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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 380-383, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic variation of Eurytrema pancreaticum isolated from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province. METHODS: The partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome I (pcox1) and ribosomal 18S rRNA genes were amplified using a PCR assay in E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province, and the PCR amplification products were sequenced. Then, the gene sequences were subjected to genetic variation and phylogenetic analyses. RESULTS: The sequences of the pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes were 430 bp and 1 857 bp in length in 18 E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City, Hunan Province, and there were 14 and 35 variation sites in pcox1 and 18S rRNA gene sequences, with intra-species genetic variations of 0 to 1.4% and 0 to 0.8%, respectively. The sequences of pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes had 99.0% to 99.8% and 99.5% to 99.8% homologies with those from E. pancreaticum Chinese strain recorded in the GenBank database. Consistent phylogenetic analysis results were found based on pcox1 and 18S rRNA genes. The 18 E. pancreaticum isolates from goats in Huaihua City were clustered into a clade with the known E. pancreaticum isolates registered in GenBank, and the clade with these 18 E. pancreaticum isolates was close to the clades with Eurytrema species and far from the clades with other trematodes. CONCLUSIONS: The E. pancreaticum isolates from goats have a low genetic variation in Huaihua City, Hunan Province. Mitochondrial pcox1 and ribosomal 18S rRNA genes may serve as molecular markers for the studies on the genetic variation in goat-derived E. pancreaticum.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Variação Genética , Cabras , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Trematódeos , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Cabras/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236759, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745105

RESUMO

The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a moth pest native to the Western Hemisphere that has recently become a global problem, invading Africa, Asia, and Australia. The species has a broad host range, long-distance migration capability, and a propensity for the generation of pesticide resistance traits that make it a formidable invasive threat and a difficult pest to control. While fall armyworm migration has been extensively studied in North America, where annual migrations of thousands of kilometers are the norm, migration patterns in South America are less understood. As a first step to address this issue we have been genetically characterizing fall armyworm populations in Ecuador, a country in the northern portion of South America that has not been extensively surveyed for this pest. These studies confirm and extend past findings indicating similarities in the fall armyworm populations from Ecuador, Trinidad-Tobago, Peru, and Bolivia that suggest substantial migratory interactions. Specifically, we found that populations throughout Ecuador are genetically homogeneous, indicating that the Andes mountain range is not a long-term barrier to fall armyworm migration. Quantification of genetic variation in an intron sequence describe patterns of similarity between fall armyworm from different locations in South America with implications for how migration might be occurring. In addition, we unexpectedly found these observations only apply to one subset of fall armyworm (the C-strain), as the other group (R-strain) was not present in Ecuador. The results suggest differences in migration behavior between fall armyworm groups in South America that appear to be related to differences in host plant preferences.


Assuntos
Haplótipos/genética , Spodoptera/genética , Migração Animal , Animais , Equador , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Íntrons/genética , Controle de Pragas , Filogenia , Filogeografia , América do Sul
3.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3203-3209, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820383

RESUMO

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera, Ischnocera) represent a component of the ectoparasite fauna associated with large sized mammals as deers. However, the diversity of chewing louse species infesting deer remains to be fully characterized in the Neotropics. Little is known about the chewing lice infesting the extant fourteen subspecies of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Mexico. Known to infest white-tailed deer (WTD) in Canada and the United States (U.S.), Tricholipeurus lipeuroides is a chewing louse species that was originally described in the nineteenth century infesting O. v. mexicanus in Mexico. For the first time, infestation of O. v. veraecrucis, a Neotropical WTD subspecies in Mexico, with T. lipeuroides is reported herein. An integrative taxonomic approach was taken by combining morphological and molecular analyses to describe the T. lipeuroides infestion of O. v. veraecrucis. Ecological parameters of the T. lipeuroides infestations were also calculated. The prevalence was 91.7% of the 56 O. v. veraecrucis (29 females and 27 males) inspected while under chemical restraint that were sampled at 3 sites in the central region of Veracruz state in Mexico. The amplification and sequencing of previously reported T. lipeuroides Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I gene confirmed the identity of all the chewing louse life stages. These results are discussed in the context of comparative analyses on the emergence of novel chewing lice-deer associations.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Iscnóceros/anatomia & histologia , Iscnóceros/classificação , Infestações por Piolhos/epidemiologia , Animais , Canadá , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Iscnóceros/genética , Masculino , México/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237882, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845927

RESUMO

Phylogenetic positions of the genus Longgenacris and one of its members, i.e. L. rufiantennus are controversial. The species boundaries within both of L. rufiantennus+Fruhstorferiola tonkinensis and F. viridifemorata species groups are unclear. In this study, we explored the phylogenetic positions of the genus Longgenacris and the species L. rufiantennus and the relationships among F. viridifemorata group based on the 658-base fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode and the complete sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The phylogenies were reconstructed in maximum likelihood framework using IQ-TREE. K2P distances were used to assess the overlap range between intraspecific variation and interspecific divergence. Phylogenetic species concept and NJ tree, K2P distance, the statistical parsimony network as well as the generalized mixed Yule coalescent model (GMYC) were employed to delimitate the species boundaries in L. rufiantennus+F. tonkinensis and F. viridifemorata species groups. The results demonstrated that the genus Longgenacris should be placed in the subfamily Melanoplinae but not Catantopinae, and L. rufiantennus should be a member of the genus Fruhstorferiola but not Longgenacris. Species boundary delimitation confirmed the presence of oversplitting in L. rufiantennus+F. tonkinensis and F. viridifemorata species groups and suggested that each group should be treated as a single species.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/classificação , Gafanhotos/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Variação Genética , Gafanhotos/anatomia & histologia , Haplótipos/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Especificidade da Espécie , Dente/anatomia & histologia
5.
Life Sci ; 258: 118195, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781073

RESUMO

AIMS: The estrogen-ERα axis participates in osteoblast maturation. This study was designed to further evaluated the roles of the estrogen-ERα axis in bone healing and the possible mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Female ICR mice were created a metaphyseal bone defect in the left femurs and administered with methylpiperidinopyrazole (MPP), an inhibitor of ERα. Bone healing was evaluated using micro-computed tomography. Colocalization of ERα with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and ERα translocation to mitochondria were determined. Levels of ERα, ERß, PECAM-1, VEGF, and ß-actin were immunodetected. Expression of chromosomal Runx2, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNAs and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) I and COXII mRNAs were quantified. Angiogenesis was measured with immunohistochemistry. KEY FINDINGS: Following surgery, the bone mass was time-dependently augmented in the bone-defect area. Simultaneously, levels of ERα were specifically upregulated and positively correlated with bone healing. Administration of MPP to mice consistently decreased levels of ERα and bone healing. As to the mechanisms, osteogenesis was enhanced in bone healing, but MPP attenuated osteoblast maturation. In parallel, expressions of osteogenesis-related ALP, Runx2, and osteocalcin mRNAs were induced in the injured zone. Treatment with MPP led to significant inhibition of the alp, runx2, and osteocalcin gene expressions. Remarkably, administration of MPP lessened translocation of ERα to mitochondria and expressions of mitochondrial energy production-related coxI and coxII genes. Furthermore, exposure to MPP decreased levels of PECAM-1 and VEGF in the bone-defect area. SIGNIFICANCE: The present study showed the contributions of the estrogen-ERα axis to bone healing through stimulation of energy production, osteoblast maturation, and angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Metabolismo Energético , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Osteoblastos/citologia , Transdução de Sinais , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteocalcina/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833963

RESUMO

Herein we describe Ocrepeira klamt sp. n. (Araneae: Araneidae), a new orb-weaving spider species from a Colombian páramo, which was formerly inaccessible for scientific studies due to decades long armed conflicts. Both, phenotypic and molecular data are used to confirm genus affiliation, and the new species is placed into phylogenetic context with other araneid spiders. Morphological characteristics and ecological notes of Ocrepeira klamt sp. n. are reported together with the sequence of the barcoding region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) to provide a comprehensive description of the spider, facilitating future identification beyond taxonomic experts. With this study we contribute to the taxonomic knowledge that is required to inventory the hyper diverse yet threatened ecosystem of the Colombian páramos.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/fisiologia , Aranhas/anatomia & histologia , Aranhas/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Colômbia , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Ecossistema , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Filogenia , Aranhas/fisiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008385, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614914

RESUMO

Anopheles sundaicus s.l. is an important malaria vector primarily found in coastal landscapes of western and central Indonesia. The species complex has a wide geographical distribution in South and Southeast Asia and exhibits ecological and behavioural variability over its range. Studies on understanding the distribution of different members in the complex and their bionomics related to malaria transmission might be important guiding more effective vector intervention strategies. Female An. sundaicus s.l. were collected from seven provinces, 12 locations in Indonesia representing Sumatra: North Sumatra, Bangka-Belitung, South Lampung, and Bengkulu; in Java: West Java; and the Lesser Sunda Islands: West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara provinces. Sequencing of ribosomal DNA ITS2 gene fragments and two mitochondrial DNA gene markers, COI and cytb, enabled molecular identification of morphologically indistinguishable members of the complex. Findings allowed inference on the distribution of the An. sundaicus s.l. present in Indonesia and further illustrate the phylogenetic relationships of An. epiroticus within the complex. A total of 370 An. sundaicus s.l specimens were analysed for the ITS2 fragment. The ITS2 sequence alignment revealed two consistent species-specific point mutations, a T>C transition at base 479 and a G>T transversion at base 538 that differentiated five haplotypes: TG, CG, TT, CT, and TY. The TG haplotype matched published An. epiroticus-indicative sequences from Thailand, Vietnam and peninsular Malaysia. The previously described insertion event (base 603) was observed in all identified specimens. Analysis of the COI and cytb genes revealed no consistent nucleotide variations that could definitively distinguish An. epiroticus from other members in the Sundaicus Complex. The findings indicate and support the existence of An. epiroticus in North Sumatra and Bangka-Belitung archipelago. Further studies are recommended to determine the full distributional extent of the Sundaicus complex in Indonesia and investigate the role of these species in malaria transmission.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Citocromos b/genética , Demografia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia , Filogenia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722672

RESUMO

Phylogeographic relationships among global collections of the mosquito Aedes aegypti were evaluated using the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase 1 (CO1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes including new sequences from Sri Lanka. Phylogeographic analysis estimated that Ae. aegypti arose as a species ~614 thousand years ago (kya) in the late Pleistocene. At 545 kya an "early" East African clade arose that continued to differentiate in East Africa, and eventually gave rise to three lineages one of which is distributed throughout all tropical and subtropical regions, a second that contains Southeast Asian/Sri Lankan mosquitoes and a third that contains mostly New World mosquitoes. West African collections were not represented in this early clade. The late clade continued to differentiate throughout Africa and gave rise to a lineage that spread globally. The most recent branches of the late clade are represented by South-East Asia and India/Pakistan collections. Analysis of migration rates suggests abundant gene flow between India/Pakistan and the rest of the world with the exception of Africa.


Assuntos
Aedes/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Filogeografia , Aedes/classificação , África , África Oriental , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Haplótipos , Índia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Paquistão , Filogenia , Sri Lanka
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2863-2875, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666190

RESUMO

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Taenia/genética , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ovinos/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511281

RESUMO

Gene flow and genetic variation were examined within and among populations of five of the most common spider species in shrublands of the mountainous Golden Gate Highlands National Park (GGHNP), South Africa. These species included three active hunters, Dendryphantes purcelli Peckham & Peckham, 1903 (Salticidae), Pherecydes tuberculatus O.P.-Cambridge, 1883 (Thomisidae) and Philodromus browningi Lawrence, 1952 (Philodromidae), and two web-builders, Neoscona subfusca (C.L. Koch, 1837) (Araneidae) and a Theridion Walckenaer, 1802 species (Theridiidae). A total of 249 spiders (57 D. purcelli, 69 N. subfusca, 34 P. browningi, 56 P. tuberculatus and 33 Theridion sp.) were collected and analysed from six shrubland localities in the park. Analyses of sequence variation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene for each species revealed relatively low nucleotide diversity (π < 0.0420) but high genetic diversity (Hd > 0.6500) within populations for all species, except P. tuberculatus. Genetic differentiation was also noted to differ between species, with only P. tuberculatus indicating very large divergence (Fst > 0.2500). These results were reflected by gene flow, with D. purcelli, N. subfusca and the Theridion sp. estimated as experiencing more than one disperser per generation. Overall, highest gene flow was found in the two web-building species, indicating possible high dispersal ability of these spiders in the GGHNP. Additionally, constructed phylogenies indicated possible cryptic speciation occurring in the majority of the investigated species. Our current results indicate that the five investigated spider species were able to maintain gene flow between shrubland populations within the GGHNP to some degree, despite the mountainous landscape. However, further analyses incorporating additional molecular markers are needed to properly determine the extent of genetic diversity and gene flow of these species within the GGHNP.


Assuntos
Genes de Insetos/genética , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Aranhas/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Comportamento Alimentar , Fluxo Gênico , Pradaria , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Filogenia , África do Sul
11.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2347-2350, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488623

RESUMO

Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) is a vector-borne zoonotic eyeworm able to infect a broad spectrum of carnivores. Here, we describe the first case of bilateral infection by T. callipaeda in the eyes of an adult female Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus) in central Spain. Nematodes collected were morphologically identified (n = 42), and two specimens were molecularly characterized. At the sequence analysis of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, T. callipaeda haplotype 1 (the only haplotype circulating in Europe) was detected. The role of the Iberian wolf as a natural reservoir for T. callipaeda in the life cycle of this emerging zoonosis and the implications in conservation are discussed.


Assuntos
Olho/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Lobos/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha , Thelazioidea/genética , Zoonoses/parasitologia
12.
Eur J Protistol ; 75: 125701, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599513

RESUMO

Korotnevella (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida) is a genus of naked lobose amoebae with a dactylopodial morphotype. The cell membrane of these amoebae is covered with a monolayer of scales. The structure and size of scales are considered as species-specific features. Here, we describe a new marine species, Korotnevella mutabilis n. sp., isolated from the bottom sediment sample of Nivå Bay (Baltic Sea, The Sound) and studied with light and electron microscopy as well as with molecular phylogenetic analysis. This species has a number of morphological similarities with Korotnevella monacantholepis, such as size of the cell, L/B ratio, the nucleus structure and the type of a biotope from which both species were isolated. At the same time, Korotnevella mutabilis n. sp. differs from K. monacantholepis in the structure of basket-shaped scales: Korotnevella mutabilis n. sp. has an enclosed hammock-shaped latticework basket and up to two spines while K. monacantholepis has an opened two-row latticework basket and never has two spines. According to molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene, Korotnevella mutabilis n. sp. is a distinct species, highly divergent from other Korotnevella species.


Assuntos
Amebozoários/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Amebozoários/genética , Amebozoários/ultraestrutura , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/ultraestrutura , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica , Oceanos e Mares , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 383-391, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491171

RESUMO

The long-term fidelity of pinniped hosts to their natal rookery site suggests the genetic architecture of their Uncinaria spp. hookworms should be strongly structured by host breeding biology. However, historical events affecting host populations may also shape parasite genetic structure. Sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene of 86 Uncinaria lucasi individuals were obtained to assess genetic variation and structure of nematodes from 2 host species (68 hookworms from northern fur seals; 18 hookworms from Steller sea lions) and rookeries from 3 widely separated geographic regions: the western Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk, eastern Bering Sea, and the eastern Pacific Ocean. High COI haplotype (h = 0.96-0.98) and nucleotide (π = 0.014) diversity was found. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped pattern with a large number of haplotypes separated by few substitutions. The network did not show separation of U. lucasi by geographic region or host species. Fst values between U. lucasi individuals representing geographic regions showed no differentiation, consistent with the absence of genetic structure. At face value, this lack of genetic structure in U. lucasi suggests high gene flow but could also be explained by recent (post-glacial) population expansions of northern fur seals and their hookworms.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/fisiologia , Caniformia/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Haplótipos/genética , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/transmissão , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Oceano Pacífico , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008242, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401754

RESUMO

Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis (AE, CE) caused by E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.l., respectively, are considered emerging zoonotic diseases in Kyrgyzstan with some of the world highest regional incidences. Little is known regarding the molecular variability of both species in Kyrgyzstan. In this study we provide molecular data from a total of 72 parasite isolates derived from humans (52 AE and 20 CE patients) and 43 samples from dogs (23 infected with E. multilocularis and 20 with E. granulosus s.l.).Genetic variability in E. multilocularis was studied using the concatenated complete sequences of the cob, nad2 and cox1 mitochondrial genes adding a total of 3,558bp per isolate. The cob/nad2/cox1 A2 haplotype was identified in 63.4% of the human and in 65.2% of the dog samples. This haplotype was originally described in samples from Kazakhstan and St. Lawrence Island (Alaska, USA). We also describe here 16 non-previously defined variants of E. multilocularis (called A11-A26). All haplotypes cluster together within the Asian group in the haplotype network. Based on Fst values, low level of genetic differentiation was found between the populations of E. multilocularis isolated from different regions within the country. However, high degree of differentiation was found when all the concatenated sequences from Kyrgyzstan are considered as a single population and compared with the population of the parasite from the neighbouring country China. In the case of E. granulosus s.l. the analysis was based in 1,609bp of the cox1 gene. One isolate from a dog was identified as E. equinus, while all the other sequences were identified belonging to E. granulosus s.s. In total, 24 cox1 haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. were identified including the already described variants: Eg01 (in 6 samples), Eg33 (in 4 samples), EgCl04 (in 2 samples), Eg03 (in 1 sample) and Eg32 (in 1 sample). From the twenty-five other isolates of E. granulosus s.s. a total of 19 non-previously described cox1 haplotypes were identified and named as EgKyr1 to EgKyr19. The most common haplotype infecting human is the EgKyr1 which was found in 5 isolates.The cob/nad2/cox1 A2 haplotype of E. multilocularis is responsible for the majority of human infections in Kyrgyzstan and is also found in the majority of dogs included in this study. Further similar studies in different parts of Asia could elucidate if it is also the most common variant infecting humans in other countries. It remains unknown if this particular haplotype presents differences in virulence which could have contributed to the emergency of alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. In the case of E. granulosus s.s. it seems that there is no dominant haplotype infecting humans in Kyrgzstan. Further characterization of biological or antigenic features of dominant mitochondrial haplotypes could help to elucidate if they present differences which could be relevant in the diagnostic, pathogenicity or in the host/parasite interaction when infecting humans.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/classificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Quirguistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , NADH Desidrogenase/genética
15.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(2): 159-167, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize a species of the genus Tricula and parasitized trematodes in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province using a molecular analysis, so as to understand their taxonomic positions. METHODS: Tricula spp. and Oncomelania snails were collected from Xiangyun County, Yunnan Province, and cercaria parasitizing snails were observed using crushing followed by microscopy. Cercaria parasitizing Tricula snails at various morphologies were sampled using a shedding method. Genomic DNA was extracted from snail soft tissues and cercariae, and the 16S rRNA, COI, 28S rDNA genes in snails and the ND1 and 28S rDNA genes in cercariae were amplified using a PCR assay and sequenced. The species of Tricula snails and their parasitized trematodes was characterized using sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Among 382 Tricula snails detected, there were three types of trematode cercariae found, including the non-forked (20.94%, 80/382), double-forked (3.40%, 13/382) and swallow shapes (7.07%, 27/382). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that the 16S rRNA, COI and 28S rDNA gene sequences of this species of Tricula had high homology to those in Delavaya dianchiensis, and were clustered in a branch. Sequencing analysis of the ND1 and 28S rDNA genes revealed that the non-forked cercariae belonged to the family Pleu- rogenidae, the swallow-shaped cercariae belonged to the family Opecoelidae, and the double-forked cercariae belonged to another species of the genus Schistosoma that was different from S. sinensium and S. ovuncatum. CONCLUSIONS: The species and taxonomy of Triculla spp. and their parasitized trematodes are preliminarily determined in schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province; however, further studies are required to investigate the more definite taxonomy and pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Cercárias , Filogenia , Caramujos/classificação , Caramujos/parasitologia , Trematódeos , Animais , Cercárias/genética , Cercárias/isolamento & purificação , China , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Doenças Endêmicas , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Caramujos/genética , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação
16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(2): 191-194, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphological characteristics of Echinostoma miyagawai in domestic ducks in Wuhu area, and to explore the feasibility of the cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (Cox1) gene as a molecular marker for the identification of E. miyagawai. METHODS: E. miyagawai was isolated from free-ranged domestic ducks in Wuhu area, and the parasites were stained and identified. In addition, the mitochondrial Cox1 gene of E. miyagawai was amplified using a PCR assay, and the amplification product was sequenced and aligned with the GenBank database to yield the homology for the identification of parasite species in combination with morphological findings. Intra-species comparison was done based on the Cox1 gene sequence. RESULTS: The prevalence of E. miyagawai infection was 16.67% in domestic ducks in Wuhu area, and the adult E. miyagawai was 6.6 to 13.2 mm in length. The size of the E. miyagawai Cox1 gene was approximately 660 bp, which had a 99.68% homology to the E. miyagawai accessed in GenBank. The morphological findings were in agreement with molecular identification. CONCLUSIONS: E. miyagawai infection is common in domestic ducks in Wuhu area, and the mitochondrial Cox1 gene is a feasible marker of intra- and inter-species molecular identification of Echinostoma.


Assuntos
Patos , Echinostoma , Equinostomíase , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Patos/parasitologia , Echinostoma/anatomia & histologia , Echinostoma/genética , Equinostomíase/epidemiologia , Equinostomíase/parasitologia , Equinostomíase/veterinária , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência
17.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(4): 214-223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369805

RESUMO

Coleoptera is a mega-diverse order, but only about 1% of its species have been analyzed cytogenetically. In this order, the subfamily Alticinae presents many identification problems, mainly due to the occurrence of mimicry. The objective of this work was to cytogenetically characterize 3 very similar species of the genus Alagoasa (A. pantina, A.areata, and A.scissa). We used classical and molecular cytogenetic as well as molecular genetic techniques. All 3 species showed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 22 (20+X+y), but differences in the morphology of the chromosomes. All had a meiotic formula of 2n = 10II+X+y and an X+y sex determination system with giant, fully asynaptic sex chromosomes, concordant characteristics observed in the subtribe Oedionychina. FISH demonstrated the presence of 18S and 5S rDNA clusters in 1 pair of autosomes, syntenic and colocalizing in the 3 analyzed species. However, in A. areata, heteromorphism between the cistrons was observed. The telomeric (TTAGG)n probe showed signals in all 3 species, with proximal signals in the X and dispersed signals in the y chromosome of A. areata, and 2 proximal signals in the X chromosome of A. scissa. Molecular analysis of the COI gene indicated that they are 3 distinct species, corroborating the observed cytogenetic characteristics.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico , Besouros/classificação , Besouros/genética , Citogenética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Meiose/genética , Filogenia , Clima Tropical
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233177, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413073

RESUMO

Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) is the process by which the ATP synthase conserves the energy released during the oxidation of different nutrients as ATP. The yeast ATP synthase consists of three assembly modules, one of which is a ring consisting of 10 copies of the Atp9 subunit. We previously reported the existence in yeast mitochondria of high molecular weight complexes composed of mitochondrially encoded Atp9 and of Cox6, an imported structural subunit of cytochrome oxidase (COX). Pulse-chase experiments indicated a correlation between the loss of newly translated Atp9 complexed to Cox6 and an increase of newly formed Atp9 ring, but did not exclude the possibility of an alternate source of Atp9 for ring formation. Here we have extended studies on the functions and structure of this complex, referred to as Atco. We show that Atco is the exclusive source of Atp9 for the ATP synthase assembly. Pulse-chase experiments show that newly translated Atp9, present in Atco, is converted to a ring, which is incorporated into the ATP synthase with kinetics characteristic of a precursor-product relationship. Even though Atco does not contain the ring form of Atp9, cross-linking experiments indicate that it is oligomeric and that the inter-subunit interactions are similar to those of the bona fide ring. We propose that, by providing Atp9 for biogenesis of ATP synthase, Atco complexes free Cox6 for assembly of COX. This suggests that Atco complexes may play a role in coordinating assembly and maintaining proper stoichiometry of the two oxphos enzymes.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/química , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
19.
Gene ; 751: 144763, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413479

RESUMO

Mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) is a native and economically important species in East Asia. In order to provide a comprehensive genetic background for the resource protection and management in this species, the genetic diversity and population structure of S. paramamosain were analyzed based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequence. Totally, 599 individuals were sampled from 20 populations, including 18 wild and two cultured populations from five provinces along southeastern coast of China. After the sequencing of a 638 bp fragment of COI gene, 84 variable sites were found and no insertion or deletion was detected. The H2 (haplotype 2) was the dominant hapolotye shared by 301 individuals (50.3% of all individuals) and existed in all localities. In addition, a high percent of unique haplotypes (53 of 93 haplotyoes) was found. The average nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations was 0.00194, ranging from 0.00010 (NHF1) to 0.00305 (SHCM). The haplotype diversity (h) ranged from 0.067 (NHF1) to 0.876 (CM) with an average 0.738. All of the populations showed high h (>0.5) except NHF1. Genetic distance ranged from 0.00063 to 0.00337 between populations and from 0.00010 to 0.00374 within populations. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) showed that the total genetic variation mainly occurred within populations (99.68%) and only 0.32% was contributed by among populations variation. No significant genetic differentiation was observed among all wild populations except that between BA and SHCM (Fst = 0.0.05707, P < 0.05), indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among localities. It is worth to note that two progeny population (HNF1 and NHF1) showed significantly different genetic variation, which suggested that a large quantity of parents could help to improve the genetic diversity of progeny populations.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/genética , Animais , Braquiúros/classificação , China , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Genes Mitocondriais , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1713-1728, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405803

RESUMO

In this study, we followed an integrative taxonomy approach to describe two new species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832, and to identify specimens of G. breviradix Vega, Razzolini, Arbetman, and Viozzi, 2019, all three collected from ten spotted live-bearer Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Jenyns, 1842), an endemic and widespread poeciliid from the Pampean region, which is the southernmost occurring species of the Poeciliidae in the Americas. Gyrodactylids were first characterized morphologically and mophometrically, and when possible, sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and the cytochrome oxidase II (COII) were used to delimit species. Gyrodactylus breviradix, Gyrodactylus marplatensis n. sp., and Gyrodactylus pampeanus n. sp. were found on the fins and body surface of C. decemmaculatus in La Tapera Creek, Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. A phylogenetic analysis combining newly generated sequences of one of the new species, G. marplatensis n. sp., and of G. breviradix, along with those available in GenBank for a further 36 species of Gyrodactylus, revealed that G. marplatensis n. sp. is a sister taxon of Gyrodactylus decemmaculati Vega, Razzolini, Arbetman, and Viozzi, 2019. Genetic distances for the ITS and COII gene were estimated among Gyrodactylus spp. and further supported the validity of the new species. Overall, morphometric and molecular data coincided in delimiting the new taxa, thus demonstrating the value of integrative taxonomy for the erection of new species of Gyrodactylus and species identification.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Argentina , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
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