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1.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 19-35, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191344

RESUMO

La pandemia de COVID-19 tiene un origen zoonótico: fue transmitida de los animales a los humanos. Lo mismo ha sucedido con otras epidemias recientes (como las causadas por los virus SARS-CoV-1 y H7N9, entre otros). Estas epidemias surgieron en un contexto de explotación animal: el comercio de animales silvestres. Mucha gente ha pedido la prohibición total de la venta de animales silvestres en mercados. Sin embargo, la prohibición puede ser contraproducente y tener peores consecuencias tanto para los animales como para la salud pública. Este artículo argumenta en contra de una prohibición total y a favor de una regulación progresiva que tome en cuenta el bienestar de los animales, pero que tenga como finalidad última la desaparición del comercio de animales silvestres


The COVID-19 pandemic has a zoonotic origin: it was transmitted from animals to humans. The same has happened with other recent epidemics (such as those caused by the virus SARS-CoV-1 and H7N9, among others). These epidemics arose in a context of animal exploitation: the trade in wildlife. Many people have asked for a blanket ban of wildlife trade in wet markets. However, a blanket ban may be counterproductive and have worse consequences both for the animals and for public health. This paper argues against a blanket ban and argues for a progressive regulation that takes into account the welfare of animals, but that has as its final goal the disappearance of trade in wildlife


La pandèmia de la COVID-19 té un origen zoonòtic: es va transmetre dels animals als humans. El mateix ha passat amb altres epidèmies recents (com les causades pels virus SARS-CoV-1 I H7N9, entre d'altres). Aquestes epidèmies van sorgir en un context d'explotació animal: el comerç d'animals silvestres. Molta gent ha demanat la prohibició total de la venda d'animals silvestres en mercats. No obstant això, la prohibició pot ser contraproduent I tenir pitjors conseqüències tant per als animals com per a la salut pública. Aquest article argumenta en contra d'una prohibició total I a favor d'una regulació progressiva que tingui en compte el benestar dels animals, però que tingui com a finalitat última la desaparició del comerç d'animals silvestres


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência
2.
Biomed Eng Online ; 19(1): 75, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The world is facing an unprecedented outbreak affecting all aspects of human lives which is caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the virus novelty, healthcare systems are challenged by a high rate of patients and the shortage of medical products. To address an increased need for essential medical products, national authorities, worldwide, made various legislative concessions. This has led to essential medical products being produced by automotive, textile and other companies from various industries and approved under the emergency use authorizations or legal concessions of national regulatory bodies. This paper presents a narrative commentary of the available documentation on emergency use authorizations and legal concessions for medical products during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: The basis for narrative commentary includes scientific articles published in Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Embase databases, official publications of international organizations: Food and Drug Agency (FDA), World Health Organisation (WHO), World Bank and United Nations (UN), and national regulatory agency reports in native languages (English, German, Bosnian, and Croatian) published from November 1, 2019 to May 1, 2020. This paper focuses on three types of essential medical products: mechanical ventilators, personal protective equipment (PPE) and diagnostic tests. Evidence-informed commentary of available data and potential identified risks of emergency use authorizations and legal concessions is presented. DISCUSSION: It is recognized that now more than ever, raising global awareness and knowledge about the importance of respecting the essential requirements is needed to guarantee the appropriate quality, performance and safety of medical products, especially during outbreak situation, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Emergency use authorizations for production, import and approval of medical products should be strictly specified and clearly targeted from case to case and should not be general or universal for all medical products, because all of them are associated with different risk level. CONCLUSION: Presented considerations and experiences should be taken as a guide for all possible future outbreak situations to prevent improvised reactions of national regulatory bodies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Manufatureira/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/provisão & distribução , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Falha de Equipamento , União Europeia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Ventiladores Mecânicos/normas
4.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E109, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, New York City closed all nonessential businesses and restricted the out-of-home activities of residents as of March 22, 2020. This order affected different neighborhoods differently, as stores and workplaces are not randomly distributed across the city, and different populations may have responded differently to the out-of-home restrictions. This study examines how the business closures and activity restrictions affected COVID-19 testing results. An evaluation of whether such actions slowed the spread of the pandemic is a crucial step in designing effective public health policies. METHODS: Daily data on the fraction of COVID-19 tests yielding a positive result at the zip code level were analyzed in relation to the number of visits to local businesses (based on smartphone location) and the number of smartphones that stayed fixed at their home location. The regression model also included vectors of fixed effects for the day of the week, the calendar date, and the zip code of residence. RESULTS: A large number of visits to local businesses increased the positivity rate of COVID-19 tests, while a large number of smartphones that stayed at home decreased it. A doubling in the relative number of visits increases the positivity rate by about 12.4 percentage points (95% CI, 5.3 to 19.6). A doubling in the relative number of stay-at-home devices lowered it by 2.0 percentage points (95% CI, -2.9 to -1.2). The business closures and out-of-home activity restrictions decreased the positivity rate, accounting for approximately 25% of the decline observed in April and May 2020. CONCLUSION: Policy measures decreased the likelihood of positive results in COVID-19 tests. These specific policy tools may be successfully used when comparable health crises arise in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Gestão da Saúde da População , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4738, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994397

