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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248120, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667256

RESUMO

In Bangladesh, the COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have substantial effects on the livelihood of people, but smallholder vegetables growers will be even more affected because of the perishability nature of the product. The first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Bangladesh on 8th March, 2020 and consequently the country went into lockdown on 26 March, 2020. This study has made a survey of vegetables farmers through a mobile phone to understand the impact of COVID-19 on vegetables supply chain, gross margin and the future production plan of the growers. In Bangladesh, the lockdown has disrupted the food supply chain and increases the likelihood of food insecurity. Lockdown has impeded vegetable farmers' access to markets, thus limiting their productive and sales capacities. The price of yield has dropped by more than half resulting in huge loss for vegetable growers. The loss incurred by the farmers for producing Brinjal, Cucumber, Pointed gourd, Yardlong beans and Bottle gourd are BDT 4900, BDT 10900, BDT 57400, BDT 52500 and BDT 18500 per acre respectively as a result of COVID-19. The decreased income increases farmers' likelihood of vulnerability and food insecurity and poses a challenge to continued produce. 'Cash support' is more important than 'food support' in order to keep vegetable farmers in farming, to ensure a ready supply of necessary low-cost resources, and to help fight against the upcoming food shortage.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fazendeiros , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Comércio/economia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras/economia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525558

RESUMO

Prior to the 2020 outbreak of COVID-19, 70% of Australians' food purchases were from supermarkets. Rural communities experience challenges accessing healthy food, which drives health inequalities. This study explores the impact of COVID-19 on food supply and purchasing behaviour in a rural supermarket. Group model building workshops explored food supply experiences during COVID-19 in a rural Australian community with one supermarket. We asked three supermarket retailers "What are the current drivers of food supply into this supermarket environment?" and, separately, 33 customers: "What are the current drivers of purchases in this supermarket environment?" Causal loop diagrams were co-created with participants in real time with themes drawn afterwards from coded transcripts. Retailers' experience of COVID-19 included 'empty shelves' attributed to media and government messaging, product unavailability, and community fear. Customers reported fear of contracting COVID-19, unavailability of food, and government restrictions resulting in cooking more meals at home, as influences on purchasing behaviour. Supermarket management and customers demonstrated adaptability and resilience to normalise demand and combat reduced supply.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Modelos Econômicos , População Rural , Austrália/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Comércio/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(2): e102-e107, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581061

RESUMO

The scale of the COVID-19 pandemic is a consequence of international trade and globalisation, with the virus spreading along established trade and travel routes. However, the pandemic also affects international trade through reductions in both supply and demand. In this Viewpoint we describe the many implications for health and propose ways to mitigate them. Problems include reduced access to medical supplies (in particular, personal protective equipment and tests), budgetary shortfalls as a result of reduced tariffs and taxes, and a general decline in economic activity-leading, in many cases, to recessions, threats to social safety nets, and to increased precariousness of income, employment, and food security. However, in exceptional cases, the pandemic has also brought some transient benefits, including to the environment. Looking ahead, there will be great pressure to further liberalise rules on trade to encourage economic recovery, but it is essential that trade policy be informed by its many consequences for health to ensure that the benefits are maximised and threats are minimised through active identification and mitigation.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Comércio , Pandemias/economia , Saúde Pública , Comércio/economia , Comércio/tendências , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/tendências
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546396

RESUMO

This study examines the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the Taiwan stock market and investigates whether companies with a commitment to corporate social responsibility (CSR) were less affected. This study uses a selection of companies provided by CommonWealth magazine to classify the listed companies in Taiwan as CSR and non-CSR companies. The event study approach is applied to examine the change in the stock prices of CSR companies after the first COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. The empirical results indicate that the stock prices of all companies generated significantly negative abnormal returns and negative cumulative abnormal returns after the outbreak. Compared with all companies and with non-CSR companies, CSR companies were less affected by the outbreak; their stock prices were relatively resistant to the fall and they recovered faster. In addition, the cumulative impact of the COVID-19 on the stock prices of CSR companies is smaller than that of non-CSR companies on both short- and long-term bases. However, the stock price performance of non-CSR companies was not weaker than that of CSR companies during times when the impact of the pandemic was lower or during the price recovery phase.


