Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 81
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Mar Drugs ; 17(7)2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288445

RESUMO

Ellagitannins constitute the largest group of hydrolyzable tannins of plants, and, from this group, casuarictin (Casu) was identified in some plant species. However, to our knowledge, no investigation of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) inhibition by Casu has been performed yet. Casuarictin was isolated by chromatography n-butanol (n-BuOH) partition of Laguncularia racemosa leaves. The pharmacological and biological effects of Casu were evaluated on isolated sPLA2 from the rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) and using a plant bacterial strain. The compound was able to form a protein complex consisting of a stable sPLA2 + Casu complex. Analyses carried out with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) revealed that the molecular mass of sPLA2 increased from 14,425.62 to 15,362.74 Da. The enzymatic activity of the sPLA2 + Casu complex was significantly lower than that of native sPLA2. Besides, molecular interactions of Casu with sPLA2 were able to virtually abolish the native edematogenic effect as well as myonecrosis induced by the protein when injected 10 min after sPLA2. Therefore, Casu may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory that can be used to treat edema and myonecrosis induced by serine-secreting phospholipase A2. In addition, the compound also showed great antimicrobial potential.


Assuntos
Combretaceae/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2 Secretórias/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Venenos de Serpentes/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Crotalus/metabolismo , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 111: 1029-1035, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841416

RESUMO

Sexual dysfunction is a side effect of the antidepressant drug paroxetine. Anogeissus leiocarpus is a medicinal plant with a wide range of biological activities which include antioxidant and antiulcer properties. With these in mind, we investigated the effect of Anogeissus leiocarpus stem bark extract on paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in male Wistar rats. Forty-two adult male Wistar rats were divided into seven experimental groups: normal control, PAR (10 mg/kg), PAR + sildenafil (5 mg/kg), ALE (50 and 100 mg/kg) and PAR + ALE (50 and 100 mg/kg). The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which the rats were subjected to sexual behavioral test. Various biochemical assays (phosphodiesterase-5, arginase, acetylcholinesterase, nitric oxide and MDA) were carried out on the penile tissue homogenate. From our findings, paroxetine significantly altered sexual behavior in male rats and increased phosphodiesterase-5, arginase and acetylcholinesterase activities with a concomitant decrease in nitric oxide level. Furthermore, paroxetine altered antioxidant status which revealed by increased MDA level and reduced thiol level. However, treatment with Anogeissus leiocarpus stem bark extract reversed the altered sexual behavior in male rats and boosted antioxidant status. In addition, administration of Anogeissus leiocarpus stem bark extract resulted in a significant attenuation of phosphodiesterase-5, arginase and acetylcholinesterase activities in paroxetine-induced rats. In view of the aforementioned findings, Anogeissus leiocarpus could be considered a promising natural agent in erectile dysfunction management.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Paroxetina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Arginase/metabolismo , Combretaceae/química , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Erétil/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/metabolismo , Citrato de Sildenafila/farmacologia
3.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(1): 95-102, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772796

RESUMO

The antioxidant potential of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of Quisqualis indica Linn. was assessed to verify its ethnopharmacological importance. Both polar and non-polar solvents like n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol and distilled water were used to obtain crude extracts. The chloroform extract of leaves showed the maximum %age yield, i.e. 27.3% while the n-hexane extract of stem showed the minimum yield, i.e. 0.2%. Five activities including DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ assay, Total flavonoid components (TFC), Total phenolic components (TPC) and Metal chelating Assay (MC) were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the plant. The ethanol extract of inflorescence of the plant displayed most elevated DPPH potential, i.e. 452.11%. Aqueous extract of root had highest value of TEAC i.e., 7.4515 mmol. The aqueous extract of flower displayed the highest level of phenolic contents with the value of 35 in terms of GAE mg/mL. On the other hand, the chloroform extract had the highest % bound iron value of 128 and the aqueous extract of flower showed a high concentration of Flavonoids having the value 347.65mg/l of Quercetin. It has been inferred that all parts of Quisqualis indica L. possess good antioxidant potential. Differents parts showed different antioxidant potentials hence they can be used as curative agents against human and animal ailments.


Assuntos
Combretaceae , Etnobotânica , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Combretaceae/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Quelantes de Ferro/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas , Caules de Planta , Solventes/química , Ácidos Sulfônicos/química
4.
Mar Drugs ; 16(11)2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366373

RESUMO

One new neolignan, racelactone A (1), together with seven known compounds (2-8) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves and twigs of Lumnitzera racemosa. The structure of racelactone A (1) was determined on the basis of the mass and NMR spectroscopic data interpretation. With respect to bioactivity, compound 1 displayed an anti-angiogenic effect by suppressing tube formation. Furthermore, compounds 1, 4, and 5 showed significant anti-inflammatory effects with IC50 values of 4.95 ± 0.89, 1.95 ± 0.40, and 2.57 ± 0.23 µM, respectively. The plausible biosynthesis pathway of racelactone A (1) was proposed.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/química , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Combretaceae/química , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Angiogênese/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Avicennia , Células Progenitoras Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
5.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 29(6): 599-608, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anogeissus leiocarpus is a Sahel tree traditionally used by the residents of Burkina Faso for its antihypertensive properties. In this study, experiments were conducted to evaluate whether an aqueous extract of the Anogeissus leiocarpus (AEAL) trunk bark induces a vasorelaxant effect on porcine coronary artery rings and to investigate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: AEAL-induced relaxations were assessed using porcine coronary artery rings suspended in organ chambers. The phosphorylation levels of Src, Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were assessed in a primary endothelial cell culture by Western blot. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was assessed using dihydroethidine. RESULTS: In porcine coronary artery rings, AEAL at 0.1-300 µg/mL induced endothelium-dependent relaxations, which were inhibited in the presence of inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization pathways. Moreover, the AEAL-induced NO-mediated relaxations were significantly reduced by the inhibitors of Src and PI3-kinase as well as by the membrane-permeant ROS scavengers. In cultured porcine coronary artery endothelial cells, treatment with AEAL is associated with an intracellular generation of ROS. Moreover, the AEAL induced the phosphorylations of Akt (Ser473), eNOS (Ser1177) and a transient phosphorylation of Src (Ser17) in a time-dependent manner. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that AEAL is a potent inducer of endothelium-dependent NO-mediated relaxations in porcine coronary arteries through the redox-sensitive Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway-dependent activation of eNOS.


Assuntos
Combretaceae/química , Vasos Coronários/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Burkina Faso , Células Cultivadas , Vasos Coronários/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
6.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 70(8): 1092-1101, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This work evaluated the antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) promoted by aqueous extract from Conocarpus erectus leaves (AELCe). METHODS: The extract was characterized by thin layer chromatography and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Cytotoxicity of AELCe (6.25-50 µg/ml) was investigated using annexin V and propidium iodide. Cytokine and nitric oxide levels in PBMCs culture supernatants exposed or not to AELCe (12.5 µg/ml) were determined, and antibacterial activity was evaluated by disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. KEY FINDINGS: AELCe contained 3',4'-OH flavonoids, phenylpropanoglycosides, saponins, polymeric proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins. Moreover, 10 other compounds were identified through UPLC-MS technique. AELCe did not affect lymphocyte viability at 6.25 and 12.5 µg/ml. IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and nitric oxide was produced in higher levels by cells treated with AELCe. Proliferation and activation of CD8+ T lymphocytes were also stimulated. AELCe showed bacteriostatic activity against clinical and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MIC between 250 and 1000 µg/ml). CONCLUSIONS: AELCe showed a moderate bacteriostatic activity and promoted an immunomodulatory status through higher production of Th1 cytokines, nitric oxide release and T CD8+ lymphocytes stimulation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Combretaceae/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Adulto , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/análise , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(2(Suppl.)): 637-642, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625935

RESUMO

Synthetic drugs have widely been helpful in management of diabetes mellitus type 2. However, side effects associated with synthetic drugs serve as an impetus to explore plants as alternate mode of treatment. The hydroethanolic leaf extracts of Conocarpus erectus were evaluated for phenolic contents, flavonoid distribution, antioxidant activity and antidiabetic potential. The maximum extract yield, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were exposed by 60% ethanolic extract. The Antioxidant and anti α-glucosidase tendency of 60% ethanolic extract was the most promising and complemented by in-vivo antihyperglycemic impact on mice. The findings were substantial regarding suppression of blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic mice establishing the Conocarpus erectus as proficient pool of nutraceuticals for diabetes mellitus type 2 management.


Assuntos
Combretaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Flavonoides/análise , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 29(4): 359-364, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617268

RESUMO

Background Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation are some of the mechanisms involved in renal damage. Anogeissus acuminata (AA) is used in India as an antidiabetic agent and has potent antioxidant activity. However, it has never been evaluated for its effect on diabetic nephropathy. Hence, in the present study we aimed to evaluate its effect on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus and its renal complications. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced by injecting streptozotocin, 50 mg/kg, i.p. in rats fasted for 6 h. Rats with hyperglycemia were treated with extracts of AA for 8 weeks at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, orally. Human NPH insulin (4 IU/kg, s.c.) was used as standard treatment. Plasma glucose levels (at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8) and oxidative stress parameters (at weeks 2 and 4) were assessed. Effect on diabetic nephropathy was evaluated by recording the urinary volume, urinary protein excretion, kidney weights, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels at week 8. Results Methanolic extract of AA leaves produced statistically significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect. It also resulted in improved urinary function, reflected by better urinary volume and reduced protein excretion in urine. AA treatment could prevent the elevation of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level in a dose-dependent manner. Kidney hypertrophy could be attenuated remarkably, as reflected by the significantly lower kidney weight (KW) per 100 g body weight (p<0.05). Conclusions AA leaf extract attenuated the development of diabetic nephropathy and also demonstrated antidiabetic and antioxidant action.


Assuntos
Combretaceae/química , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451595

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a disease of global extent reaching populations in social vulnerability. One of the control measures of this parasitosis is the use of molluscicidal substances that can fight snails of the genus Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni. The aim of this work was to study the toxic activity of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana Stapf. & Leech, ex Moldenke, 1939, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) CF Gaertn, 1807 and Rhizophora mangle L. 1753) on the biological activities of snails Biomphalaria glabrata. Hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared from the stem and leaves of each of the three plant species to which mollusks were exposed. The phytochemical analysis of plants showed the presence of important metabolites in the leaves and stems of L. racemosa and R. mangle, such as tannins and saponins, but the absence of these metabolites in A. schaueriana. Leaf and stem extracts of the three plant species showed low molluscicidal activity, not reaching the standards determined by the World Health Organization (WHO, 1983). L. racemosa and R. mangle has interfered with motility, feeding and oviposition of snails, unlike the extracts of A. schaueriana, which had no effect on these activities.


Assuntos
Avicennia/química , Biomphalaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Combretaceae/química , Moluscocidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhizophoraceae/química , Animais , Moluscocidas/isolamento & purificação
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 216: 71-78, 2018 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29289797

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In West Africa, populations are used to taking traditional medicine as a first aid against common health problems. In this aspect, many plants are claimed to be effective in the treatment of Tuberculosis (TB), which according to the World Health Organization (WHO) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main aim of this study was to identify plants used to treat TB-symptoms by the population of Senegal and to evaluate their possible concomitant use with clinically approved TB-drugs. This approach allowed the selection of plants effectively used in traditional medicine. In order to verify if the usage of some of these plants can be rationalized, the activity of their traditional preparations was assessed with both an intracellular and extracellular antimycobacterial host-pathogen assays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An ethnopharmacological survey conducted on 117 TB-patients and 30 healers in Senegal from March to May 2014. The questionnaires were focused on the use of medicinal plants to treat common TB -symptoms (cough longer than 2 weeks, fever, night sweats, weight loss and bloody sputum). Local plant names, utilized organs (herbal drugs) and traditional formulations of the plants were recorded. Extracts were prepared by mimicking the traditional decoction in boiling water and screened for their antimycobacterial activity using Mycobacterium marinum, as a validated TB surrogate, and an Acanthamoeba castellanii - M. marinum whole-cell based host-pathogen assay, to detect anti-infective activities. RESULTS: By the end of the survey, nearly 30 plants were cited and the 12 most cited herbal drugs were collected and their usage documented by extensive literature search. Extracts of the chosen herbs were screened with the described assays; with a main focus on traditional formulas (mainly herbal decoctions). Two of the water extracts from Combretum aculeatum and Guiera senegalensis showed significant antimycobacterial activities when compared to the positive control drug (rifampin). These extracts showed no observable toxicity against amoeba host cells (Acanthamoeba castellanii). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that most of the patients do not concomitantly use plants and TB drugs (~90% of informants) but, instead, most are treated with medicinal plants before they are admitted to a hospital (41%). Interestingly, among the aqueous extracts assayed, two extracts (Combretum aculeatum (Combretaceae) and Guiera senegalensis (Combretaceae)) collected within this survey demonstrate antimycobacterial activities on the validated whole-cell based host-pathogen assay. Both extracts showed significant activities against intracellular and extracellular - M. marinum growth presenting IC50 lower than 0.5mg/ml compared to the reference drug Rifampin (IC50 of 0.4 and 7µg/ml). No toxicity was observed for amoebae cells at concentration until 0.8mg/ml.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Combretaceae/química , Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Mycobacterium marinum/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Antituberculosos/isolamento & purificação , Combretaceae/efeitos adversos , Combretaceae/classificação , Combretum/química , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium marinum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium marinum/patogenicidade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Senegal , Fatores de Tempo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
11.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 40(12): 2125-2133, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28943529

RESUMO

Quisqualis indica (QI) has been used for treating disorders such as stomach pain, constipation, and digestion problem. This study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of QI extract on treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line and a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. LNCaP cells were treated with QI plus testosterone propionate (TP), and androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression levels were assessed by Western blotting. To induce BPH, the rats were subjected to a daily subcutaneous injection of TP (3 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. The rats in treatment group were orally gavaged with QI (150 mg/kg) together with the TP injection. In-vitro studies showed that TP-induced increases in AR and PSA expression in LNCaP cells were reduced by QI treatment. In BPH-model rats, the prostate weight, testosterone in serum, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentration and 5α-reductase type 2 mRNA expression in prostate tissue were significantly reduced following the treatment with QI. TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 were significantly attenuated in QI-treated rats. In addition, QI induced apoptosis by up-regulating caspase-3 and -9 activity and decreasing the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) ratio in prostate tissues of BPH rats. Further investigation showed that TP-induced activation of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) was reduced by QI administration. Therefore, our findings suggest that QI attenuates the BPH state in rats through anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities and might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Combretaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação , Próstata/citologia , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/metabolismo , Propionato de Testosterona/toxicidade
12.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 175: 99-108, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865320

RESUMO

The study concentrate on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNps) from the leaves extract of Guiera senegalensis with focus on its; antiproliferation effect on prostate (PC3), breast (MCF7) and liver (HepG2) cancer cell lines, antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the degradation on 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and congo red dye (CR). The synthesized AgNps were characterized by FTIR, TEM, FESEM, XRD and EDX analysis. The EDS spectrum revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles (Nps) were composed of 55.45% Ag atoms of spherical shape with approximately 50nm size, identified from TEM and FESEM data. The antiproliferation effect of the AgNps varies with cell lines in a concentration dependent manner. The result showed that the AgNps were more effective on PC3 (IC50 23.48µg/mL) than MCF7 (29.25µg/mL) and HepG2 (33.25µg/mL) by the virtue of their IC50 values. The AgNps were highly effective against E. coli and S. aureus by killing 99% colonies. The AgNps also shows a good catalytic reduction of the toxic organic pollutants in which only 3mg of the AgNps degraded 95% of both CR dye and 4-NP in 22 and 36min respectively. Therefore, the green synthesis of AgNps may have potential applications in pharmacology and industries for the treatment of cancers, bacterial infections and in degrading toxic organic pollutants in water.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Combretaceae/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Catálise , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Combretaceae/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nitrofenóis/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 381, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and experimental evidences have shown cancer as a leading cause of death worldwide. Although the folklore use of plants as a reliable source of health-restoring principles is well-documented, the search for more of such plants that are active against diseases, such as cancer, continues. We report here a laboratory-based evidence of the relevance of an ethanol leaf extract of Anogeissus leiocarpus (A2L) in comparison with resveratrol, a natural polyphenol, in cancer therapy. METHODS: The quantitative assessment of flavonoid and phenolic contents involved quercetin and gallic acid as standards, respectively were determined using spectrophotometry. Cytotoxicity was determined fluorometrically using propidium-iodide-staining method. Antioxidant status, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, caspase activities and mitochondrial integrity were assessed using fluorometry/luminometry. RESULTS: The antioxidant assay demonstrated that A2L possesses a strong antioxidant capacity as compared with the reference compounds, ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. This is further buttressed by the significantly high level of phenolics obtained in the quantitative assessment of the extract. A 72-h post-treatment examination indicated that both A2L and resveratrol modulate the proliferation of HepG2 liver carcinoma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Determination of the total nuclei area, propidium-iodide negative and positive nuclei areas all further buttress the modulation of cell proliferation by A2L and resveratrol with the indication that the observed cell death is due to apoptosis and necrosis at lower and higher concentrations of treatments respectively. At lower concentrations (0.39-3.13 µg/mL), resveratrol possesses higher tendencies to activate caspases 3 and 7. Bioenergetically, both resveratrol and A2L do not adversely affect the cells at lower concentrations (0.39-6.25 µg/mL for resveratrol and 12.5-100.0 µg/mL for A2L) except at higher concentrations (12.5-25.0 µg/mL for resveratrol and 200-800 µg/mL for A2L) which are more pronounced in A2L-treated cells. Furthermore, the antioxidant status of HepG2 cells is not perturbed by resveratrol as compared with A2L. Assessment of 24-h post-treatment mitochondrial function shows that resveratrol is not mitotoxic as compared with A2L which exhibits mitotoxicity at its highest concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, findings from this study showed that A2L possesses strong antiproliferative activity and its prospect in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Combretaceae/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Combretaceae/classificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Necrose , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta , Resveratrol , Estilbenos/farmacologia
14.
Pharm Biol ; 55(1): 1521-1527, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28376640

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Buchenavia tetraphylla (Aubl.) RA Howard (Combretaceae: Combretoideae) is an ethnomedicinal plant with reported antifungal action. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the antimicrobial activity of B. tetraphylla leaf extracts against clinical isolates of Candida albicans. The morphological alterations, combinatory effects with fluconazole and the cytotoxicity of the active extract were analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extracts were obtained using different solvents (hexane: BTHE; chloroform: BTCE; ethyl acetate: BTEE; and methanol: BTME). Antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution method using nine strains of C. albicans isolated from vaginal secretions and one standard strain (UFPEDA 1007). RESULTS: All extracts showed anti-C. albicans activity, including against the azole-resistant strains. The MIC values ranged from 156 to 2500 µg/mL for the BTHE; 156 to 1250 µg/mL for the BTCE; 625 to 1250 µg/mL for the BTME and 625 µg/mL to 2500 µg/mL for the BTEE. BTME showed the best anti-C. albicans activity. This extract demonstrated additive/synergistic interactions with fluconazole. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that the BTME interferes with the cell division and development of C. albicans. BTME showed IC50 values of 981 and 3935 µg/mL, against J774 macrophages and human erythrocytes, respectively. This extract also enhanced the production of nitric oxide by J774 macrophages. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Buchenavia tetraphylla methanolic extract (BTME) is a great source of antimicrobial compounds that are able to enhance the action of fluconazole against different C. albicans strains; this action seems related to inhibition of cell division.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Combretaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vagina/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/toxicidade , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/ultraestrutura , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais , Solventes/química , Vagina/metabolismo
15.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 28(4): 393-401, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anogeissus leiocarpus and Hunteria umbellata have been reportedly used in traditional medicine for the management of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, the scientific basis for their use has not been well established. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of water extractable phytochemicals of H. umbellata and A. leiocarpus on phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) and arginase as well as pro-oxidants induced lipid peroxidation in rat penile tissue. METHODS: The effects of the extracts on important enzymes (PDE-5 and arginase) linked with ED and pro-oxidants (Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside) induced lipid peroxidation were investigated. Also, radicals scavenging and metal chelating abilities were determined. In addition, phenolic contents were determined and characterized using HPLC. RESULTS: The results showed that both extracts inhibited PDE-5 and arginase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibitory property of A. leiocarpus (IC50 - 174.19 µg/mL) was significantly better (p<0.05) than that of H. umbellata (IC50 - 537.72 µg/mL) in PDE-5 assay. The extracts were potent inhibitors of arginase than PDE-5, and these extracts were equally potent in inhibiting arginase. Furthermore, Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde content; however, both extracts reduced malondialdehyde level in concentration-dependent manner. It is noteworthy that both extracts scavenged radicals (OH* and ABTS*) and chelated Fe2+. HPLC analysis revealed abundance of rutin, chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, and quercetin, among others. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of the extracts to inhibit PDE-5, arginase and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation, and chelate metal might suggest their folkloric use for the management of ED.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Combretaceae/química , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Pênis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
16.
Future Microbiol ; 12: 15-27, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27922746

RESUMO

AIM: This study screened plants from Brazilian Pantanal for Candida albicans antibiofilm activity. MATERIAL & METHODS: Sixty extracts were obtained from ten plants using different extraction methods. Antifungal activity was assessed. Effects on biofilm inhibition and disruption and cytotoxicity were also evaluated. The most active extract was chemically characterized. RESULTS: Buchenavia tomentosa ethanolic extract showed noticeable antifungal activity and was selected for biofilm experiments. Subinhibitory concentration of extract inhibited fungal adhesion. Maximum killing reached 90% of C. albicans cells in suspension and 65% of cells in biofilms. The active extract was noncytotoxic. Chemical characterization showed the presence of phenols. Ellagic and gallic acids showed activity on C. albicans. CONCLUSION: B. tomentosa extract and its isolated compound, ellagic acid, presented antibiofilm activity and low toxicity.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Brasil , Células CACO-2 , Combretaceae/química , Ácido Elágico/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 194: 30-56, 2016 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566202

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Anogeissus (axlewood tree, ghatti tree, button tree and chewing stick tree) belongs to Combretaceae, includes eight species that are distributed in Asia and Africa. Plants are used as an ethnomedicine in Asia and Africa to treat various ailments like diabetes, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, tuberculosis, wound healing, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis), snake and scorpion venom. Based on the traditional knowledge, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities have been at the focus of research. The aim of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicity of Anogeissus species in order to identify their therapeutic potential and directs future research opportunities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relevant data was searched by using the keyword "Anogeissus" in "Scopus", "Google Scholar", "Web of Science", "PubMed", and "ScienceDirect" databases. Plant taxonomy was validated by the databases "The Plant List" and A.J. Scott, 1979. RESULTS: This review discusses the current knowledge of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and in vitro as well as in vivo pharmacological evaluations carried out on the extracts and isolated main active constituents of Anogeissus genus. Among eight species, most of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies were performed on four species. About 55 secondary metabolites are isolated from the genus. Stem bark, leaf, seed, fruit, root of the plants are used for the treatment of several health disorders such as diabetes, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, tuberculosis, wound healing, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis), snake and scorpion venom. Gum ghatti obtained from Anogeissus latifolia is used after delivery as tonic and in spermatorrhoea. Many phytochemical investigations on this genus confirmed that it is rich in phenolic compounds. Modern pharmacology research has confirmed that the crude extracts or the isolated active compounds of the genus Anogeissus possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, wound healing, antiulcer, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetics, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, antiparasitic and neuroprotective effects. CONCLUSIONS: This review confirms that some Anogeissus species have emerged as a good source of the traditional medicine for wound healing, inflammation, skin diseases, microbial infection and diabetes. Many traditional uses of Anogeissus species have now been validated by modern pharmacology research. Intensive investigations of all the species of Anogeissus regarding phytochemical and pharmacological properties, especially their mechanism of action, safety and efficacy could be the future research interests before starting clinical trials.


Assuntos
Combretaceae/química , Etnofarmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Humanos , Estruturas Vegetais/química
18.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 162: 646-655, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491031

RESUMO

Currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since AgNPs are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environment. However, their biophysical features showed wide variations according to the botanical agent using for the green synthesis, outlining the importance of screening local floral resources used as reducing and stabilizing agents. In this study, we focused on the biophysical properties and the mosquitocidal action of Quisqualis indica-fabricated AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using spectroscopic (UV, FTIR, XRD) and microscopic (AFM, SEM, TEM and EDX) techniques. AFM, SEM and TEM confirmed the synthesis of poly-dispersed AgNPs with spherical shape and size ranging from 1 to 30nm. XRD shed light on the crystalline structure of these AgNPs. The acute toxicity of Quisqualis indica extract and AgNPs was evaluated against malaria, arbovirus, and filariasis vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as on three important non-target aquatic organisms. The Q. indica leaf extract showed moderate larvicidal effectiveness on Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=220.42), Ae. aegypti (LC50=203.63) and An. stephensi (LC50=185.98). Q. indica-fabricated AgNPs showed high toxicity against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.63), Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.55) and An. stephensi (LC50=12.52), respectively. Notably, Q. indica-synthesized AgNPs were moderately toxic to non-target aquatic mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri (LC50=653.05µg/mL), Diplonychus indicus (LC50=860.94µg/mL) and Gambusia affinis (LC50=2183.16µg/mL), if compared to the targeted mosquitoes. Overall, the proposed one-pot biogenic fabrication of AgNPs using Q. indica is a low-cost and eco-friendly tool in the fight against Zika virus, malaria and filariasis vectors, with little impact against non-target aquatic mosquito predators.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Combretaceae/química , Inseticidas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/química , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Combretaceae/metabolismo , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malária/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria por Raios X , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
19.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 29(2): 489-95, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087094

RESUMO

The current study was designed to check the antioxidant and enzyme inhibition potential of various extracts/ fractions of three selected plants. The aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae), Ficus variegata (Moraceae) and Ficus maclellandii (Moraceae) were extracted with ethanol (95%) and the resulting crude extracts were partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol successively. Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to calculate the total phenolic contents, flavonoids contents were calculated with aluminum chloride while antioxidant and enzyme studies were carried out through standard protocols. All extracts/fractions contained reasonable amount of phenolic compounds ranging from 0.58-58.23 mg CE/g of DW and 0.43-30.56 mg GAE/g of DW. Total flavonoids were determined using rutin and quercetin standards, ranging from 2.65-18.2 mg rutin equivalent/g of dry weight and 0.92-5.41 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dry weight. Antioxidant studies such as DPPH inhibition FRAP and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was checked. The crude ethanolic extract of C. erectus showed maximum antiradical scavenging power (90.43%; IC50=7 µg) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (16.5 µM eq.FeSO4.7H2O), respectively while leave extract of F. variegata (chloroform) was the most active (0.6577) in TAC among other extracts of the selected medicinal plants. Butanolic leave extract of C. erectus exhibited maximum enzyme inhibition activity (91.62% with IC50 40 µg/ml) while other extracts showed significant activity. It was observed from results that all extracts/fractions of under consideration plants, exhibited significant bioactivities especially ethanolic and butanolic fractions, which may be the richest source of such type of activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Combretaceae/química , Ficus/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Compostos Férricos/química , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Picratos/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Solventes/química
20.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 64(4): 360-5, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27039833

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the n-BuOH fraction of the mangrove plant Lumnitzera racemosa WILLD. (Combretaceae) led to the isolation of one new flavonoid glycoside; myrcetin 3-O-methyl glucuronate (1), one new phenolic glycoside; lumniracemoside (2) and one new aliphatic alcohol glycoside; n-hexanol 1-O-rutinoside (3), in addition to seven known compounds (4-10). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, high resolution-electrospray ionization (HR-ESI)-MS, one- and two-dimensional (1D- and 2D)-NMR). Compound 7 showed the highest hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity using human HepG2 cells at protection % value of 34.2±3.1%, while compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 9 showed weak to moderate hepatoprotective activity (11.6-18.9%). Almost all of these compounds showed stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared with the standard Trolox. These results suggest the usefulness of this plant extract and the isolated compounds as promising hepatoprotective agents.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Combretaceae/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA