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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(3): 529-545, jul.-set. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121409

RESUMO

Em busca de uma solução para compreender as razões pelas quais alguns recursos presentes em websites não são possíveis de serem arquivados pelas ferramentas de captura, surgiu o conceito de arquivabilidade da web. Apresentamos este estudo que propõe iniciar uma discussão acerca do tema, a partir do método CLEAR+ e da ferramenta ArchiveReady, e verificar sua aplicabilidade a partir da identificação de websites da área da saúde, com testes de preservação digital por meio do arquivamento da web. A pesquisa configurou-se como estudo de caso, com procedimentos envolvendo pesquisa bibliográfica e documental, bem como o uso de software para identificar arquivabilidade dos sites. Conclui-se que tanto os testes de arquivabilidade quanto os de arquivamento da web apontam para poucas dificuldades de captura, em pequeno grau, sugerindo-se, portanto, que para atingir uma melhor qualidade de captura sejam adotados padrões de conformidade na produção dos websites, de acordo com o estabelecido pelo World Wide Web Consortium.


In search for a solution to understand the reasons why some resources present on websites are not possible to be archived by capture tools, we approach the concept of web archivability. We present this study that proposes to initiate a discussion about the evaluation of the archivability, using the CLEAR+ method and the ArchiveReady, and to verify their applicability from the identification of websites in the health studies, with digital preservation tests through the web archiving. The research was configured as a case study, with procedures involving bibliographic and documentary research, as well as the use of software to identify the archivability of the sites. It is concluded that both archivability tests and web archiving tests point to little capture difficulties, to a small degree, therefore suggesting that to achieve better capture quality, compliance standards should be adopted in the production of websites, according to what is established by the World Wide Web Consortium.


En la búsqueda de una solución para comprender las razones por las cuales las herramientas de captura no pueden archivar algunos recursos presentes en sitios web, abordamos el concepto de archivabilidad de la web. Presentamos este estudio que propone iniciar una discusión sobre la evaluación de la archivabilidad de los sitios web, utilizando el método CLEAR+ y la herramienta ArchiveReady, y verificar su aplicabilidad a partir de la identificación de sitios web en los estudios de salud, con pruebas de preservación digital a través del archivo web. La investigación se configuró como un estudio de caso, con procedimientos que implican investigación bibliográfica y documental, así como el uso de software para identificar la capacidad de archivo de los sitios. Se concluye que tanto las pruebas de archivabilidad como las pruebas de archivo web apuntan a pequeñas dificultades de captura, en un pequeño grado, lo que sugiere que para lograr una mejor calidad de captura, se deben adoptar estándares de cumplimiento en la producción de sitios web de acuerdo con lo establecido por el World Wide Consorcio Web.


Assuntos
Humanos , Software , Arquivamento , Gestão da Informação em Saúde , Metadados , e-Acessibilidade , Gestão da Informação , Gestão da Qualidade , Competência em Informação
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000860, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960891

RESUMO

Engagement with scientific manuscripts is frequently facilitated by Twitter and other social media platforms. As such, the demographics of a paper's social media audience provide a wealth of information about how scholarly research is transmitted, consumed, and interpreted by online communities. By paying attention to public perceptions of their publications, scientists can learn whether their research is stimulating positive scholarly and public thought. They can also become aware of potentially negative patterns of interest from groups that misinterpret their work in harmful ways, either willfully or unintentionally, and devise strategies for altering their messaging to mitigate these impacts. In this study, we collected 331,696 Twitter posts referencing 1,800 highly tweeted bioRxiv preprints and leveraged topic modeling to infer the characteristics of various communities engaging with each preprint on Twitter. We agnostically learned the characteristics of these audience sectors from keywords each user's followers provide in their Twitter biographies. We estimate that 96% of the preprints analyzed are dominated by academic audiences on Twitter, suggesting that social media attention does not always correspond to greater public exposure. We further demonstrate how our audience segmentation method can quantify the level of interest from nonspecialist audience sectors such as mental health advocates, dog lovers, video game developers, vegans, bitcoin investors, conspiracy theorists, journalists, religious groups, and political constituencies. Surprisingly, we also found that 10% of the preprints analyzed have sizable (>5%) audience sectors that are associated with right-wing white nationalist communities. Although none of these preprints appear to intentionally espouse any right-wing extremist messages, cases exist in which extremist appropriation comprises more than 50% of the tweets referencing a given preprint. These results present unique opportunities for improving and contextualizing the public discourse surrounding scientific research.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Publicações , Ciência , Mudança Social , Mídias Sociais , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/normas , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso à Informação , Bases de Dados como Assunto/organização & administração , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/normas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Internet/organização & administração , Internet/normas , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Ativismo Político , Publicações/classificação , Publicações/normas , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/provisão & distribução , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/normas , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 264-271, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193318

RESUMO

Introduction: e-literacy in health is related to the use of Internet or other electronic means related to the dissemination or visualization of information about health and / or health services. Objectives: To describe the level of e-literacy in health, in a group of students of a private high school, in the North of Portugal; to relate the level of e-literacy in health with sociodemographic data; to relate the level of e-literacy in health with the contextual variables of the students. Method: Descriptive, correlational and transversal quantitative study. 102 students from the science and technology course of a private high school in the north of Portugal participated. A questionnaire was applied consisting of 3 groups: group I sociodemographic variables; group II consisted of contextual variables and group III constituted by the "eHEALS - eHealth Literacy Scale" scale. Results: Students presented positive levels of e-Literacy in health. They know how to use the Internet to find health information and recognize its usefulness and importance, but did not have confidence in the information obtained when making deci-sions on health. Conclusion: Students present positive levels of e-literacy in health but need guidance to the sources of consultation in order to rely on the information accessed for health project management


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/classificação , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Competência em Informação , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Aplicações da Informática Médica , Políticas de eSaúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável/classificação , Estudos Transversais
5.
Rev. Rol enferm ; 43(1,supl): 447-450, ene. 2020.
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-193419

RESUMO

The increase in the number of dependent individuals means that more and more families find themselves in the situation of caregivers, with all the consequences that performing this role entails. Based on this reality, we consider it to be completely relevant to systematize knowledge in this area towards the develop of an educational online support tool for caregivers. We conducted a focus group with experts in this field to identify what appropriate content an online caregiver support program should have. Our goal is to build an online tool that works as a complement to the work of professionals and is safe for carers. The main results and conclusions, after we analyze the focus group incomes indicate that the online support tool should contain topics that can be grouped into three main themes: 1) caregiver knowledge and skills, 2) potential resources for the caregiver and 3) caregiver coping strategies and well-being. It was also possible to obtain important complementary information that will be very useful in the construction of the online tool. The relevance of this study to clinical practice is that, although it is still necessary to expand and enhance the scope of research in this area, we consider this information essential for all health professionals seeking to provide effective support to family caregivers, as well as to serve as support for the development of intervention projects and health services


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Apoio Social , Cuidadores/educação , Design de Software , Educação a Distância/métodos , Telenfermagem/métodos , Grupos Focais/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência em Informação , Assistência Domiciliar/educação
6.
Health Info Libr J ; 37(1): 89-93, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960556

RESUMO

This feature describes the tailored information skills programme which was delivered for the second cohort of Trainee Nursing Associates (TNAs) at Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and presents the results of the evaluation which was undertaken. Literature searching and critical appraisal were offered to the first cohort. Feedback was collated, and sessions were refined and tailored to better meet the information needs of the second cohort of TNAs. A comparison of confidence ratings before and after the programme ascertained whether the information skills programme had a positive benefit in confidence levels of attendees. D.I.


Assuntos
Competência em Informação , Assistentes de Enfermagem/educação , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Competência Clínica/normas , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Assistentes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 42(3): 291-301, sept.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191785

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTO: La Escala sobre Habilidades de Comunicación (EHC) es un instrumento para evaluar las habilidades de comunicación en diferentes profesionales sanitarios; sin embargo, no se ha realizado ni un análisis diferencial de sus propiedades psicométricas por profesiones, ni baremos específicos. Por ello, el objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la EHC y elaborar un baremo en profesionales de Enfermería. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio instrumental para analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la EHC, evaluándose los ítems, la fiabilidad, las evidencias de validez y su estructura interna. Para ello, se administró una batería de cuestionarios que incluía la EHC, la Escala de Autoeficacia General y la Escala de Autoeficacia Específica para la comunicación en situaciones difíciles. RESULTADOS: Los cuestionarios se aplicaron a 692 enfermeras. Se obtuvieron índices de discriminación >0,30 en todos los ítems. El análisis factorial confirmatorio de los dos modelos (de cuatro factores oblicuos y añadiendo un factor de segundo orden) reveló que todos los ítems tenían cargas factoriales adecuadas y que los índices de ajuste eran buenos. La consistencia interna fue de 0,88 para la escala total y entre 0,70 y 0,77 para las dimensiones. Se obtuvo una relación positiva entre las habilidades comunicativas y la autoeficacia general y específica. CONCLUSIONES: La EHC mostró unas adecuadas propiedades psicométricas en cuanto a análisis de ítems, estructura interna, fiabilidad y evidencias de validez, relacionando las habilidades de comunicación de las enfermeras con la autoeficacia general y específica para la comunicación en situaciones difíciles


BACKGROUND: The Communication Skills Scale (CSS) is an instrument for evaluating communication skills in different health professionals; however, a differential analysis of their psychometric properties by professions and specific scales has not been performed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the CSS and develop T-scores for the scale for nursing professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We developed an instrumental study to analyze the psychometric properties of the CSS, evaluating its items, reliability, evidence of validity and its internal structure. For this purpose, a battery of questionnaires was administered, which included the CSS, the General Self-efficacy Scale and the Specific Self-efficacy Scale for communication in difficult situations. RESULTS: The questionnaires were applied to 692 nurses. Discrimination indices >0,30 were obtained in all items. The confirmatory factor analysis of the two models (with four oblique factors and adding a second-order factor) revealed that all items had adequate factor loadings and the fit indices of both models were good. The internal consistency was 0,88 for the total scale and between 0,70 and 0,77 for the dimensions. A positive relationship between communication skills and general and specific self-efficacy was obtained. CONCLUSION: The CSS displayed appropriate psychometric properties (item analysis, internal structure, reliability and evidence of validity), relating the communication skills of nurses with their general and specific self-efficacy in communication in difficult situations


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comunicação em Saúde/classificação , Psicometria/métodos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Competência em Informação , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria da Construção Pessoal
10.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 23(4): 368-385, oct.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091063

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: la competencia y desempeño de los futuros egresados de la carrera de Medicina en el uso de la información científica en cualquier tipo de soporte, tiene relación con la presencia del componente informacional en el currículo de la carrera. Objetivos: diagnosticar qué niveles de representatividad tiene el componente informacional en el currículo de la carrera de Medicina, y en qué medida prepara a los estudiantes en el proceso de su formación para ser competentes informacionalmente. Métodos: se emplearon métodos del nivel empírico y del nivel teórico para diagnosticar en qué medida los contenidos de información científica presentes en el currículo de la carrera de Medicina contribuyen a formar estudiantes competentes informacionalmente. Resultados: se obtuvo un diagnóstico del nivel de competencia informacional de los estudiantes de 2do a 5to año de la carrera de Medicina de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Villa Clara. Se realizó una evaluación interna de la presencia del componente informacional en el currículo de la carrera de Medicina. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico realizado reveló que son insuficientes los contenidos y actividades docentes incluidos en el currículo de Medicina dirigidos a formar un estudiante competente informacionalmente, y que los estudiantes alcanzan una deficiente preparación en el uso de los recursos informativos especializados en ciencias de la salud en el transcurso de su carrera.


ABSTRACT Introduction: the competence and performance of future medical graduates in the use of scientific information in any type of material media is related to the presence of the informational component in the study programme. Objective: to diagnose what levels of representativeness do the informational component has in the medicine programme and to what extent does it prepare students in their training process to be informationally competent. Methods: empirical and theoretical methods were used to diagnose to what extent the contents of scientific information included in the medicine programme contribute to the formation of competent students from the informational point of view. Results: a diagnosis of the level of informational competence of 2nd to 5th year medicine students at the University of Medical Sciences in Villa Clara was obtained. An internal evaluation of the presence of the informational component in the study programme of the Medicine career was conducted. Conclusions: the diagnosis showed that contents and teaching activities included in the study programme aimed at training a competent student informationally are insufficient and students achieve poor preparation in the use of specialized health science information resources throughout their careers.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Programas de Estudo , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Competência em Informação
11.
Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont) ; 32(2): 19-30, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613211

RESUMO

Big data using data science methods (data analytics) has the potential to effectively inform strategies to address complex healthcare challenges. However, this potential can only be realized if healthcare professionals have the requisite depth and breadth of knowledge (i.e., informatics competencies). With the emergence of electronic health records (EHRs - commonly known as clinical information systems [CISs]) in healthcare organizations, data analytics that can "interrogate" CIS big data are now possible. In its digitized form, CIS healthcare data meant to support real-time, evidence-based practice decisions and guide new health policy directions remain more of a conceptual promise than a practice reality. Further, the "data rich information poor" phenomenon existing with today's CISs is often the reality for nurses who document more patient information compared to other healthcare professionals and get negligible results in return. However, data science methods when applied to CIS big data are "uncovering" new evidence currently unavailable through traditional data analytic approaches. Big data science is predicted to provide immense opportunities for nurse leaders by offering robust, electronic tools, which support informed decision-making at corporate tables and "arm" all point-of-care/service clinicians with real-time evidence. In this article, we provide a perspective on how the field of data science can enable informatics-savvy nurse executives to lead clinical transformation in the development of the next generation of evidence-based practice, "practice-based evidence."


Assuntos
Big Data , Ciência de Dados/métodos , Enfermeiras Administradoras/tendências , Canadá , Ciência de Dados/tendências , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/tendências , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências/tendências , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Liderança , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia
12.
Health Info Libr J ; 36(4): 357-366, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper is the second part of a two phase, sequential mixed method study. OBJECTIVES: To get the views of medical librarians in Pakistan regarding information literacy (IL) skills of medical students and how to teach them IL skills. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with 20 medical librarians in Pakistan. We audio recorded, transcribed all the interviews and performed content analysis and coding of the textual data. We presented the emerging themes with the frequency of their appearance. RESULTS: Interviewees agreed that the IL skills of their students were inadequate. Participants suggested that librarians should train students through mandatory IL instruction programmes, designed in coordination with medical faculty. However, workshops/seminars were considered the most effective IL delivery methods for medical faculty and clinicians. The majority of respondents supported the integration of IL instruction into the curriculum as an independent and credit course. DISCUSSION: Teaching IL skills to medical students requires proper planning. Therefore, librarians have to prove their place within the curricular structure of the institution and develop understanding of the pedagogy of instruction. CONCLUSION: Librarians must collaborate with faculty to train students in advanced information skills. There is a need to integrate IL instruction into the curriculum at all levels.


Assuntos
Competência em Informação , Bibliotecários , Percepção , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino , Currículo , Educação Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Biblioteconomia , Masculino , Paquistão
13.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(4): 515-526, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607809

RESUMO

Objective: To practice evidence-based medicine, clinicians must be competent in information literacy (IL). Few studies acknowledge the critical role that reading strategies play in IL instruction and assessment of health professional students. The purpose of this study was to understand the information-seeking and evaluation behaviors of doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) students in regard to scientific papers. Methods: The authors studied DVM student behaviors across eight programs in North America using a web-based survey of closed- and open-ended questions about finding and evaluating scientific papers, including a task to read a linked scientific paper and answer questions about it. Results: A total of 226 individuals responded to the survey. The sections of a scientific paper that were most commonly read were the abstract, introduction, and conclusions. Students who reported reading a higher proportion of scientific papers were more likely to feel confident in their abilities to interpret them. A third of respondents answered open-ended questions after the paper reading task. Respondents felt the least amount of confidence with one of the final steps of evidence-based medicine, that of interpreting the significance of the paper to apply it in veterinary medicine. Conclusions: DVM students may lack the skills needed to evaluate scientific literature and need more practice and feedback in evaluating and interpreting scientific papers. Librarians who support DVM students can (1) help DVM students to efficiently evaluate scientific literature, (2) seek training opportunities in alternative modes of teaching and learning IL skills, and (3) partner with veterinary faculty and clinicians to provide students with practice and feedback in information evaluation.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Masculino , América do Norte , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Veterinária
14.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(4): 572-578, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607815

RESUMO

This case report describes the redesign process for an undergraduate evidence-based practice (EBP) nursing course in which the librarian serves as both co-instructor and co-instructional designer. As part of the undergraduate outcomes-based core curriculum, this required course teaches the principles of the research process; teaches students to identify the strengths and limitations of research articles in relation to EBP; and builds student confidence in their abilities to execute information literacy, data management, and scholarly communication competencies. The course redesign built on an existing student-centered course design, with the specific goal of transitioning the course from a senior-level course to a sophomore-level course, while achieving the same learning objectives. This goal was accomplished by integrating a combination of distributed practice and interleaved practice learning experiences into the course curriculum.


Assuntos
Capacitação de Usuário de Computador/métodos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/educação , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências/educação , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo/normas , Humanos , Competência em Informação
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574904

RESUMO

This study sought to gain a more comprehensive understanding of how the factors of parental education level and student attitude toward the ocean influence the ocean literacy of students in Taiwan after establishing measurement invariance across genders. The analyzed data were collected from self-reported questionnaires filled out by students aged 16-18 years old. The students' ocean literacy was used as the outcome variable, while parental education level and student attitude toward the ocean were employed as the independent variables. The effects of parental education level and student attitude toward the ocean on ocean literacy were estimated with a multi-group structural equation model. Of the final total of 945 valid respondents in this study, 58.1% were male and 41.9% were female. The results from the multiple-group analysis supported measurement invariance across the genders. After establishing gender invariance, it was further found that higher degrees of parental education level and student attitude toward the ocean were positively related to ocean literacy. A considerable contribution was detected between parental education level and ocean literacy that was indirectly related through student attitude toward the ocean in the female student.


Assuntos
Competência em Informação , Oceanos e Mares , Estudantes , Adolescente , Atitude , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 112, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internationally, women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lack knowledge about their disease, which limits their ability to take responsibility for self-care and creates negative psychosocial effects, including marital problems. Normally, screening is performed in primary care, and in case of abnormal results, the patient is referred to specialized care for follow-up and treatment. Given the lack of international literature regarding patients' experiences in primary and specialized healthcare, our study aims to: (a) investigate how women with CIN perceive the communication and management of information by healthcare providers at different moments of their healthcare and (b) identify these women's informational needs. METHODS: A qualitative exploratory study was carried out in a gynecology unit of a public hospital of the Galician Health Care Service (Spain). Participants were selected through purposive sampling. The sample consisted of 21 women aged 21 to 52 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of CIN. Semistructured interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic analysis was carried out, including triangulation of researchers for analysis verification. RESULTS: Two analytical themes were identified. The first was communication gaps in the diagnosis and management of information in primary and specialized healthcare. These gaps occurred in the following moments of the healthcare process: (a) cervical cancer screening in primary care, (b) waiting time until referral to specialized care, (c) first consultation in specialized care, and (d) after consultation in specialized care. The second theme was participants' unmatched informational needs. The doubts and informational needs of women during their healthcare process related to the following subthemes: (a) HPV transmission, (b) HPV infection symptoms and consequences, and (c) CIN treatment and follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that women who have a diagnosis of CIN experience important healthcare informational challenges when accessing primary and specialized care that have several implications for their wellbeing. The information given is limited, which makes it difficult for women to understand and participate in the decision making regarding the prevention and treatment of CIN. Service coordination among different levels of care and the availability of educational materials at any given time would improve the patients' healthcare experience.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Assistência ao Paciente , Navegação de Pacientes/organização & administração , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Assistência ao Paciente/métodos , Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/psicologia
17.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 11(1): e1-e9, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research globally has shown that metered dose inhaler (MDI) technique is poor, with patient education and regular demonstration critical in maintaining correct use of inhalers. Patient information containing pictorial aids improves understanding of medicine usage; however, manufacturer leaflets illustrating MDI use may not be easily understood by low-literacy asthma patients. AIM: To develop and evaluate the outcome of a tailored, simplified leaflet on correct MDI technique in asthma patients with limited literacy skills. SETTING: A rural primary health care clinic in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. METHODS: Pictograms illustrating MDI steps were designed to ensure cultural relevance. The design process of the leaflet was iterative and consultative involving a range of health care professionals as well as patients. Fifty-five rural asthma patients were recruited for the pre-post design educational intervention study. Metered dose inhaler technique was assessed using a checklist, and patients were then educated using the study leaflet. The principal researcher then demonstrated correct MDI technique. This process was repeated at follow-up 4 weeks later. RESULTS: The number of correct steps increased significantly post intervention from 4.6 ± 2.2 at baseline to 7.9 ± 2.7 at follow-up (p 0.05). Statistically significant improvement of correct technique was established for 10 of the 12 steps. Patients liked the pictograms and preferred the study leaflet over the manufacturer leaflet. CONCLUSION: The tailored, simple, illustrated study leaflet accompanied by a demonstration of MDI technique significantly increased correct MDI technique in low-literacy patients. Patients approved of the illustrated, simple text leaflet, and noted its usefulness in helping them improve their MDI technique.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Folhetos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Idoso , Asma/psicologia , Recursos Audiovisuais , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Masculino , Ilustração Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , África do Sul
18.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 27(3): 410-418, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041985

RESUMO

Resumo O consentimento informado é necessário para participação voluntária em pesquisas e decisões em saúde. No entanto, as informações devem ser passadas ao paciente ou participante de pesquisa de forma que sejam efetivamente compreendidas. O letramento funcional em saúde deve ser considerado na elaboração dos termos de consetimento, na concepção de materiais gráficos e entrevistas e na comunicação verbal, para que o indivíduo consiga avaliar as informações transmitidas e decidir com autonomia. Assim, este trabalho objetiva identificar entraves à aplicação desses documentos e à sua efetividade, considerando a real compreensão do entrevistado, seja usuário do sistema de saúde ou participante de pesquisa. Para tanto, foi realizada pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o modo como o consentimento informado é apresentado, com base na qual propõe-se roteiro para a elaboração desses documentos tendo em vista os princípios do letramento funcional em saúde.


Abstract The informed consent is required for voluntary participation in research and health decisions. However, the information must be passed on to the patient or research participant so that it is effectively understood. Functional health literacy should be considered in the elaboration of these terms, in the design of graphic materials and interviews, and in verbal communication, so that the individual can evaluate the information transmitted and decide autonomously. Thus, this paper aims to identify obstacles to the application of these documents and their effectiveness, considering the real understanding of the interviewee, whether user of the health system or research participant. To this end, a bibliographic research about the way informed consent is presented was conducted. Based on this, a script is proposed for the preparation of these documents in view of the principles of functional health literacy.


Resumen El consentimiento informado es necesario para la participación voluntaria en investigaciones y en la toma de decisiones en salud. No obstante, la información debe transmitirse al paciente o al participante de la investigación de forma tal que sea efectivamente comprendida. El letramiento funcional en salud debe tomarse en consideración en la elaboración de estos documentos, en el diseño de materiales gráficos y de entrevistas, y en la comunicación verbal, para que el individuo pueda evaluar la información transmitida y decidir con autonomía. Así, este trabajo tiene como objetivo identificar las dificultades para la aplicación de estos documentos y para su efectividad, considerando la comprensión real del entrevistado, ya sea usuario del sistema de salud o participante de una investigación. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica sobre la forma en que se presenta el consentimiento informado, en base a la cual se propone un guion para la elaboración de estos documentos, teniendo en cuenta los principios del letramiento funcional en salud.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Letramento em Saúde , Competência em Informação , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(8): e13652, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tracking, or logging, of food intake and physical activity is increasing among people, and as a result there is increasing evidence of a link to improvement in health and well-being. Crucial to the effective and safe use of logging is a user's information literacy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze food and activity tracking from an information literacy perspective. METHODS: An online survey was distributed to three communities via parkrun, diabetes.co.uk and the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Network. RESULTS: The data showed that there were clear differences in the logging practices of the members of the three different communities, as well as differences in motivations for tracking and the extent of sharing of said tracked data. Respondents showed a good understanding of the importance of information accuracy and were confident in their ability to understand tracked data, however, there were differences in the extent to which food and activity data were shared and also a lack of understanding of the potential reuse and sharing of data by third parties. CONCLUSIONS: Information literacy in this context involves developing awareness of the issues of accurate information recording, and how tracked information can be applied to support specific health goals. Developing awareness of how and when to share data, as well as of data ownership and privacy, are also important aspects of information literacy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Monitores de Aptidão Física/tendências , Alimentos/normas , Letramento em Saúde/normas , Competência em Informação , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuropsychology ; 33(7): 975-985, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Greater financial and health literacy are associated with better cognition; however, research suggests that some individuals exhibit differences, or discrepancies, in these abilities in old age. We investigated discrepancies between literacy and cognition and factors associated with such discrepancies in older adults without dementia. METHOD: Participants (N = 714; Mage = 81.4; education: M = 15.4; 75.4% female; 5.2% non-White) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project completed cognitive assessments and a financial and health literacy measure that yielded a total literacy score. Participants were characterized into three groups: (a) total literacy scores that are more than one standard deviation (1 SD) above cognition (L > C), (b) total literacy scores falling more than 1 SD below cognition (L < C), and (c) total literacy within 1 SD of cognition (L = C). Logistic regressions were employed to investigate associations between demographic and psychosocial variables and discrepancy group status. RESULTS: Of the 714 participants, 24% showed significant discrepancies. In fully adjusted models, in reference to the L = C group, male sex was associated with greater odds of being in the L > C group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32, 95% CI [1.33, 4.03], p = .003) and lower odds of being in the L < C group (OR = 0.31, 95% CI [0.14, 0.66], p = .002), higher income was associated with lower odds of being in either discrepancy group (L < C OR = 0.87, 95% CI [0.79, 0.96], p = .004; L > C OR = 0.86, 95% CI [0.76, 0.96], p = .007), and higher trust was associated with lower odds of being in the L > C group (OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.85, 0.99], p = .030). CONCLUSIONS: Findings support literacy and cognition as partially dissociable constructs and highlight important factors associated with discrepancies between literacy and cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cognição , Economia , Letramento em Saúde , Competência em Informação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Confiança
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