Assuntos
/economia , Comércio/economia , Cultura Organizacional , Pandemias/economia , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos , Taiwan
5.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246886, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606770

RESUMO

This paper studies the connectedness between oil price shocks and agricultural commodities. Our sample period ranges from January 2002 to July 2020, covering the three global crises; Global Financial Crisis, the European sovereign debt crisis and Covid-19 pandemic crisis. We employ Granger causality tests, and the static and dynamic connectedness spillover index methodology. We find that the shocks in oil prices are Granger-caused mainly by price changes of grains, live cattle, and wheat, while supply shock granger causes variations mostly in grain prices. We find that, from the point of view of static connectedness, for both, price and volatility spillovers, the livestock is the largest transmitter, while the lean hogs are the major receiver. Our dynamic analysis evidences that connectedness increases during the financial crisis period. Our results are potentially useful for investors, portfolios managers and policy makers.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Comércio/economia , Petróleo/economia , /epidemiologia , União Europeia/economia , Humanos
6.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 45(1): 26-33, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559964

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Northern Territory (NT) Government introduced a minimum unit price (MUP) of $1.30 per standard drink (10g pure alcohol) explicitly aimed at reducing the consumption of cheap wine products from October 2018. We aimed to assess the impact of the NT MUP on estimates of beverage-specific population-adjusted alcohol consumption using wholesale alcohol supply data. METHODS: Interrupted time series analyses were conducted to examine MUP effects on trends in estimated per capita alcohol consumption (PCAC) for cask wine, total wine and total alcohol, across the NT and in the Darwin/Palmerston region. RESULTS: Significant step decreases were found for cask wine and total wine PCAC in Darwin/Palmerston and across the Northern Territory. PCAC of cask wine decreased by 50.6% in the NT, and by 48.8% in Darwin/Palmerston compared to the prior year. PCAC for other beverages (e.g. beer) were largely unaffected by MUP. Overall, PCAC across the Territory declined, but not in Darwin/Palmerston. CONCLUSION: With minimal implementation costs, the Northern Territory Government's MUP policy successfully targeted and reduced cask wine and total wine consumption. Cask wine, in particular, almost halved in Darwin/Palmerston where the impact of the MUP was able to be determined and considering other interventions. Implications for public health: Implementation of a minimum unit price for retail alcohol sales is a cost-effective way to reduce the consumption of high alcohol content and high-risk products, such as cheap cask wine.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas/provisão & distribução , Comércio/economia , Impostos/economia , Vinho/provisão & distribução , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Northern Territory , Vinho/economia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244083, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The answer to this article lies in: Does the financial activities of physical enterprises have an adverse impact on their main business? Is it conducive to the sustainable development of the national economy? However, when most scholars study the impact of environmental regulations on companies performance, they have not classified companies performance. This article will study the relationship between environmental regulations and performance levels based on the classification of companies performance, and then divide the nature of industry pollution, companies location and nature of property for in-depth research. METHODS: First, this article uses a random effect variable-intercept model to measure companies financial performance and non-financial performance. Then, the variables are divided into two variable groups: light pollution and heavy pollution according to the nature of industry pollution. Next, the companies are divided into three variable groups: the eastern region, the central region, and the western region. Finally, the company is divided into two variable groups: state-owned and non-state-owned according to the nature of property. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that: (1) Environmental regulations have inhibited companies financial activities. And the inhibitory effect of environmental regulations on the financial performance of enterprises is more obvious in the heavily polluting industries and enterprises in central and eastern regions. (2) Environmental regulations and companies non-financial performance are also negatively related, environmental regulations have also inhibited the non-financial performance of companies, this effect is more pronounced in heavily polluting industries and enterprises in western regions. (3) Income crowding effect brought by China's environmental regulations is greater than the income compensation effect brought by stimulating technological innovation.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Invenções/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Comércio/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Humanos , Invenções/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238848, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956402

RESUMO

Consumer products are widely used as stimuli across several research fields. The use of consumer products as experimental stimuli lacks, however, the support of normative data regarding product features variability. In this work, we provide a first set of norms for people's perceptions of 150 consumer products regarding six relevant dimensions: product perceived complexity, quality objectivity, material/experiential nature, perceived price, familiarity and attitude. Products available in this normative database showed good overall distribution across the range of the dimensions evaluated. Obtained correlations between some of these dimensions provided evidence of how they can be confounded across products, further justifying the need to control for these dimensions. These norms should aid future research by allowing researchers to select products according to specific attributes and achieve appropriate experimental control. The norms here provided should also aid consumer behavior practitioners (such as marketers and advertisers) by providing insights as to how consumers perceive products along relevant dimensions.


Assuntos
Atitude , Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Percepção , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4738, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994397

RESUMO

Wildlife trade is a key driver of the biodiversity crisis. Unregulated, or under-regulated wildlife trade can lead to unsustainable exploitation of wild populations. International efforts to regulate wildlife mostly miss 'lower-value' species, such as those imported as pets, resulting in limited knowledge of trade in groups like reptiles. Here we generate a dataset on web-based private commercial trade of reptiles to highlight the scope of the global reptile trade. We find that over 35% of reptile species are traded online. Three quarters of this trade is in species that are not covered by international trade regulation. These species include numerous endangered or range-restricted species, especially hotspots within Asia. Approximately 90% of traded reptile species and half of traded individuals are captured from the wild. Exploitation can occur immediately after scientific description, leaving new endemic species especially vulnerable. Pronounced gaps in regulation imply trade is having unknown impacts on numerous threatened species. Gaps in monitoring demand a reconsideration of international reptile trade regulations. We suggest reversing the status-quo, requiring proof of sustainability before trade is permitted.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Répteis , Animais , Comércio/economia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Internet/economia , Internet/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942766

RESUMO

This paper examines the linkages in financial markets during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak. For this purpose, daily stock market returns were used over the period of December 31, 2019-April 20, 2020 for the following economies: USA, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, UK, China, and Romania. The study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to explore whether the Romanian stock market is impacted by the crisis generated by novel coronavirus. Granger causality was employed to investigate the causalities among COVID-19 and stock market returns, as well as between pandemic measures and several commodities. The outcomes of the ARDL approach failed to find evidence towards the impact of Chinese COVID-19 records on the Romanian financial market, neither in the short-term, nor in the long-term. On the other hand, our quantitative approach reveals a negative effect of the new deaths' cases from Italy on the 10-year Romanian bond yield both in the short-run and long-run. The econometric research provide evidence that Romanian 10-year government bond is more sensitive to the news related to COVID-19 than the index of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Granger causality analysis reveals causal associations between selected stock market returns and Philadelphia Gold/Silver Index.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Betacoronavirus , China , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Romênia , Espanha , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931512

RESUMO

This study empirically examined the impact of financing innovation on technological innovation efficiency of select internet companies, that were affiliated with China between 2008 and 2017. Analysis was based on their patent and annual report data and used multiple input-output SFA model, system GMM, and panel fixed-effect model. The results are as follows. (1) There is significant variation in overall technological innovation efficiency of listed companies in the internet industry, and there is a downward trend. The technological innovation efficiency of business that use financing innovation methods is higher than those that do not. (2) The number of patents and intangible capital investment of internet businesses increase obviously every year, but there is no corresponding increase in the efficiency of technological innovation, and little intangible capital investment of non-financing innovation businesses. Thus, determining how to effectively improve the overall quality of patents and the efficiency of intangible capital investment is essential to improve the efficiency of technological innovation for Chinese internet businesses. (3) There is a term mismatch in the investment and financing of internet businesses in China. The financing structure between the financing innovation and non-financing innovation businesses has different impacts on the efficiency of technological innovation. And nowadays, more financing channels are short-term debt financing channels which invest in projects to improve the efficiency of technological innovation due to the pressure of debt repayment and the need to protect shareholders' interests. (4) In the panel regression, the coefficients of Icd and Roa are significantly negative, suggesting that the investment efficiency of internet businesses needs to be improved.


Assuntos
Financiamento de Capital/economia , Internet/economia , Invenções/economia , China , Comércio/economia , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966335

RESUMO

Economies are frequently affected by natural disasters and both domestic and overseas financial crises. These events disrupt production and cause multiple other types of economic losses, including negative impacts on the banking system. Understanding the transmission mechanism that causes various negative second-order post-catastrophe effects is crucial if policymakers are to develop more efficient recovery strategies. In this work, we introduce a credit-based adaptive regional input-output (ARIO) model to analyse the effects of disasters and crises on the supply chain and bank-firm credit networks. Using real Japanese networks and the exogenous shocks of the 2008 Lehman Brothers bankruptcy and the Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11, 2011), this paper aims to depict how these negative shocks propagate through the supply chain and affect the banking system. The credit-based ARIO model is calibrated using Latin hypercube sampling and the design of experiments procedure to reproduce the short-term (one-year) dynamics of the Japanese industrial production index after the 2008 Lehman Brothers bankruptcy and the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake. Then, through simulation experiments, we identify the chemical and petroleum manufacturing and transport sectors as the most vulnerable Japanese industrial sectors. Finally, the case of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake is simulated for Japanese prefectures to understand differences among regions in terms of globally engendered indirect economic losses. Tokyo and Osaka prefectures are the most vulnerable locations because they hold greater concentrations of the above-mentioned vulnerable industrial sectors.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Economia , Desastres Naturais/economia , Falência/economia , Terremotos/economia , Humanos , Japão , Tóquio
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(40): 25169-25178, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958673

RESUMO

Human decisions can be biased by irrelevant information. For example, choices between two preferred alternatives can be swayed by a third option that is inferior or unavailable. Previous work has identified three classic biases, known as the attraction, similarity, and compromise effects, which arise during choices between economic alternatives defined by two attributes. However, the reliability, interrelationship, and computational origin of these three biases have been controversial. Here, a large cohort of human participants made incentive-compatible choices among assets that varied in price and quality. Instead of focusing on the three classic effects, we sampled decoy stimuli exhaustively across bidimensional multiattribute space and constructed a full map of decoy influence on choices between two otherwise preferred target items. Our analysis reveals that the decoy influence map is highly structured even beyond the three classic biases. We identify a very simple model that can fully reproduce the decoy influence map and capture its variability in individual participants. This model reveals that the three decoy effects are not distinct phenomena but are all special cases of a more general principle, by which attribute values are repulsed away from the context provided by rival options. The model helps us understand why the biases are typically correlated across participants and allows us to validate a prediction about their interrelationship. This work helps to clarify the origin of three of the most widely studied biases in human decision-making.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comércio/economia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886708

RESUMO

Market liquidity ensures the marketability of security and is an indispensable feature of stock markets. Previous studies have emphasized the role of stock market liquidity in empirical finance. However, they have inadequately explored its multidimensional nature. This study eliminates the ambiguities related to market liquidity by precisely measuring it by using popular and proven liquidity measures. As such, the present study aims to evaluate market liquidity in terms of depth, breadth, tightness, and immediacy in the Indian equity market and also identifies crucial interdependencies between liquidity dimensions. The study selects 500 stocks constituting the NIFTY 500 index of the National Stock Exchange, India, as of 26th May 2019. The data on trading volume, bid price, ask price, the number of shares outstanding, closing share prices were retrieved for the period from 1st April 2009 to 31st March 2019. The study employs Share Turnover, Amihud Illiquidity Ratio, Relative Quoted Spreads, and Coefficient of Elasticity of Trading for liquidity measurement. The Vector Auto-Regressive (VAR) model is used to establish the simultaneous relationships between liquidity dimensions. The analysis is conducted at the aggregate market level as well as across turnover based stock groups divided based on their rankings in terms of stock specific share turnover. The empirical results evidenced the presence of consistent depth, strong breadth, and immediacy but lower tightness in the Indian equity market. The market depth and tightness appear to be relevant in determining dimensional interdependencies. Also, less frequently traded stocks exhibit higher illiquidity in the wake of lower tightness. The findings of this study will assist the investors to wisely understand the multifaceted nature of market liquidity and base their trading decisions accordingly. Moreover, the regulators of the stock exchange can devise liquidity enhancing policies based on the directional movements among liquidity dimensions.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Marketing/economia , Análise de Regressão
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881890

RESUMO

After the United Kingdom has left the European Union it remains unclear whether the two parties can successfully negotiate and sign a trade agreement within the transition period. Ongoing negotiations, practical obstacles and resulting uncertainties make it highly unlikely that economic actors would be fully prepared to a "no-trade-deal" situation. Here we provide an economic shock simulation of the immediate aftermath of such a post-Brexit no-trade-deal scenario by computing the time evolution of more than 1.8 million interactions between more than 6,600 economic actors in the global trade network. We find an abrupt decline in the number of goods produced in the UK and the EU. This sudden output reduction is caused by drops in demand as customers on the respective other side of the Channel incorporate the new trade restriction into their decision-making. As a response, producers reduce prices in order to stimulate demand elsewhere. In the short term consumers benefit from lower prices but production value decreases with potentially severe socio-economic consequences in the longer term.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Participação da Comunidade , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fatores de Tempo , União Europeia , Geografia , Modelos Econômicos , Reino Unido
19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 917-927, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747803

RESUMO

Standardized classroom experiments provide evidence about how well scientific results reproduce when nearly identical methods are used. We use a sample of around 20,000 observations to test reproducibility of behaviour in trading and ultimatum bargaining. Double-auction results are highly reproducible and are close to equilibrium predictions about prices and quantities from economic theory. Our sample also shows robust correlations between individual surplus and trading order, and autocorrelation of successive price changes, which test different theories of price dynamics. In ultimatum bargaining, the large dataset provides sufficient power to identify that equal-split offers are accepted more often and more quickly than slightly unequal offers. Our results imply a general consistency of results across a variety of different countries and cultures in two of the most commonly used designs in experimental economics.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Negociação , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750058

RESUMO

With the rising environmental concerns among consumers all over the world, sustainability has received considerable attention, and numerous enterprises are adopting various practices such as investing in energy-saving to improve sustainability in supply chains. However, many previous researches always assume that decision makers are perfectly rational and neglect the behavioral concerns of decision makers. This paper considers a two-stage sustainable supply chain with behavioral concerns in order to develop more realistic models, and mainly focuses on the energy-saving and pricing decisions in the decentralized system, as well as how to improve energy-saving level and profits. We develop decentralized decision-making models under two types of behavioral concerns: fairness concern and risk aversion, and derive the optimal strategy for each member with a Stackelberg game in which the manufacturer acts as the leader. The effect of the behavioral concerns on the optimal decisions and corresponding profits is discussed in detail. Theoretical analysis verified by numerical experiments shows that the fairness behavior always causes a negative effect on the manufacturer, total supply chain, and energy conservation, while it could benefit the retailer in profits. The risk aversion behavior always benefits the manufacturer, total supply chain, and energy conservation, whereas it could make the retailer suffer. Note that both the optimal energy-saving level and corresponding profit of the total supply chain under two types of behavioral concerns are lower than that in the centralized system, thereby we propose a revenue-cost-sharing contract to coordinate the supply chain, under which both the manufacturer and the retailer can achieve a win-win outcome and the energy-saving level can be improved. In addition, some managerial implications through our analytical and numerical results are summarized in this paper.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Tomada de Decisões , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Assunção de Riscos
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