Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.229
Filtrar
2.
Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res ; 19(6): 685-692, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847613

RESUMO

Introduction: Governments need to do far more to help curb the emergence and transmission of antibiotic resistance and help protect the efficacy of any new antibiotics that come to the market. Industry is an important stakeholder that must be brought on-board such efforts given its influence on the direction and scale of antibiotic sales. Financial incentives supporting industry R&D of novel antibiotics should structurally remove the drivers of superfluous sales and encourage access to newer antibiotics where infections are otherwise resistant to treatment. Indeed, the use of public money provides an important opportunity to prioritize these public health goals within market structures such that we both adequately reward industry for their efforts and prolong antibiotic efficacy for as long as possible.Areas covered: This work discusses possible financial 'pull' incentives that fully delink the reward paid to the developer from unit sales, examining their primary advantages and limitations.Expert opinion: Pharmaceutical companies need to be rewarded generously for their efforts to develop new, badly needed antibiotics. But the current marketplace does not provide a sustained financial lure and its reliance on unit-sales for profitability jeopardizes the efficacy of antibiotics both new and old. Fully delinked models can make antibiotic R&D more financially appealing and create a market environment that is far less threatening to public health.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Antibacterianos/economia , Comércio/economia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/economia , Humanos , Saúde Pública/economia , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/economia
3.
Nature ; 575(7781): 98-108, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695208

RESUMO

Much of the Earth's biosphere has been appropriated for the production of harvestable biomass in the form of food, fuel and fibre. Here we show that the simplification and intensification of these systems and their growing connection to international markets has yielded a global production ecosystem that is homogenous, highly connected and characterized by weakened internal feedbacks. We argue that these features converge to yield high and predictable supplies of biomass in the short term, but create conditions for novel and pervasive risks to emerge and interact in the longer term. Steering the global production ecosystem towards a sustainable trajectory will require the redirection of finance, increased transparency and traceability in supply chains, and the participation of a multitude of players, including integrated 'keystone actors' such as multinational corporations.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ecossistema , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Retroalimentação , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Atividades Humanas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura/economia , Animais , Comércio/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Agricultura Florestal , Água Subterrânea/análise , Atividades Humanas/economia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
5.
Lancet ; 394(10208): 1580-1590, 2019 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657733

RESUMO

We assess the current and describe possible future public health impacts of the legalisation of cannabis production, sale, and use in the Americas. First, we describe global patterns of cannabis use and their most probable adverse health effects. Second, we summarise evidence regarding the effectiveness of cannabinoids for medicinal use and describe approaches that have been used to regulate the use of medicinal cannabis and how these approaches might have affected medicinal and recreational use and harms (eg, road crashes). Third, we describe how jurisdictions that have legalised recreational use have regulated production and sale of cannabis. Fourth, we evaluate the effects of cannabis legalisation on cannabis use and harms and on the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. Fifth, we use alcohol and tobacco policy examples to identify possible long-term public health effects of cannabis legalisation. Finally, we outline policy approaches that could minimise harms to public health arising from the legalisation of a commercial cannabis industry.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Maconha Medicinal/administração & dosagem , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos/economia , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 52(5): 299-307, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588699

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While occupational stress has long been a central focus of psychological research, few studies have investigated how immigrant microbusiness owners (MBOs) respond to their unusually demanding occupation, or how their unresolved occupational stress manifests in psychological distress. Based on the job demands-resources model, this study compared MBOs to employees with regard to the relationships among emotional demands, job resources, and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 1288 Korean immigrant workers (MBOs, professionals, office workers, and manual workers) aged 30 to 70, living in Toronto and surrounding areas. Face-to-face interviews were conducted between March 2013 and November 2013. RESULTS: Among the four occupational groups, MBOs appeared to endure the greatest level of emotional demands, while reporting relatively lower levels of job satisfaction and job security; but MBOs reported the greatest job autonomy. The effect of emotional demands on depressive symptoms was greater for MBOs than for professionals. However, an inspection of stress-resource interactions indicated that though MBOs enjoyed the greatest autonomy, the protective effects of job satisfaction and security on the psychological risk of emotional demands appeared to be more pronounced for MBOs than for any of the employee groups. CONCLUSIONS: One in two Korean immigrants choose self-employment, most typically in family-owned microbusinesses that involve emotionally taxing dealings with clients and suppliers. However, the benefits of job satisfaction and security may protect MBOs from the adverse mental health effects of job stress.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Depressão/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(9): 620-630, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474775

RESUMO

Increasing overall fiscal space is important for the health sector due to the centrality of public financing to make progress towards universal health coverage. One strategy is to mobilize additional government revenues through new taxes or increased tax rates on goods and services. We illustrate how countries can assess the feasibility and quantitative potential of different revenue-raising mechanisms. We review and synthesize the processes and results from country assessments in Benin, Mali, Mozambique and Togo. The studies analysed new taxes or increased taxes on airplane tickets, phone calls, alcoholic drinks, tourism services, financial transactions, lottery tickets, vehicles and the extractive industries. Study teams in each country assessed the feasibility of new revenue-raising mechanisms using six qualitative criteria. The quantitative potential of these mechanisms was estimated by defining different scenarios and setting assumptions. Consultations with stakeholders at the start of the process served to select the revenue-raising mechanisms to study and later to discuss findings and options. Exploring feasibility was essential, as this helped rule out options that appeared promising from the quantitative assessment. Stakeholders rated stability and sustainability positive for most mechanisms, but political feasibility was a key issue throughout. The estimated additional revenues through new revenue-raising mechanisms ranged from 0.47-1.62% as a share of general government expenditure in the four countries. Overall, the revenue raised through these mechanisms was small. Countries are advised to consider multiple strategies to expand fiscal space for health.


Assuntos
Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Impostos/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Benin , Comércio/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Mali , Moçambique , Participação dos Interessados , Togo
9.
Health Policy Plan ; 34(7): 520-528, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381805

RESUMO

In response to Mexico's burgeoning industrial epidemics of obesity and type-2 diabetes, triggered in part by sugar-sweetened carbonated beverages' ability to readily market their products and influence consumption, the government has responded through a variety of non-communicable disease (NCD) policies. Nevertheless, major industries, such as Coca-Cola, have been able to continuously obstruct the prioritization of those policies targeting the consumption, marketing and sale of their products. To better understand why this has occurred, this article introduces a political science agenda-setting framework and applies it to the case of Coca-Cola in Mexico. Devised from political science theory and subsequently applied to the case of Coca-Cola in Mexico, my framework, titled Institutions, Interests, and Industry Civic Influence (IPIC), emphasizes Coca-Cola's access to institutions, supportive presidents and industry efforts to hamper civic mobilization and pressures for greater regulation of the soda industry. Methodologically, I employ qualitative single case study analysis, combining an analysis of 26 case study documents and seven in-depth stake-holder interviews. My proposed analytical framework helps to underscore the fact that Coca-Cola's influence is not solely shaped by the corporation's increased economic importance, but more importantly, its access to politicians, institutions and strategies to divide civil society. Additionally, my proposed framework provides several real-world policy recommendations for how governments and civil society can restructure their relationship with the soda industry, such as the government's creation of laws prohibiting the industry's ability to influence NCD policy and fund scientific research.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Política , Bebidas Gaseificadas/economia , Comércio/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , México , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29978-29990, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414388

RESUMO

The developing world in general is facing so many crucial problems including global warming in recent years. Global warming has multiple consequences on each segment of the society and therefore, its root causes are important to identify. The present study examines the impact of per capita income, trade openness, urbanization, and energy consumption on CO2 emissions. Countries located in South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) are considered in the study. The selection of the SAARC region is motivated by the diverse nature of its members and further lack of available empirical literature on the same relationship. Annual data from 1980 to 2016 are analyzed using appropriate panel data techniques. The results revealed the presence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the SAARC region. Further, the introduction of cubic function into the model indicated that the shape of the EKC is N shaped. Besides, trade openness has negative while urbanization and energy consumption have impacted CO2 emissions positively. Moreover, the causality exercise explored a bidirectional causality between urbanization, energy consumption, per capita income, and CO2 emissions. Similarly, energy consumption, per capita GDP, and urbanization are also bidirectionally related. Further, a unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions, urbanization, and energy consumption to trade openness is detected. Lastly, a unidirectional causality is witnessed from per capita income to energy consumption.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Comércio/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Renda , Urbanização/tendências , Ásia , Comércio/tendências , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Modelos Teóricos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 576, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Affordability and availability of quality medicines to all its citizens has been a key priority area for South Africa since democracy in 1994. In order to introduce transparency in the private market the government introduced the Single Exit Price (SEP) for medicines in 2004, for all prescription medicines, comprising of a fixed ex-factory price with a logistics fee component (and value added tax) for medicines sold to all purchasers other than the State. This is complemented with a provision for an annual regulated maximum percentage increase. The study evaluates the impact of the SEP on a basket of originator medicines, in terms of costs, immediate price reductions and projected price reductions. METHOD: This is an analytical, quantitative study. A basket of medicines was selected, based on the WHO/HAI list, and adapted to include registered medicines in South Africa. Prices of 50 originator medicines were assessed from 1999 to 2014 in terms of the single exit price and the changes in prices in accordance with legislation using a time series analysis methodology. RESULTS: Of the 50 originator medicines investigated 35 showed a statistically significant change in level. For the Global Core list, the percentage change ranged from 2.45-39.12% (mean = 19.87%, SD = 10.62%, IQR = 10.2%). The range for the Regional Core list was 1.77-42.17% (mean = 23.38%, SD = 12.43%, IQR = 15.65%). The Supplementary list was 11.68-55.86% (mean = 22.97%, SD = 16.26%, IQR = 17.34). This study indicates that the SEP regulation had an impact on medicine pricing in South Africa in both the short and long term. Most medicines investigated showed a smaller yearly increase in price compared to before regulations due to the controlled pricing environment introduced by Government. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of the impact of medicine pricing intervention from a middle-income country, and other developing countries looking at introducing medicine price controls can draw useful lessons.


Assuntos
Custos de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/economia , Comércio/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/provisão & distribução , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450806

RESUMO

Every year, the Italian National Health Service (NHS) provides about 200,000 celiac people (based on 2017 data) living in Italy with financial support of about 250 million euro to cover the cost of their specific dietary constrains. The existence of gluten-free products of high quality and affordable price is very important for the quality of life of celiac people and the sustainability of public support. Over the last decade, the market for gluten-free products has experienced a dramatic surge, with an increasing shelf space dedicated to these products in supermarkets, and a large variety of products both in terms of kind of agricultural inputs and processing and packaging methods. This study aimed at assessing the offer of gluten-free (GF) pasta in Italian supermarkets, with respect to its ability to meet the needs of celiac people in terms of variety, prices and safety. A hedonic price analysis was performed. Results indicated that GF pasta is sold only in 44% of the 212 stores of the sample, with a price equal to more than twice that of conventional pasta. A premium price was found for the following attributes: small packages, brands specialized in GF products, content in fiber and the presence of quinoa as ingredient.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Doença Celíaca/economia , Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dieta Livre de Glúten/economia , Carboidratos da Dieta/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Chenopodium quinoa , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/economia , Embalagem de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Econômicos , Valor Nutritivo
15.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 38(5): 554-560, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317592

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The health benefits of reducing excessive alcohol consumption are well-documented and widely accepted, but policies directed to this end are often regarded as damaging to the economy. Previous UK alcohol impact studies typically focus on what are in effect the 'gross' impacts of a fall in alcohol consumption considered in isolation, so that estimated economic impacts are always negative. Here we investigate the 'net' impacts of a reduction in consumption accounting for the reallocation of household spending and the expenditure of any increase in government revenues. DESIGN AND METHODS: We employ a health-augmented, Input-Output modelling framework. We simulate the impact of a reduction in alcohol consumption due to: a change in consumer tastes that generate a reallocation of household spending; an increase in alcohol duties accompanied by the use of increased revenues to stimulate government expenditure. RESULTS: We find evidence of a trade-off between employment and health benefits for the case of a tastes-induced switch from alcohol consumption, but this is less severe than past analyses would suggest (and does not apply to economic activity more generally). For the case of increased taxation on alcohol (and increased government spending) we find that there is in fact no trade-off between employment on the one hand and health on the other; employment and economic activity are stimulated while health outcomes improve. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: There is a potential 'double-dividend' of improved health outcomes and increased economic activity as a consequence of a rise in alcohol duties.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Modelos Econômicos , Políticas , Impostos/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio/economia , Humanos , Reino Unido
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323981

RESUMO

Cigarette affordability measures the price smokers pay for cigarettes in relation to their incomes. Affordability can be measured using the relative income price of cigarettes (RIP), or the price smokers pay to purchase 100 packs of 20 cigarettes divided by their per capita household income. Using longitudinal data from 7046 smokers participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey, the purpose of this study was to test whether affordability significantly changed following the US federal tax increase implemented on 1 April 2009. This study also estimated temporal trends in affordability from 2003-2015 at state and national levels using small area estimation methods and segmented linear mixed effects regression models. RIP increased slightly during 2003-2008. This was followed by a 30% increase during 2008-2010, indicating cigarettes were less affordable after the federal tax increase. RIP continued to increase during 2010-2013 but decreased during 2013-2015, suggesting cigarettes have recently become more affordable for US smokers. State-level trends in RIP were consistent with overall national trends. Controlling for other factors, a $1 increase in the state excise tax was significantly associated with a 9% increase in RIP, indicating state taxes reduced affordability. Tax-induced price increases must keep pace with underlying economic conditions to ensure cigarettes do not become more affordable over time.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Impostos/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabaco , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 36, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Guatemalan Highlands is a region of great but so far poorly known mycological diversity. People living in this area have long used wild fungi as a source of food and income. However, our knowledge of the ethnomycological practices of the Mayan peoples of Guatemala is still rudimental, especially if compared with information reported for the neighboring region of Mexico. Among the main indigenous groups of the Maya people inhabiting the highlands of Central Guatemala, stand the Kaqchikel, accounting for nearly 8% of the entire Guatemalan population. The main aim of this study was to record the traditional knowledge and use of edible wild mushrooms by inhabitants of the municipality of San Juan Sacatepéquez that lies at the heart of the Kaqchikel area in the central highlands of Guatemala, also describing the relevant selling practices and dynamics. A secondary aim was to compare the diversity and composition of the mushroom assemblage offered at the market with the macrofungal diversity of woods in the area. METHODOLOGY: This study is the result of 4 years of ethnomycological research, conducted through continuous visits to the municipal market and focused interviews with collectors and vendors. Field sampling in pine-oak forested areas surrounding San Juan Sacatepéquez, from where the mushrooms sold at the market are foraged, were also conducted, in the presence of local collectors. RESULTS: The results show a significant richness of species sold in the market, a network of commerce of purchase, sale, and resale of several species, with relatively stable prices, and knowledge about edible and inedible species that is transmitted mainly within the family nucleus. The business of selling mushrooms in the market is an exclusive activity of women, who are supplied by collectors or by other vendors. Fungi are sold and bought only as food, while no consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms or medicinal mushrooms was recorded. Several species of Amanita, Cantharellus, Boletus, Lactarius, and Russula were those most commercialized in the 4 years of the study, but we also spotted fungi never reported before as consumed in the country, including Gastropila aff. fumosa (= Calvatia fumosa) and several species of Cortinarius. Field sampling in nearby pine-oak forests confirmed an elevated local macrofungal diversity. CONCLUSION: Our study unveiled the contemporary wealth of Kaqchikel culture for what concerns mushrooms, demonstrating that mushrooms continue to be culturally and economically important for these communities despite the erosion of traditional knowledge. Our results also confirmed the need to investigate in greater detail the Guatemalan mycodiversity that is vast and poorly known.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Biodiversidade , Comércio/economia , Micologia/métodos , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Micologia/economia
18.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211817

RESUMO

This study scrutinized the asymmetric impact of oil prices on stock returns in Shanghai stock exchange with data (January 2000 to December 2018) by using asymmetric ARDL model. The examined results of asymmetric autoregressive distributed lag model indicate that cointegration exists between the oil prices and the stock returns. Results of asymmetric autoregressive distributed lag model confirm that both in the long run and the short run increase in oil prices have a negative impact on the stock returns of Shanghai stock exchange while decrease in the oil prices has a positive impact on the stock returns. The examined results of this study recommend that oil prices dynamically contribute incompetence in stock prices in such a way that impact the profits of investors in stock market.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Modelos Estatísticos , Óleos/economia , China , Economia/tendências , Humanos
19.
Public Health ; 173: 1-4, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The short communication is prompted by the debate relating to the effect of pharmaceutical patents on access to affordable medicines, particularly in Africa. A recent amendment made to the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement creates a policy space for the regional alliance of low-income countries for the collective procurement and local production of drugs under compulsory licensing. This article examines the extent to which the regional mechanism can deliver access to pharmaceuticals. The article examines the regional mechanism in the light of the recent regional trade agreements and pharmaceutical plans of some regional economic blocs in Africa as well as the newly signed African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA). STUDY DESIGN: This short communication adopts a descriptive approach in linking the regional mechanism in the TRIPS amendment to the regional trade agreements of African countries at the subregional and continental levels. METHODS: To ascertain the extent to which TRIPS Agreements regional model can deliver access to medicines in Africa, the article adopts a desk review approach by examining the relevant provisions of TRIPS Agreement, particularly the newly added Article 31bis, and the provisions of the relevant regional and continental free trade agreements in Africa. RESULTS: The article finds that although the regional model has great prospects in supporting the wider effort to deliver access to medicine, the limitations to its operative utilization may weaken its potency in addressing the urgent public health needs of the continent. CONCLUSION: The article concludes by stressing the inevitability of Africa's integration in tackling the deficiency of access to generic medicines in Africa. It was noted that even though there could be some potential challenges, the regional mechanism is indeed the way to go for low-income countries.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Propriedade Intelectual , Cooperação Internacional , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Saúde Pública , África , Comércio/economia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Patentes como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Políticas , Pobreza
20.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(4): 346-351, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Price promotions are used to influence purchases and represent an important target for obesity prevention policy. However, no long-term contemporary data on the extent and frequency of supermarket price promotions exists. We aimed to evaluate the frequency, magnitude and weekly variation of beverage price promotions available online at two major Australian supermarket chains over 50 weeks. METHODS: Beverages were categorised into four policy-relevant categories (sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially-sweetened beverages, flavoured milk and 100% juice, milk and water). The proportional contribution of each category to the total number of price proportions, the proportion of price promotions within the available product category, the mean discount, and weekly variation in price promotions were calculated. RESULTS: For Coles and Woolworths respectively, 26% and 30% of all beverages were price promoted in any given week. Sugar-sweetened beverages made up the greatest proportion of all price promotions (Coles: 46%, Woolworths: 49%). Within each product category, the proportion of sugar-sweetened and artificially-sweetened beverages that were price promoted was similar, higher than the other categories and reasonably constant over time. Diet drinks and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were most heavily discounted (by 29-40%). CONCLUSIONS: Beverage price promotions are used extensively in Australian supermarkets, undermining efforts to promote healthy population diets. Implications for public health: Policies restricting price promotions on sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to be an important part of strategies to reduce obesity and improve population nutrition.


Assuntos
/métodos , Bebidas/economia , Bebidas/provisão & distribução , Comércio/economia , Austrália , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA