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1.
Physiol Rep ; 8(2): e14360, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994353

RESUMO

Most of the filtered glucose is reabsorbed in the early proximal tubule by the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2. The glycosuric effect of the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin is linked to a diuretic and natriuretic effect that activates compensatory increases in fluid and food intake to stabilize body fluid volume (BFV). However, the compensatory mechanisms that are activated on the level of renal tubules remain unclear. Type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were treated with vehicle or 0.01% (in diet) ipragliflozin with free access to fluid and food. After 8 weeks, GK rats were placed in metabolic cages for 24-hr. Ipragliflozin decreased body weight, serum glucose and systolic blood pressure, and increased fluid and food intake, urinary glucose and Na+ excretion, urine volume, and renal osmolar clearance, as well as urine vasopressin and solute-free water reabsorption (TcH2O). BFV, measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy, and fluid balance were similar among the two groups. Urine vasopressin in ipragliflozin-treated rats was negatively and positively associated with fluid balance and TcH2O, respectively. Ipragliflozin increased the renal membrane protein expression of SGLT2, aquaporin (AQP) 2 phosphorylated at Ser269 and vasopressin V2 receptor. The expression of SGLT1, GLUT2, AQP1, and AQP2 was similar between the groups. In conclusion, the SGLT2 inhibitor ipragliflozin induced a sustained glucosuria, diuresis, and natriuresis, with compensatory increases in fluid intake and vasopressin-induced TcH2O in proportion to the reduced fluid balance to maintain BFV. These results indicate that the osmotic diuresis induced by SGLT2 inhibition stimulates compensatory fluid intake and renal water reabsorption to maintain BFV.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Diurese/fisiologia , Osmose/fisiologia , Reabsorção Renal/fisiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Vasopressinas/urina , Água/metabolismo , Animais , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Líquidos Corporais/efeitos dos fármacos , Diurese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diuréticos Osmóticos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Osmose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Reabsorção Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiofenos/farmacologia
2.
Disabil Health J ; 13(1): 100828, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few researchers have examined the effects of surf programs on children with disabilities. Due to previous research findings, surfing is being used, as the focus of physical activity intervention due to its numerous health and therapeutic benefits. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of an eight-week surfing intervention on various physical fitness measures in 71 children with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder, down syndrome, global developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. The study also sought to compare the differences in overall fitness levels between the surf therapy group and an unstructured pool playgroup. Researchers predicted significant differences in the surf therapy group. METHODS: The assessment procedure consisted of pre and post physical fitness measures selected from the Brockport Physical Fitness Test in two groups: surfing (n = 71) and an unstructured aquatic program (n = 20). RESULTS: The results demonstrated significant improvements in core strength (p = 0.00), upper body strength (p = 0.00), flexibility (p = 0.01) and cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.00) in the surfing group. However, there were no significant differences in overall fitness levels between the surfing and unstructured pool playgroups. Body composition measurements on the surfing group demonstrated a significant reduction in total body fat % (p = 0.016) and fat free mass (p = 0.008) and a significant improvement in bone mineral density (p = 0.004) pre to post surf therapy. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrated the effectiveness and physiological benefits of surf therapy for children with selected disabilities.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea , Paralisia Cerebral/terapia , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/terapia , Síndrome de Down/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Resistência Física , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Esportes/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Água
3.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739433

RESUMO

Brain gray (GM) and white matter (WM) are associated with resting energy expenditure (REE). The impact of weight loss on GM and WM masses, as well as on their associations with REE and the ratio between body and brain metabolism, i.e., encephalic measure (EM)), are unknown. Longitudinal data of 69 female Caucasian subjects (age range 19-69 years) with detailed information on fat mass (FM), fat free mas (FFM), GM, WM and REE. Mean weight loss was 14.5 ± 11.9 kg with changes in FM (-12.9 ± 9.8 kg), FFM (-1.7 ± 4.8 kg) and REE (-159 ± 191 kcal/24 h) (all p < 0.05). With weight loss, there were no changes in GM and WM. Before and after weight loss, FFM was the main determinant of REE (r2 = 0.483 and 0.413; p < 0.05). After weight loss, GM added to the variances in REE (3.6%), REEadjFFM (6.1%) and the REE on FFM residuals (6.6%). In addition, before and after weight loss GM explained 25.0% and 10.0% of the variances in EM (p < 0.05). Weight loss had no effect on volumes of GM and WM. After weight loss, both, GM added to the variances of REE, REE on FFM residuals and EM.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Metabolismo Basal , Composição Corporal , Encéfalo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Descanso , Substância Branca , Adulto Jovem
4.
Semin Nephrol ; 39(4): 368-379, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300092

RESUMO

Measurements made in the blood, part of the extracellular compartment, are used in the clinical assessment of acid-base disorders; however, intracellular events determine much of the metabolic importance of these disorders. Intracellular and interstitial compartment acid-base balance is complex and varies in different tissues. This review considers the determination of extracellular pH in the context of ion transport processes at the interface of cells and the interstitial fluid, and between epithelial cells lining the transcellular contents of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts that open to the external environment. A further consideration is the role of these membrane transporters in the generation of acid-base disorders and the associated disruption of electrolyte balance. This review suggests a process of internal and external balance for pH regulation similar to that of potassium, and considers the role of secretory gastrointestinal epithelia and renal epithelia with respect to normal pH homeostasis and clinical disorders. Electroneutrality of electrolytes in the extracellular fluid is a fundamental feature of reciprocal changes in Cl- or non-Cl- anions and HCO3-. Normal mechanisms for protecting cell pH and producing normal gastrointestinal and renal secretions in healthy states also may result in disease when abnormal. In a similar manner, organic anions such as ketoacid anions and lactate, normally transported as fuels between organs, result in acid-base disturbances in disease. Understanding the genomic basis of these transporters may contribute to specific treatments.


Assuntos
Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiologia , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Eletrólitos/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
5.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010086

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle (SM) mass, the chief component of the structural compartment belonging to lean body mass (LBM), undergoes sarcopenia with increasing age. Decreased SM in elderly persons is a naturally occurring process that may be accelerated by acute or chronic nutritional deficiencies and/or inflammatory disorders, declining processes associated with harmful complications. A recently published position paper by European experts has provided an overall survey on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia in elderly persons. The present review describes the additional contributory role played by the noninvasive transthyretin (TTR) micromethod. The body mass index (BMI) formula is currently used in clinical studies as a criterion of good health to detect, prevent, and follow up on the downward trend of muscle mass. The recent upsurge of sarcopenic obesity with its multiple subclasses has led to a confused stratification of SM and fat stores, prompting workers to eliminate BMI from screening programs. As a result, investigators are now focusing on indices of protein status that participate in SM growth, maturation, and catabolism that might serve to identify sarcopenia trajectories. Plasma TTR is clearly superior to all other hepatic biomarkers, showing the same evolutionary patterns as those displayed in health and disease by both visceral and structural LBM compartments. As a result, this TTR parameter maintains positive correlations with muscle mass downsizing in elderly persons. The liver synthesis of TTR is downregulated in protein-depleted states and suppressed in cytokine-induced inflammatory disorders. TTR integrates the centrally-mediated regulatory mechanisms governing the balance between protein accretion and protein breakdown, emerging as the ultimate indicator of LBM resources. This review proposes the adoption of a gray zone defined by cut-off values ranging from 200 mg/L to 100 mg/L between which TTR plasma values may fluctuate and predict either the best or the worst outcome. The best outcome occurs when appropriate dietary, medicinal and surgical decisions are undertaken, resuming TTR synthesis which manifests rising trends towards pre-stress levels. The worst occurs when all therapeutic means fail to succeed, leading inevitably to complete exhaustion of LBM and SM metabolic resources with an ensuing fatal outcome. Some patients may remain unresponsive in the middle of the gray area, combining steady clinical states with persistent stagnant TTR values. Using the serial measurement of plasma TTR values, these last patients should be treated with the most aggressive and appropriate therapeutic strategies to ensure the best outcome.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pré-Albumina/metabolismo , Sarcopenia/sangue , Tecido Adiposo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Pré-Albumina/biossíntese , Deficiência de Proteína/sangue
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/genética , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Impedância Elétrica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Receptor Tipo 4 de Melanocortina/genética , Versicanas/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(5): 797-804, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739619

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association of longitudinal changes in maternal anthropometric measures with neonatal anthropometry and to assess to what extent late-gestational changes in maternal anthropometry are associated with neonatal body composition. DESIGN: In a prospective cohort of pregnant women, maternal anthropometry was measured at six study visits across pregnancy and after birth, neonates were measured and fat and lean mass calculated. We estimated maternal anthropometric trajectories and separately assessed rate of change in the second (15-28 weeks) and third trimester (28-39 weeks) in relation to neonatal anthropometry. We investigated the extent to which tertiles of third-trimester maternal anthropometry change were associated with neonatal outcomes. SETTING: Women were recruited from twelve US sites (2009-2013).ParticipantsNon-obese women with singleton pregnancies (n 2334). RESULTS: A higher rate of increase in gestational weight gain was associated with larger-birth-weight infants with greater lean and fat mass. In contrast, higher rates of increase in maternal anthropometry measures were not associated with infant birth weight but were associated with decreased neonatal lean mass. In the third trimester, women in the tertile of lowest change in triceps skinfold (-0·57 to -0·06 mm per week) had neonates with 35·8 g more lean mass than neonates of mothers in the middle tertile of rate of change (-0·05 to 0·06 mm per week). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of change in third-trimester maternal anthropometry measures may be related to neonatal lean and fat mass yet have a negligible impact on infant birth weight, indicating that neonatal anthropometry may provide additional information over birth weight alone.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Peso ao Nascer , Composição Corporal , Idade Gestacional , Mães , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Ganho de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutr Res ; 60: 26-32, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527257

RESUMO

Skipping breakfast has been reported to decrease daily energy and nutrient intake. We aimed to investigate whether habitual breakfast intake frequency is associated with fat-free mass (FFM) in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that skipping breakfast and the subsequent negative energy balance may be risk factors for reduced muscle mass. This cross-sectional study included 270 healthy young subjects (152 men, 118 women). We collected information on habitual breakfast intake frequency, sleep quality according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, circadian rhythm type using the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. According to the definition of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Japan, the subjects were asked to report habitual breakfast intake frequency over the preceding month (excluding consumption of tablets, energy drinks, confectionary, fruits, dairy products, or sweetened beverages alone). FFM was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; then, appendicular FFM (AppFFM) was calculated. We also calculated appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (kg AppFFM/m2) and %AppFFM (% body weight) to adjust body size between individuals. Multiple regression analysis showed that habitual breakfast intake frequency was positively associated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ß = .087, P = .031) and %AppFFM (ß = .086, P = .045) after adjusting for age, sex, living conditions, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores as covariates. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast is a risk factor for lower muscle mass in healthy young subjects, irrespective of strong confounders, such as age, sex, and physical activity.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Desjejum , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nutr Res ; 60: 87-95, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527263

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 3.0 g/d of omega-3 fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation combined with progressive resistance training to improve body composition and lower inflammatory cytokines in older men when compared to placebo and resistance training. We hypothesized that completing a 12-week omega-3 supplementation period along with whole body resistance exercise (3 times/wk) would result in a significantly greater improvement in lean tissue mass as well as a significant decrease in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α when compared to placebo. A total of 23 older men (≥65 years old) were randomized to an omega-3 supplementation group (n = 11) or placebo group (n = 12), and all the participants completed the same whole body progressive resistance training program. Baseline and 12-week data collection included body composition, muscle strength, functional ability, and inflammatory cytokines. Results indicated a significant main effect for time (all P < .05) for percent body fat (-2.5%), lean tissue mass (+1.1%), lumbar bone mineral density (+1.1%), hip bone mineral content (+1.1%), chest press strength (+31%), leg press strength (+37%), timed-up-and-go (-6.6%), and 6-minute walk distance (+4.5%) from baseline to post 12 weeks. No significant effects were noted for the 2 inflammatory cytokines measured (P > .05). We conclude that progressive resistance training exercise is an excellent method to enhance parameters of body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and functional ability in older men, whereas omega-3 supplementation did nothing to enhance these parameters or influence inflammatory biomarkers.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Inflamação/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Treinamento de Resistência , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(5): 1043-1059, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475963

RESUMO

Background: Increasing protein intake has been suggested as an effective strategy to ameliorate age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. Current reviews assessing the effect of protein supplementation are strongly influenced by the inclusion of studies with frail older adults. Objectives: We assessed the effect of protein supplementation on lean body mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in exclusively nonfrail community-dwelling older adults. Moreover, we assessed the superior effects of protein supplementation during concomitant resistance exercise training on muscle characteristics. Design: A systematic literature search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science up to 15 May 2018. We included randomized controlled trials that assessed the effect of protein supplementation on lean body mass, muscle thigh cross-sectional area, muscle strength, gait speed, and chair-rise ability and performed random-effects meta-analyses. Results: Data from 36 studies with 1682 participants showed no significant effects of protein supplementation on changes in lean body mass [standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.11; 95% CI: -0.06, 0.28], handgrip strength (SMD: 0.58; 95% CI: -0.08, 1.24), lower extremity muscle strength (SMD: 0.03; 95% CI: -0.20, 0.27), gait speed (SMD: 0.41; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.85), or chair-rise ability (SMD: 0.10; 95%: CI -0.08, 0.28) compared with a control condition in nonfrail community-dwelling older adults. Moreover, no superior effects of protein supplementation were found during concomitant resistance exercise training on muscle characteristics. Conclusions: Protein supplementation in nonfrail community-dwelling older adults does not lead to increases in lean body mass, muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, or physical performance compared with control conditions; nor does it exert superior effects when added to resistance exercise training. Habitual protein intakes of most study participants were already sufficient, and protein interventions differed in terms of type of protein, amount, and timing. Future research should clarify what specific protein supplementation protocol is beneficial for nonfrail community-dwelling older adults with low habitual protein intake.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Avaliação Geriátrica , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Marcha , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento
11.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477276

RESUMO

Obesity and sarcopenia are major causes of morbidity and mortality among seniors. Vitamin D deficiency is very common especially among seniors and has been associated with both muscle health and obesity. This study investigated if 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status is associated with body composition and insulin resistance using baseline data of a completed RCT among relatively healthy community-dwelling seniors (271 seniors age 60+ years undergoing elective surgery for unilateral total knee replacement due to osteoarthritis). Cross-sectional analysis compared appendicular lean mass index (ALMI: lean mass kg/height m²) and fat mass index (FMI: fat mass kg/height m²) assessed by DXA and insulin resistance between quartiles of serum 25(OH)D concentration using multivariable linear regression adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI). Participants in the lowest serum 25(OH)D quartile (4.7⁻17.5 ng/mL) had a higher fat mass (9.3 kg/m²) compared with participants in the third (8.40 kg/m²; Q3 = 26.1⁻34.8 ng/mL) and highest (8.37 kg/m²; Q4 = 34.9⁻62.5 ng/mL) quartile (poverall = 0.03). Higher serum 25(OH)D quartile status was associated with higher insulin sensitivity (poverall = 0.03) and better beta cell function (p = 0.004). Prevalence of insulin resistance tended to be higher in the second compared with the highest serum 25(OH)D quartile (14.6% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.06). Our findings suggest that lower serum 25(OH)D status may be associated with greater fat mass and impaired glucose metabolism, independent of BMI and other risk factors for diabetes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Resistência à Insulina , Músculos/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Idoso , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Sarcopenia/sangue , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(4): 830-841, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30239549

RESUMO

Background: Orogastric tube feeding is indicated in neonates with an impaired ability to ingest food normally and can be administered with an intermittent bolus or continuous feeding schedule. Objectives: The objectives were to 1) compare the long-term effect of continuous with intermittent feeding on growth using the newborn pig as a model, 2) determine whether feeding frequency alters lean tissue and fat mass gain, and 3) identify the signaling mechanisms by which protein deposition is controlled in skeletal muscle in response to feeding frequency. Design: Neonatal pigs were fed the same amount of a balanced formula by orogastric tube either as an intermittent bolus meal every 4 h (INT) or as a continuous infusion (CON). Body composition was assessed at the start and end of the study by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and hormone and substrate profiles, muscle mass, protein synthesis, and indexes of nutrient and insulin signaling were measured after 21 d. Results: Body weight, lean mass, spine length, and skeletal muscle mass were greater in the INT group than in the CON group. Skeletal muscle fractional protein synthesis rates were greater in the INT group after a meal than in the CON group and were associated with higher circulating branched-chain amino acid and insulin concentrations. Skeletal muscle protein kinase B (PKB) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase phosphorylation and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-eIF4G complex formation were higher, whereas eIF2α phosphorylation was lower in the INT group than in the CON group, indicating enhanced activation of insulin and amino acid signaling to translation initiation. Conclusions: These results suggest that when neonates are fed the same amounts of nutrients as intermittent meals rather than continuously there is greater lean growth. This response can be ascribed, in part, to the pulsatile pattern of amino acids, insulin, or both induced by INT, which enables the responsiveness of anabolic pathways to feeding to be sustained chronically in skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 4E em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Insulina/sangue , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Coluna Vertebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos
13.
Br J Nutr ; 120(7): 797-802, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132437

RESUMO

Air displacement plethysmography utilises a two-component model to assess body composition, which relies on assumptions regarding the density of fat-free mass (FFM). To date, there is no evidence as to whether Lohman's or Wells et al.'s FFM density values are more accurate in young children. Therefore, the aims of this study were to compare total body fat percentage (TBF%) assessed using the BodPod with both Lohman's and Wells et al.'s FFM density values with TBF% from the three-component (3C) model in forty healthy Swedish children aged 5·5 years. Average TBF% calculated using Lohman's FFM density values underestimated TBF% in comparison with the corresponding value assessed using the 3C model (22·2 (sd 5·7) and 25·1 (sd 5·5) %, respectively; P<0·001). No statistically significant difference was observed between TBF% assessed using Wells et al.'s FFM density values and the 3C model (24·9 (sd 5·5) and 25·1 (sd 5·5) %, respectively; P=0·614). The Bland and Altman plots for TBF% using both Lohman's and Wells et al.'s FFM density values did not show any bias across the range of body fatness (Lohman: r 0·056, P=0·733 and Wells et al.: r -0·006, P=0·970). These results indicate that Wells et al.'s FFM density values should be used when assessing body composition with the paediatric option for BodPod in 5-year-old children. However, future studies are needed to confirm these results in other populations, including a wider age range of children.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Pediatria/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia/métodos , Valores de Referência , Suécia
14.
J Nutr ; 148(8): 1253-1260, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137481

RESUMO

Background: The glycolytic nature of cancer cells presents a potential treatment target that may be addressed by a ketogenic diet (KD). Objective: We hypothesized that a KD would improve body composition and lower serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, women with ovarian or endometrial cancer [age: ≥19 y; body mass index (kg/m2): ≥18.5] were randomly assigned to a KD (70:25:5 energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrate) or the American Cancer Society diet (ACS; high-fiber, low-fat). Body composition (DXA) and fasting serum insulin, IGF-I, and ß-hydroxybutyrate were obtained at baseline and at 12 wk; urinary ketones were also measured throughout the intervention. We assessed differences between the diets with ANCOVA and independent t tests. We used correlation analyses to estimate associations between changes in serum analytes and body composition. Results: After 12 wk, the KD (compared with ACS) group had lower adjusted total (35.3 compared with 38.0 kg, P < 0.05) and android (3.0 compared with 3.3 kg, P < 0.05) fat mass. Percentage of change in visceral fat was greater in the KD group (compared with the ACS group; -21.2% compared with -4.6%, P < 0.05). Adjusted total lean mass did not differ between the groups. The KD (compared with ACS) group had lower adjusted fasting serum insulin (7.6 compared with 11.2 µU/mL, P < 0.01). There was a significant inverse association between the changes in serum ß-hydroxybutyrate and IGF-I concentrations (r = -0.57; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In women with ovarian or endometrial cancer, a KD results in selective loss of fat mass and retention of lean mass. Visceral fat mass and fasting serum insulin also are reduced by the KD, perhaps owing to enhanced insulin sensitivity. Elevated serum ß-hydroxybutyrate may reflect a metabolic environment inhospitable to cancer proliferation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03171506.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta Cetogênica , Neoplasias do Endométrio/complicações , Insulina/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo
15.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(7): 993-999, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients with sarcopenia have increased risk of mortality. There is consensus that sarcopenia should combine assessments of muscle function and mass. We wished to determine the effect of using different operational definitions in PD patients. METHODS: Hand grip strength (HGS) and segmental bioimpedance derived appendicular lean mass (ALM) were measured and the prevalence of sarcopenia determined using the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project (FNIH), European Working Group on Sarcopenia Older Persons (EWGSOP), and Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS) definitions. RESULTS: We studied 155 PD patients, 95 men (61.3%), mean age 63.0 ± 14.9 years, 37.4% diabetic, treated by PD 9 (3-20) months with a HGS of 22.5 (15.5-30.2) kg, weight 73.6 ± 16.6 kg, % body fat 31.4 ± 4.2, and ALM index 7.52 ± 1.40 kg/m2. More patients were defined with muscle weakness using the EWGSOP compared to the FNIH criteria (X2 = 6.8, p = 0.009), whereas fewer patients met the EWGSOP criteria for muscle wasting compared to FNIH body mass index adjustment (X2 = 7.7, p = 0.006). However, when combining both criteria, there was no difference in the prevalence of sarcopenia between the different recommended definitions (11-15.5%). CONCLUSION: We report a much lower prevalence of sarcopenia compared to studies in haemodialysis patients. Although there may be an element of patient selection bias, PD patients are not subject to changes in hydration and electrolytes with haemodialysis, which can affect HGS and muscle mass measurements. Using HGS and segmental bioimpedance we found similar prevalence of sarcopenia using EWGSOP, FNIH, AWGS definitions.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Força da Mão , Músculo Esquelético , Diálise Peritoneal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/etiologia
16.
Nutr Res ; 55: 33-44, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914626

RESUMO

The link between sodium and obesity has been accumulated over years. However, there has been few data reported on such sodium-obesity association from the general US population. This study is designed to assess the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is independently and positively associated with obesity, central obesity, and measures of body composition among generally healthy US adults. We analyzed data on 9162 healthy participants aged 24 to 48 years (4813 men and 4349 women) with at least one valid diet recall from the 8-year National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2006). Measures of body composition, including fat mass, lean mass, and total fat percent, were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We assessed the association between dietary sodium and obesity and measures of body composition by using multivariable logistic regression models. After adjustment for total energy intake and other prespecified confounders, high sodium intake (>2300 mg/d) was significantly associated with elevated risk of obesity and central obesity as compared with moderate sodium intake (1500-2300 mg/d). On average, each 1-g/d increment in dietary sodium intake resulted in a 15% (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.33) increase in the risk of obesity and 24% (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.39) increase in the risk of central obesity. After stratification by sex and ethnicity, significant associations between sodium and obesity/abdominal obesity were apparent only among women and non-Hispanic whites. In addition, all measures of body composition were positively associated with sodium consumption levels. We found that high sodium intake is independently associated with elevated risk of obesity and central obesity in the general US adult population.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade/etiologia , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Abdominal/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nutr Res ; 54: 33-39, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914665

RESUMO

Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are commonly utilized for total and segmental body composition assessment, but the agreement between these methods varies. Group (i.e., constant error [CE]) and individual error (i.e., standard error of estimate [SEE] and 95% limits of agreement [LOAs]) of single-frequency BIA were determined in apparently healthy men and women (n = 28 and 45, respectively) when using DXA as a reference method. It was hypothesized that single-frequency BIA would provide lower error for the estimation of total and segmental FFM than FM and BF%. The CE for many of the total and segmental body composition comparisons revealed statistically significant (all P < .05) mean differences (FMTOTAL, FMLEGS, FFMTOTAL, FFMARMS, FFMLEGS, FFMTRUNK, BF%TOTAL and BF%ARMS for both sexes as well as FMTRUNK and BF%TRUNK for women and FMARMS and FMLEGS for men). Although there were significant CEs for many comparisons, the individual error (i.e., SEEs and 95% LOAs) for total and segmental FFM were small whereas FM and BF% were large. Furthermore, the individual error tended to be larger for men than women when estimating FM and BF%, which is likely attributed to the larger segmental mass of men. This finding indicates the agreement between single-frequency BIA and DXA varies based on sex and segmental mass. Consequently, single-frequency BIA can be used for total and segmental FFM, but is not recommended for FM and BF%.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Impedância Elétrica , Adolescente , Adulto , Braço , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Tronco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutr Res ; 54: 60-68, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914668

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess the sensitivity of bio-impedance (BIA) in tracking body composition changes in adolescents with various degrees of obesity. We hypothesized that while BIA provides a reliable measure of body composition, its accuracy decreases with increasing obesity and its ability to track changes might be reduced with higher degree of body weight and body composition. Whole-body and segmental body composition were assessed by bio-impedance analysis (BIA-Tanita MC-780) and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Hologic) among 196 obese adolescents (Tanner stage 3-5) aged 14 ±â€¯0.9 years old, before and after a 3-month weight loss program. Except for the measurement of FFM (kg) (r = 0.03; P = .721; ρ = 0.107; P = .246), the percentage of variation between M0 and M3 for FM% (r = 0.41, P < .001; ρ = 0.534; P < .001) and FMkg (r = 0.64 P < .001; ρ = 0.572; P < .001) are significantly correlated and show significant concordance between DXA and BIA. FMkg and FM% changes between M0 and M3 are similarly tracked by DXA and BIA whatever the initial degree of obesity (based on initial weight, BMI, FM% and FFMkg tertiles). The higher the degree of changes and the higher are the differences between the two devices in measuring FM% and FMkg changes. We found inconsistent and low correlations and concordances between the two devices when tracking FM% changes whatever the degree of weight and FM (kg and %) variations. The accuracy of body composition assessment using BIA decreases with increasing obesity, and its reliability to track changes is reduced with high initial or variations of body weight, FM, FFM and BMI.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Obesidade/complicações , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Perda de Peso , Programas de Redução de Peso
19.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 33(6): 813-824, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786894

RESUMO

Phase angle (PA) is a ratio between the reactance and resistance obtained by bioelectric impedance analysis and has been interpreted as a cell membrane integrity indicator and a predictor of total body cell mass. A low PA may suggest deterioration of the cell membrane, which in advanced cancer patients may result in a reduced overall survival (OS). This systematic review sought to investigate the current evidence regarding whether there is an association between PA and OS in patients with advanced cancer (ie, metastatic disease). The search was conducted on electronic databases in August 2017. A total of 34 articles were identified in the initial literature search. Nine studies reporting on 1496 patients were deemed eligible according to our inclusion criteria. PA data were analyzed as continuous variables or according to different cutoffs, under a frequency of 50 Khz. Low PA was associated with worse nutrition status evaluated by body mass index, serum albumin level, transferrin, and fat-free mass. The median OS of the included papers varied from 25.5-330 days, and all studies analyzed showed a significant association between PA and OS, in that patients with low PA had worse OS. Future studies are necessary to justify the use of PA in therapeutic decisions for this population and to evaluate whether nutrition status can influence the association between PA and survival.


Assuntos
Impedância Elétrica , Neoplasias/patologia , Estado Nutricional , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Membrana Celular , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Albumina Sérica , Transferrina/metabolismo
20.
J Nutr ; 148(4): 607-615, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659955

RESUMO

Background: We have previously shown that fat-free mass (FFM) at birth is associated with height at 2 y of age in Ethiopian children. However, to our knowledge, the relation between changes in body composition during early infancy and later linear growth has not been studied. Objective: This study examined the associations of early infancy fat mass (FM) and FFM accretion with linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age in Ethiopian children. Methods: In the infant Anthropometry and Body Composition (iABC) study, a prospective cohort study was carried out in children in Jimma, Ethiopia, followed from birth to 5 y of age. FM and FFM were measured ≤6 times from birth to 6 mo by using air-displacement plethysmography. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify associations between standardized FM and FFM accretion rates during early infancy and linear growth from 1 to 5 y of age. Standardized accretion rates were obtained by dividing FM and FFM accretion by their respective SD. Results: FFM accretion from 0 to 6 mo of age was positively associated with length at 1 y (ß = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.09; P = 0.005) and linear growth from 1 to 5 y (ß = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.07; P = 0.005). The strongest association with FFM accretion was observed at 1 y. The association with linear growth from 1 to 5 y was mainly engendered by the 1-y association. FM accretion from 0 to 4 mo was positively associated with linear growth from 1 to 5 y (ß = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.88; P = 0.038) in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions: In Ethiopian children, FFM accretion was associated with linear growth at 1 y and no clear additional longitudinal effect from 1 to 5 y was observed. FM accretion showed a weak association from 1 to 5 y. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN46718296.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Composição Corporal , Compartimentos de Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Antropometria , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pletismografia , Estudos Prospectivos
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