market is impacted by the crisis generated by novel coronavirus. Granger causality was employed to investigate the causalities among COVID-19 and stock market returns, as well as between pandemic measures and several commodities. The outcomes of the ARDL approach failed to find evidence towards the impact of Chinese COVID-19 records on the Romanian financial market, neither in the short-term, nor in the long-term. On the other hand, our quantitative approach reveals a negative effect of the new deaths' cases from Italy on the 10-year Romanian bond yield both in the short-run and long-run. The econometric research provide evidence that Romanian 10-year government bond is more sensitive to the news related to COVID-19 than the index of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Granger causality analysis reveals causal associations between selected stock market returns and Philadelphia Gold/Silver Index.

Comércio/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Betacoronavirus , China , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Romênia , Espanha , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1313-1318, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941416


Since electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the U.S. marketplace in 2007, the landscape has evolved to include different product types (e.g., prefilled cartridge-based and disposable products) and flavored e-liquids (e.g., fruit, candy, mint, menthol, and tobacco flavors), which have contributed to increases in youth use (1,2). E-cigarettes have been the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youths since 2014; in 2019, 27.5% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use (3). To assess trends in unit sales of e-cigarettes in the United States by product and flavor type, CDC, CDC Foundation, and Truth Initiative analyzed retail scanner data during September 14, 2014-May 17, 2020, from Information Resources, Inc. (IRI). During this period, total e-cigarette sales increased by 122.2%, from 7.7 million to 17.1 million units per 4-week interval. By product type, the proportion of total sales that was prefilled cartridge products increased during September 2014-August 2019 (47.5% to 89.4%). During August 2019-May 2020, the proportion of total sales that was disposable products increased from 10.3% to 19.8%, while the proportion that was prefilled cartridge products decreased (89.4% to 80.2%). Among prefilled cartridge sales, the proportion of mint sales increased during September 2014-August 2019 (<0.1% to 47.6%); during August 2019-May 2020, mint sales decreased (47.6% to 0.3%), as menthol sales increased (10.7% to 61.8%). Among disposable e-cigarette sales during September 2014-May 2020, the proportion of mint sales increased (<0.1% to 10.5%), although tobacco-flavored (52.2% to 17.2%) and menthol-flavored (30.3% to 10.2%) sales decreased; during the same period, sales of all other flavors combined increased (17.2% to 62.1%). E-cigarette sales increased during 2014-2020, but fluctuations occurred overall and by product and flavor type, which could be attributed to consumer preferences and accessibility. Continued monitoring of e-cigarette sales and use is critical to inform strategies at the national, state, and community levels to minimize the risks of e-cigarettes on individual- and population-level health. As part of a comprehensive approach to prevent and reduce youth e-cigarettes use, such strategies could include those that address youth-appealing product innovations and flavors.

Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/economia , Aromatizantes/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
Rev Prat ; 70(2): 191-194, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877139


Preventing tobacco sales to minors. Since 2009, selling tobacco products in France to minors less than 18 years of age is forbidden by law, but this law is poorly enforced even though tobacco use mainly begins at adolescence. The aim of this study was to identify measures implemented by foreign countries leading to a better enforcement of tobacco sale ban to minors. The main measures are: organizing tobacco retailers training programs; using automated age-verification systems; requiring a valid photo ID from anyone who looks under the age of 25; developing communication campaigns directed to the general public in order to explain and promote age control for customers. Furthermore, in all studied countries, the only effective controls rely on "mystery shopping" with underage shoppers accompanied by dedicated inspectors, attempting to purchase tobacco products. In case of non-compliance with the law, these controls must lead to dissuasive financial as well as administrative penalties. In all studied countries, an efficient implementation of these measures has led to reduced tobacco sales to minors, and thus contributed to bring down underage smoking.

Menores de Idade , Tabaco , Adolescente , Comércio , França , Humanos , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(9): 771-779, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890217


: Businesses are struggling to re-open as the world continues to deal with the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The reopening of businesses will require employers to implement safe return-to-work strategies through evaluation, testing, work modifications, and development of appropriate workplace policies. There will be unique challenges along the way as no one approach will be ideal for all workplaces and industries. This document is intended to provide return-to-work guidance for both employers and the occupational and environmental medicine physicians who will be supporting businesses in implementing safe return-to-work strategies.

Betacoronavirus , Comércio/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Retorno ao Trabalho , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E109, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945766


INTRODUCTION: In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, New York City closed all nonessential businesses and restricted the out-of-home activities of residents as of March 22, 2020. This order affected different neighborhoods differently, as stores and workplaces are not randomly distributed across the city, and different populations may have responded differently to the out-of-home restrictions. This study examines how the business closures and activity restrictions affected COVID-19 testing results. An evaluation of whether such actions slowed the spread of the pandemic is a crucial step in designing effective public health policies. METHODS: Daily data on the fraction of COVID-19 tests yielding a positive result at the zip code level were analyzed in relation to the number of visits to local businesses (based on smartphone location) and the number of smartphones that stayed fixed at their home location. The regression model also included vectors of fixed effects for the day of the week, the calendar date, and the zip code of residence. RESULTS: A large number of visits to local businesses increased the positivity rate of COVID-19 tests, while a large number of smartphones that stayed at home decreased it. A doubling in the relative number of visits increases the positivity rate by about 12.4 percentage points (95% CI, 5.3 to 19.6). A doubling in the relative number of stay-at-home devices lowered it by 2.0 percentage points (95% CI, -2.9 to -1.2). The business closures and out-of-home activity restrictions decreased the positivity rate, accounting for approximately 25% of the decline observed in April and May 2020. CONCLUSION: Policy measures decreased the likelihood of positive results in COVID-19 tests. These specific policy tools may be successfully used when comparable health crises arise in the future.

Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Gestão da Saúde da População , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4738, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994397


Wildlife trade is a key driver of the biodiversity crisis. Unregulated, or under-regulated wildlife trade can lead to unsustainable exploitation of wild populations. International efforts to regulate wildlife mostly miss 'lower-value' species, such as those imported as pets, resulting in limited knowledge of trade in groups like reptiles. Here we generate a dataset on web-based private commercial trade of reptiles to highlight the scope of the global reptile trade. We find that over 35% of reptile species are traded online. Three quarters of this trade is in species that are not covered by international trade regulation. These species include numerous endangered or range-restricted species, especially hotspots within Asia. Approximately 90% of traded reptile species and half of traded individuals are captured from the wild. Exploitation can occur immediately after scientific description, leaving new endemic species especially vulnerable. Pronounced gaps in regulation imply trade is having unknown impacts on numerous threatened species. Gaps in monitoring demand a reconsideration of international reptile trade regulations. We suggest reversing the status-quo, requiring proof of sustainability before trade is permitted.

Animais Selvagens , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Répteis , Animais , Comércio/economia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Internet/economia , Internet/legislação & jurisprudência
J Environ Manage ; 275: 110892, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911431


Global ballast water management regulations aiming to decrease aquatic species invasion require actions that can increase shipping costs. We employ an integrated shipping cost and global economic modeling approach to investigate the impacts of ballast water regulations on bilateral trade, national economies, and shipping patterns. Given the potential need for more stringent regulation at regional hotspots of species invasions, this work considers two ballast water treatment policy scenarios: implementation of current international regulations, and a possible stricter regional regulation that targets ships traveling to and from the United States while other vessels continue to face current standards. We find that ballast water management compliance costs under both scenarios lead to modest negative impacts on international trade and national economies overall. However, stricter regulations applied to U.S. ports are expected to have large negative impacts on bilateral trade of several specific commodities for a few countries. Trade diversion causes decreased U.S. imports of some products, leading to minor economic welfare losses.

Navios , Água , Comércio , Internacionalidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Estados Unidos