RESUMO

Wildlife trade is a key driver of the biodiversity crisis. Unregulated, or under-regulated wildlife trade can lead to unsustainable exploitation of wild populations. International efforts to regulate wildlife mostly miss 'lower-value' species, such as those imported as pets, resulting in limited knowledge of trade in groups like reptiles. Here we generate a dataset on web-based private commercial trade of reptiles to highlight the scope of the global reptile trade. We find that over 35% of reptile species are traded online. Three quarters of this trade is in species that are not covered by international trade regulation. These species include numerous endangered or range-restricted species, especially hotspots within Asia. Approximately 90% of traded reptile species and half of traded individuals are captured from the wild. Exploitation can occur immediately after scientific description, leaving new endemic species especially vulnerable. Pronounced gaps in regulation imply trade is having unknown impacts on numerous threatened species. Gaps in monitoring demand a reconsideration of international reptile trade regulations. We suggest reversing the status-quo, requiring proof of sustainability before trade is permitted.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Internacionalidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Répteis , Animais , Comércio/economia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Internet/economia , Internet/legislação & jurisprudência
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e20794, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is perhaps the greatest global health challenge of the last century. Accompanying this pandemic is a parallel "infodemic," including the online marketing and sale of unapproved, illegal, and counterfeit COVID-19 health products including testing kits, treatments, and other questionable "cures." Enabling the proliferation of this content is the growing ubiquity of internet-based technologies, including popular social media platforms that now have billions of global users. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to collect, analyze, identify, and enable reporting of suspected fake, counterfeit, and unapproved COVID-19-related health care products from Twitter and Instagram. METHODS: This study is conducted in two phases beginning with the collection of COVID-19-related Twitter and Instagram posts using a combination of web scraping on Instagram and filtering the public streaming Twitter application programming interface for keywords associated with suspect marketing and sale of COVID-19 products. The second phase involved data analysis using natural language processing (NLP) and deep learning to identify potential sellers that were then manually annotated for characteristics of interest. We also visualized illegal selling posts on a customized data dashboard to enable public health intelligence. RESULTS: We collected a total of 6,029,323 tweets and 204,597 Instagram posts filtered for terms associated with suspect marketing and sale of COVID-19 health products from March to April for Twitter and February to May for Instagram. After applying our NLP and deep learning approaches, we identified 1271 tweets and 596 Instagram posts associated with questionable sales of COVID-19-related products. Generally, product introduction came in two waves, with the first consisting of questionable immunity-boosting treatments and a second involving suspect testing kits. We also detected a low volume of pharmaceuticals that have not been approved for COVID-19 treatment. Other major themes detected included products offered in different languages, various claims of product credibility, completely unsubstantiated products, unapproved testing modalities, and different payment and seller contact methods. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide initial insight into one front of the "infodemic" fight against COVID-19 by characterizing what types of health products, selling claims, and types of sellers were active on two popular social media platforms at earlier stages of the pandemic. This cybercrime challenge is likely to continue as the pandemic progresses and more people seek access to COVID-19 testing and treatment. This data intelligence can help public health agencies, regulatory authorities, legitimate manufacturers, and technology platforms better remove and prevent this content from harming the public.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Big Data , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Health Secur ; 18(4): 329-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816590

RESUMO

Export controls are intended to prevent the proliferation of materials that could be misused to make biological weapons. They are not intended to stifle critical research and development in the midst of a pandemic. This article explores how and why export controls might apply to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019. It outlines the taxonomic and genetic factors associated with the current approach to export control lists and discusses how they lead to unnecessary ambiguity. The authors describe ways in which the current export control systems might be revised in the short, medium, and long term, including sequence, disease, and function-based approaches.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Armas Biológicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Humanos
9.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e4, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787395

RESUMO

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic evolves globally, we are realising its impact on communities from the disease itself and the measures being taken to limit infection spread. In South Africa (SA), 62 300 adults die annually from alcohol-attributable causes. Alcohol-related harm can be reduced by interventions, such as taxation, government monopolising retail sales, outlet density restriction, hours of sales and an advertising ban. To mitigate the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, SA instituted a lockdown that also prohibited alcohol sales. This led to a sharp reduction in unnatural deaths in the country from 800-1000/week to around 400/week during the lockdown. We reviewed three 2-week periods at a large rural regional hospital: Before Covid-19 (February), during social distancing (March) and during lockdown with alcohol ban (April). A dramatic drop in patient numbers from 145 to 64 (55.8%) because of assault, from 207 to 83 (59.9%) because of accidents, from 463 to 188 (59.4%) because of other injuries and from 12 to 1 (91.6%) because of sexual assaults was observed during the first 2 weeks of lockdown. As healthcare professionals, we need to advocate for the ban to remain until the crisis is over to ensure that health services can concentrate on Covid-19 and other patients. We encourage other African states to follow suit and implement alcohol restrictions as a mechanism to free up health services. We see this as an encouragement to lobby for a new normal around alcohol sales after the pandemic. The restrictions should focus on all evidence-based modalities.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
10.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 28(1): 44, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631385

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic led to unprecedented changes, as many state and local governments enacted stay-at-home orders and non-essential businesses were closed. State chiropractic licensing boards play an important role in protecting the public via regulation of licensure and provision of guidance regarding standards of practice, especially during times of change or uncertainty. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to summarize the guidance provided in each of the 50 United States, related to chiropractic practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A review of the public facing websites of governors and state chiropractic licensing boards was conducted in the United States. Data were collected regarding the official guidance provided by each state's chiropractic licensing board as well as the issuance of stay-at-home orders and designations of essential personnel by state governors. Descriptive statistics were used to report the findings from this project. RESULTS: Each of the 50 state governor's websites and individual state chiropractic licensing board's websites were surveyed. Stay-at-home or shelter-in-place orders were issued in 86% of all states. Chiropractors were classified as essential providers in 54% of states, non-essential in one state (2%), and no guidance was provided in the remaining 44% of all states. Fourteen states (28%) recommended restricting visits to only urgent cases and the remaining states (72%) provided no guidance. Twenty-seven states (54%) provided information regarding protecting against infectious disease and the remaining states (46%) provided no guidance. Twenty-two states (44%) provided recommendations regarding chiropractic telehealth and the remaining states (56%) provided no guidance. Seventeen states (34%) altered license renewal requirements and eight states (16%) issued warnings against advertising misleading or false information regarding spinal manipulation and protection from COVID-19. CONCLUSION: State guidance during the COVID-19 pandemic was heterogenous, widely variability in accessibility, and often no guidance was provided by state chiropractic licensing boards. Some state chiropractic licensing boards chose to assemble guidance for licensees into a single location, which we identified as a best practice for future situations where changes in chiropractic practice must be quickly communicated.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Quiroprática/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo Estadual , Quiroprática/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos
11.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): 1380-1385, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673117

RESUMO

Objectives. To describe how US states and the District of Columbia regulate e-cigarette sales by examining e-cigarette-specific tobacco retail licensing (TRL) laws.Methods. We coded 25 state-level e-cigarette TRL laws (effective as of January 1, 2020) for provisions we labeled as either "core" (e.g., presence of license terms, fees, and penalties) or "descriptive" (e.g., license fee amount and term length).Results. Overall, 23 laws clearly defined a license term, 23 laws required a license fee, and 19 laws identified penalties for violations that included both license suspension and revocation. Fees widely ranged ($5-$1000 annually), and 8 laws did not explicitly direct fees toward TRL administration or enforcement. No law required that retailers comply with all local, state, and federal tobacco or e-cigarette laws.Conclusions. Most laws contained core TRL provisions. Several laws, however, had minimal license fees and did not direct fees toward administration or enforcement. As youth e-cigarette use increases, more states should consider establishing e-cigarette TRL laws or incorporating provisions into existing TRL laws.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/economia , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , District of Columbia , Governo Estadual , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
12.
BMJ ; 370: m2436, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between US state policies that establish age 18 or 21 years as the minimum purchaser age for the sale of handguns and adolescent suicide rate. DESIGN: Regression discontinuity and difference-in-differences analyses. SETTING: 46 US states without policy changes between 2001 and 2017; Missouri and South Carolina, which lowered the age for handgun sales in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and West Virginia and Wyoming, which increased the age for handgun sales in 2010. PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents aged 13 to 20 years(554 461 961 from 2001 to 2017) in the regression discontinuity analysis, and adolescents aged 18 to 20 years (168 934 041 from 2002 to 2014) in the main difference-in-differences analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Suicide rate per 100 000 adolescents. RESULTS: In the regression discontinuity analysis, state policies that limited the sale of handguns to those aged 18 or older (relative to 21 or older) were associated with an increase in suicide rate among adolescents aged 18 to 20 years equivalent to 344 additional suicides in each state where they were in place between 2001 and 2017. In the difference-in-differences analysis, state policies that limited the sale of handguns to those aged 21 or older were associated with 1.91 fewer suicides per 100 000 adolescents aged 18 to 20 years (95% confidence interval -3.13 to -0.70, permutation adjusted P=0.025). In the difference-in-differences analysis, there were 1.83 fewer firearm related suicides per 100 000 adolescents (-2.66 to -1.00, permutation adjusted P=0.002), with no association between age 21 handgun sales policies and non-firearm related suicides. Separate event study estimates indicated increases in suicide rates in states that lowered the age of handgun sales, with no association in states that increased the age of handgun sales. CONCLUSIONS: A clear discontinuity was shown in the suicide rate by age at age 18 in states that limited the sale of handguns to individuals aged 18 or older. State policies to limit the sale of handguns to individuals aged 21 or older were associated with a reduction in suicide rates among adolescents. Increases in suicide rates were observed after states lowered the age of handgun sales, but no effect was found in states that increased the age of handgun sales.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Comércio/tendências , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Armas de Fogo/economia , Humanos , Missouri/epidemiologia , Políticas , Análise de Regressão , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Suicídio/etnologia , West Virginia/epidemiologia , Wyoming/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(6-7): 340-345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698607

RESUMO

This study assessed the effects of youth-engaging interventions on illegal sales by tobacco retailers near schools in Thailand. The youth were educated and engaged in the planning and implementation of a program to reduce tobacco retailers' illegal sales in the Uttaradit Municipality, Thailand. Intervention components included community education, retailer education, and direct approaches to tobacco retailers. A study included a pretest-posttest control group. The 6-month intervention focused on 114 tobacco retailers. The posttest showed that the percentage of tobacco retailers violating the retail law decreased: tobacco product displays at points of sales decreased from 67.5% to 23.7%, single cigarette sales declined from 71.1% to 36.0%, and tobacco sales to minors decreased from 74.6% to 5.3%. Asking for identification or the buyer's age before selling tobacco increased from 33.3% to 78.1%. The intervention led to a significant reduction in the violation of tobacco retail laws near schools.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação da Comunidade , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Cidades , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Tailândia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635251

RESUMO

The illicit tobacco trade undermines the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies; increases the availability of cheap cigarettes, which, in turn, increases tobacco use and tobacco related deaths; and causes huge revenue losses to governments. There is limited evidence on the extent of illicit tobacco trade particularly cigarettes in Bangladesh. The paper presents the protocol for a mixed-methods study to estimate the extent of illicit cigarette trade in Bangladesh. The study will address three research questions: (a) What proportion of cigarettes sold as retail are illicit? (b) What are the common types of tax avoidance and tax evasion? (c) Can pack examination from the trash recycle market be considered as a new method to assess illicit trade in comparison to that from retailers and streets? Following an observational research method, data will be collected utilizing empty cigarette packs from three sources: (a) retailers; (b) streets; and (c) trash recycle market. In addition, a structured questionnaire will be used to collect information from retailers selling cigarettes. We will select post codes as Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) using a multi-stage random sampling technique. We will randomly select eight districts from eight divisions stratified by those with land border and non-land border; and within each district, we will randomly select ten postcodes, stratified by rural (five) and urban (five) PSU to ensure maximum geographical variation, leading to a total of eighty post codes from eight districts. The analysis will report the proportions of packs that do not comply with the study definition of illicit. Independent estimates of illicit tobacco are rare in low- and middle-income countries such as Bangladesh. Findings will inform efforts by revenue authorities and others to address the effects of illicit trade and counter tobacco industry claims.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco , Bangladesh , Impostos
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(24): 751-758, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555138

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is thought to be transmitted mainly by person-to-person contact (1). Implementation of nationwide public health orders to limit person-to-person interaction and of guidance on personal protective practices can slow transmission (2,3). Such strategies can include stay-at-home orders, business closures, prohibitions against mass gatherings, use of cloth face coverings, and maintenance of a physical distance between persons (2,3). To assess and understand public attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs related to this guidance and COVID-19, representative panel surveys were conducted among adults aged ≥18 years in New York City (NYC) and Los Angeles, and broadly across the United States during May 5-12, 2020. Most respondents in the three cohorts supported stay-at-home orders and nonessential business closures* (United States, 79.5%; New York City, 86.7%; and Los Angeles, 81.5%), reported always or often wearing cloth face coverings in public areas (United States, 74.1%, New York City, 89.6%; and Los Angeles 89.8%), and believed that their state's restrictions were the right balance or not restrictive enough (United States, 84.3%; New York City, 89.7%; and Los Angeles, 79.7%). Periodic assessments of public attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs can guide evidence-based public health decision-making and related prevention messaging about mitigation strategies needed as the COVID-19 pandemic evolves.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 57-64, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515258

RESUMO

This is a personal view from London as the Covid-19 pandemic continues to spread here and the situation changes from day to day. As such it can only be a snapshot caught in time; it is not a diary of events. The Coronavirus Act 2020 gives Government enormous powers and was passed by Parliament in one day of debate immediately before it closed early for the Easter break. In March, the government imposed a "lockdown: the closure of all" but "essential" businesses and people other than essential workers must work from home but are allowed out for exercise and food shopping but must maintain 2 m apart, the "social distancing rule". The aim is to suppress the spread of the virus, reduce the death toll and "protect the National Health Service (NHS)" which needed time to empty wards and expand its intensive care unit (ICU) capability to deal with an expected influx of thousands of very sick patients. I discuss whether this strategy is working, how and why it has rapidly been altered to respond to criticism. Why was the Government so slow to seek the help of private laboratories to assist with testing? Why was the personal protective equipment (PPE) guidance altered only after criticism? I look at the impact of the lockdown on the UK economy, the changes to practice of medicine and speeding of scientific research. Cooperating with the lockdown has its price; is it harming the health and mental health of children, people living in households with potentially abusive partners or parents and those who are disabled or financially desperate? Is the cure worse than the disease? The Economy is being devastated by the lockdown and each day of lockdown it is worse. Is litigation being seeded even now by the pandemic? Notwithstanding unprecedented Government financial help many businesses are on the edge of collapse, people will lose their jobs and pensioners income. The winners include pharmacies, supermarkets, online food retailers, Amazon, online apps, providers of video games, services, streaming and scientific research laboratories, manufacturers of testing kits, ventilators, hand sanitisers, coffins, undertakers, etc. The British public is cooperating with lockdown but are we less productive at home? Parents with babies and children often child minders, school, grandparents or paid help which is not now available. Will current reliance on video-conferencing and video calls permanently change the way we work and will we need smaller city offices? Will we travel less? Will medical and legal practice and civil and criminal trials be generally carried out remotely? Will social distancing with self-isolation and job losses and business failures fuel depression? Is Covid-19 comparable to past epidemics like the Plague and Spanish flu?


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Direito Penal , Depressão/epidemiologia , Economia , Previsões , Liberdade , Regulamentação Governamental , Habitação/economia , Humanos , Internet , Londres/epidemiologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/provisão & distribução , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Pânico , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Administração em Saúde Pública , Quarentena , Instituições Acadêmicas , Políticas de Controle Social , Isolamento Social , Telemedicina , Viagem , Triagem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520961

RESUMO

The illegal import of wildlife and wildlife products is a growing concern, and the U.S. is one of the world's leading countries in the consumption and transit of illegal wildlife and their derivatives. Yet, few U.S. studies have analyzed the illegal wildlife trade (IWT) on a national or local scale. Moreover, to our knowledge, no studies have specifically examined the trends associated with IWT moving through personal baggage. This work aimed to better understand the magnitude of illegal wildlife importation into U.S. ports of entry by determining trends associated with illegal wildlife products from personal baggage seizures, using the Pacific Northwest (PNW) as a specific case study. To identify the most influential factors determining the numbers and types of personal baggage seizures into PNW, we analyzed 1,731 records between 1999 and 2016 from the Fish and Wildlife Service's (FWS) Law Enforcement Management Information System (LEMIS) database. We found five significant contributors: taxonomic classification of wildlife, categorical import date, wildlife product, source region, and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) status. While wildlife seizures across taxonomic categories have generally decreased in the PNW since 2008, other findings provide a reason for concern. More specifically, mammals were identified as the largest animal group of seized wildlife, and temporal trends indicate increases in seizures for this and several other taxonomic groups. Many of the seizures originated from overseas, with East Asia serving as the largest source. Our PNW case study can be a model for how large-scale geographical seizure data can be used to inform about the major factors that have historically and presently contribute to IWT, with conservation implications globally.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Comportamento Criminoso , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Mamíferos , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos
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