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1.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(9): 1057-1064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693465

RESUMO

After removal of manganese ions responsible for light-driven water oxidation, redox-active tyrosine YZ (tyrosine 161 of the D1 subunit) still remains the dominant electron donor to the photooxidized chlorophyll P680 (P680+) in the reaction center of photosystem 2 (PS2). Here, we investigated P680+ reduction by YZ under single-turnover flashes in Mn-depleted PS2 core complexes in the presence of weak acids and NH4Cl. Analysis of changes in the light-induced absorption at 830 nm (reflecting P680 redox transitions) at pH 6.0 showed that P680+ reduction is well approximated by two kinetic components with the characteristic times (τ) of ~7 and ~31 µs and relative contributions of ~54 and ~37%, respectively. In contrast to the very small effect of sodium formate (200 mM), addition of sodium acetate and NH4Cl increased the rate of electron transfer between YZ and P680+ approx. by a factor of 5. The suggestion that direct electron transfer from YZ to P680+ has a biphasic kinetics and reflects the presence of two different populations of PS2 centers was confirmed by the data obtained using direct electrometrical technique. It was demonstrated that the submillisecond two-phase kinetics of the additional electrogenic phase in the kinetics of photoelectric response due to the electron transfer between YZ and P680+ is significantly accelerated in the presence of acetate or ammonia. These results contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of interaction between the oxidized tyrosine YZ and exogenous substances (including synthetic manganese-containing compounds) capable of photooxidation of water molecule in the manganese-depleted PS2 complexes.


Assuntos
Manganês/deficiência , Manganês/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons
2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 201: 111659, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698219

RESUMO

Stressors of different natures, including drought stress, substantially compromise the ability of plants to effectively and safely utilize light energy. We investigated the influence of water stress on the photosynthetic processes in Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris, two species with contrasting drought sensitivities. Spruce and pine seedlings were exposed to polyethylene glycol 6000-induced water deficits of different intensities and durations. The maintenance of photosystem I (PSI) oxidation in spruce required increased photosynthetic control and led to the increased reduction of the plastoquinone pool, which was not the case in pine seedlings. As a result of increased excitation pressure, photosystem II (PSII) inactivation was observed in spruce plants, whereas in pine, the decreased PSII photochemistry was likely due to sustained non-photochemical quenching. Downregulation of PSII photochemistry and maintenance of PSI in an oxidized state were linked with the prevention of oxidative stress, even under severe water deficit. The decreased photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic gene expression suggested the coordinated downregulation of photosynthetic apparatus components under water stress to reduce light energy absorption. In summary, the observed adaptative mechanisms of pine and spruce to water stress may be similar to the well-studied adaptative mechanisms to winter stress, which may indicate the universality of protective mechanisms under various stresses in conifers.


Assuntos
Secas , Fotossíntese , Picea/metabolismo , Pinus sylvestris/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fotossíntese/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo
3.
Plant Sci ; 286: 1-6, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300135

RESUMO

The excessive and harmful light energy absorbed by the photosystem (PS) II of higher plants is dissipated as heat through a protective mechanism termed non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence. PsbS-knock-out (KO) mutants lack the trans-thylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH)-dependent part of NPQ. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of NPQ, we investigated its dependency on oxygen. The development of NPQ in wild-type (WT) rice under low-oxygen (LO) conditions was reduced to more than 50% of its original value. However, under high-oxygen (HO) conditions, the NPQ of both WT and PsbS-KO mutants recovered. Moreover, WT and PsbS-KO mutant leaves infiltrated with the ΔpH dissipating uncoupler nigericin showed increased NPQ values under HO conditions. The experiments using intact chloroplasts and protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana supported that the LO effects observed in rice leaves were not due to carbon dioxide deficiency. There was a noticeable 90% reduction in the half-time of P700 oxidation rate in LO-treated leaves compared with that of WT control leaves, but the HO treatment did not significantly change the half-time of P700 oxidation rate. Overall, the results obtained here indicate that the stroma of the PsbS-KO plants could be potentially under O2 deficiency. Because the functions of PsbS in rice leaves are likely to be similar to those in other higher plants, our findings offer novel insights into the role of oxygen in the development of NPQ.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos da radiação , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Protoplastos/metabolismo , Protoplastos/efeitos da radiação
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 142: 283-291, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336356

RESUMO

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at the faculty of sciences of Gafsa to evaluate the effect of phosphorus treatment on two pistachio species. The seedlings of Pistacia vera and Pistacia atlantica were subjected to six levels of phosphoric acid (P2O5) (0, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 ppm). Stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence (OJIP) and total chlorophyll content were measured after 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 weeks of treatment. During the experiment, phosphorus application at 5 ppm increased photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, relative to the treatment 0 ppm only in P. atlantica. However, phosphorus supply at 60 and 120 ppm induced toxicity leading to an inhibition of CO2 photo-assimilation rate, an alteration of photosystem II (PSII) structure and function and reduction in leaf chlorophyll content in both species. The (OJIP) transient showed complex changes in O-J, J-I and I-P phases of fluorescence. Due to phosphorus toxicity, both donor and acceptor sides of PSII were damaged, electron transport perturbed and chlorophyll pigment reduced which resulted in the fall of CO2 photo-assimilation rate, followed by mortality in both species.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/efeitos dos fármacos , Pistacia/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fósforo/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Pistacia/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo
5.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111551, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306954

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution as one of the most serious pollution problems of marine environment, seriously threatens the safety of marine organism and human health, and will lead to potential risks for the marine ecological environment. In order to develop a rapid and sensitive toxicity detection method for marine heavy metals, in this study, marine diatom Nitzschia closterium was used as the test organism, and the effects of different concentrations of lead (Pb) on the five chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of N. closterium including the maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemical energy conversion (ΦPSII), the effective absorption cross section of PSII photochemistry (σPSII'), the relative electron transfer rate of PSII (rP), and the PSII electron flux per unit volume (JVPII) at different exposure times were investigated based on chlorophyll fluorescence technology. By comparing with the photosynthetic activity fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm which is commonly used for toxicity analysis of pollutants using algae as test organisms, the optimal chlorophyll fluorescence parameter that could rapidly and sensitively determine Pb toxicity to N. closterium was selected. The results indicate that all the five chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, σPSII', rP and JVPII showed good dose-response relationships with Pb within 8 h exposure time, and they all could be used as endpoints to rapidly determine Pb toxicity to N. closterium. Among the five chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, JVPII was the most sensitive fluorescence parameter for detecting the toxicity of Pb to N. closterium within 6 h exposure. And for JVPII, the median effective concentration (EC50) values of Pb at 2, 4 and 6 h were 0.329, 0.068 and 0.040 mmol L-1, respectively. However, when the exposure time was 8 h, ΦPSII was the most sensitive fluorescence parameter for the toxicity detection of Pb, and the EC50 value of Pb at 8 h was 0.038 mmol L-1. This study will provide an important basis for the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for the biological toxicity of marine heavy metals, and those results will be helpful for ecological risk assessment in marine environment.


Assuntos
Clorofila/química , Chumbo/toxicidade , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Microalgas/química , Microalgas/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Teoria Quântica , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111535, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319267

RESUMO

Measurement of Pulse-Amplitude-Modulated (PAM) chlorophyll a fluorescence is widely used method for obtaining information on the functional state of photosystem II (PSII). Recently, it has been shown that some of long-established fluorescence parameters must be interpreted with caution, when the light-induced chloroplast movements occur. In our work we have analyzed the effect of chloroplast movements on these parameters. We have derived new parameters that are independent of the change in PSII absorption occurring during measurement. To verify whether there is a need for new parameters or the difference between the parameters commonly used and the newly derived ones is insignificant, we conducted an experiment with Arabidopsis thaliana wild type plants and its phot1 phot2 mutant defective in chloroplast movement. Plants were exposed to light of different qualities (450, 470, 550 or 660 nm) and quantities (100, 400 or 1200 µmol m-2 s-1) for up to 40 min. Since the blue light-induced chloroplast avoidance reaction is a photoprotective mechanism, we expected that phot1 phot2 mutant will compensate the lack of this mechanism by increasing non-photochemical quenching. However, using the light at both 450 and 470 nm, the calculation of commonly used parameter, ΦNPQ (quantum yield of regulated light-induced thermal energy dissipation in PSII) based on Hendrickson et al. [L. Hendrickson, R.T. Furbank, W.S. Chow, Photosynth. Res. 82 (2004) 73-81] showed the opposite. On the other hand, the results obtained using our newly proposed formulae to determine quantum yield of PSII thermal energy dissipation were in line with our assumption. Thus, the experimental data showed that some formulae of fluorescence parameters are dependent on the change in PSII absorption and need to be interpreted carefully. On the contrary, the formulae introduced by us can remove the effect of changes in PSII absorption that occur during measurement, without additional measurements, and give the real estimate of light-induced non-photochemical quenching.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Clorofila A/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Luz , Modelos Teóricos , Mutagênese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Folhas de Planta/química , Teoria Quântica , Termodinâmica
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22389-22399, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154644

RESUMO

This paper studied the inhibitory effect of pomegranate peel (PP) extract on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, the model of harmful algal blooms in aquatic environment. The allelochemicals were identified by HPLC-MS/MS from PP and tested by batch experiment through measurement of algal density, chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Results showed that both PP powder and PP extract had obvious inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. Quercetin and luteolin were identified as the allelochemicals to M. aeruginosa growth. However, the inhibitory capacity of luteolin was stronger than that of quercetin. The growth inhibition ratio of luteolin can reach up to 98.7 and 99.1% of the control on day 7 at the dosages of 7 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the changes of Chl-a, Fv/Fm, SOD, and MDA in M. aeruginosa confirmed jointly that the allelochemicals cause inhibition of photosystem and oxidative damage to M. aeruginosa cells with the antioxidant defense system being activated, which leads to the aggravation of membrane lipid peroxidation. Thus, luteolin could be used as a promising algaecide for emergency handling of M. aeruginosa blooms. This study might provide a new direction in the management of eutrophication in the future.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clorofila A/química , Proliferação Nociva de Algas/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/farmacologia , Microcystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/farmacologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Malondialdeído/química , Oxirredução , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Punicaceae , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 274-283, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201959

RESUMO

Although UV-C radiation has been in use for killing unwanted cyanobacteria, experiments with lower doses of UV-C radiation instead showed induction of growth related parameters and enhanced biomass production in the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum Meg1. When the cyanobacterial cultures were exposed to UV-C radiation of varying doses (6, 12 and 18 mJ/cm2), concentrations of various photo-absorbing pigments, RuBisCO and D1 protein of PSII; activities of oxygen evolving complex, nitrogenase and glutamine synthetase were significantly increased upon 6 and 12 mJ/cm2 UV-C radiation exposures. Resulting higher photosynthetic performance was evident from the augmentation in carbohydrate content by ∼49% under single exposure to 6 mJ/cm2 UV-C by fifteenth day. The increased performances of both RuBisCO and D1 proteins were in part also due to induction at the genetic level as seen from the increase in their mRNA and protein levels under treatment. Similar increase was also observed in protein (16%) and in lipid contents (43%) that reflected an upsurge in the total biomass. Highest biomass (463 mg/L/d) was noted in culture exposed to 6 mJ/cm2 UV-C radiation, representing a ∼25% increase. Furthermore the possibility of this organism using part of the incident UV-C radiation as an additional source of energy was deduced from an experiment where the thylakoid membranes excited within UV (226-400 nm) range showed emission at longer wavelengths with an emission maximum at ∼640 nm. Thus this work provides evidence that lower UV-C doses can potentially augment cyanobacterial growth and use of unstandardized UV-C doses for restricting cyanobacterial growth may in fact produce contrary result.


Assuntos
Nostoc muscorum/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/metabolismo , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Nostoc muscorum/enzimologia , Nostoc muscorum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nostoc muscorum/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo
9.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1860(7): 582-590, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226314

RESUMO

The lumenal carbonic anhydrase (CA) CAH3 from green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the only one CA identified so far in close association with the photosystem II (PSII) multi-subunit protein complex. It was proposed earlier, that CAH3 could facilitate the H+ removal from the active center of the PSII water-oxidizing complex (WOC) under the light, thereby increasing its activity. In the present work, using PSII enriched membranes from the wild type of C. reinhardtii and from the CAH3-deficient mutant cia3, we demonstrate, that the suppression of the photosynthetic activity of PSII by increased pH is more pronounced in preparations from cia3 as compared to the wild type. Experiments with CA inhibitors show that the activity of CAH3 supports the function of PSII and prevents its irreversible inactivation under light upon increased pH. The photosynthetic activity of PSII from cia3 can be restored to the wild type level upon increased pH if an excess of HCO3- is added. These findings testify that the main role of CAH3 in the vicinity of PSII is the acceleration of the HCO3- dehydration reaction. Measurements of the photoinduced electron transfer rate in PSII from water or from an artificial electron donor indicate, that CAH3 has a direct influence on the WOC function. Based on the data obtained in this work we conclude, that in vivo CA-activity of CAH3 may support the photosynthetic activity of PSII at increased pH in the thylakoid lumen and can be observed under the dark to light transition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Algas/metabolismo , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/enzimologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/química , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte de Elétrons , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fotossíntese
10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg ; 1860(8): 611-617, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247173

RESUMO

The membrane-protein complex photosystem II (PSII) catalyzes photosynthetic water oxidation. Proton transfer plays an integral role in the catalytic cycle of water oxidation by maintaining charge balance to regulate and ensure the efficiency of the process. The hydrogen-bonded amino-acid residues that surround the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) provide an efficient pathway for proton removal. Hence, it is crucial to identify these pathways to provide deeper insights into the proton-transfer mechanisms. In this study, we have used bicarbonate as a mobile exogenous proton-transfer reagent to recover the activity lost by site-directed mutations in order to identify amino-acid residues participating in the proton-transfer pathway. We find that bicarbonate restores efficient S-state cycling in D2-K317A PSII core complexes, but not in D1-D61A and CP43-R357K PSII core complexes, indicating that bicarbonate chemical rescue can be used to differentiate single-point mutations affecting the pathways of proton transfer from mutations that affect other aspects of the water-oxidation mechanism.


Assuntos
Bicarbonatos/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/química , Prótons , Aminoácidos/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Oxirredução , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Mutação Puntual , Água/química
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 146-154, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177079

RESUMO

The impact of lead (Pb) on Spirodela polyrhiza was studied to determine the subcellular distribution, chemical forms, and resulting morphophysiological modifications after treatments with 20 or 80 µM Pb(NO3)2 for 10 days. At the subcellular level, the Pb uptake by S. polyrhiza was mainly compartmentalized in the cell walls (70%), and the majority of Pb (approximately 70%) was extracted using 1 M NaCl and 2% acetic acid (HAc). Visual symptoms of phytotoxcity, surface roughness and closure of stomata, were observed in Pb-treated fronds. Electron-dense precipitates were present in cell walls, and changes to the ultrastructure were most noticeably exhibited in organelle shape, internal organization, and size of the plastoglobules of chloroplasts. Toxic concentrations of Pb induced oxidative stress in fronds, characterized by an accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased chlorophyll and unsaturated fatty acid contents. Pb exposure increased ABS/RC, TRo/RC, DIo/RC, Vj, and φDo (Fv/Fm), indicating that reaction centers were transformed to dissipation sinks, leading to a decrease in the efficiency of photosystem II, which was evident from the decreased values of Fv/Fo, Fv/Fm, ψEo, φEo, RC/ABS, and PIabs. These results indicated that decreased photosynthesis in Pb-treated fronds was partially ascribed to the lower pigment content, inhibition of electron transport, inactivation of the reaction centers, damage to the chloroplast ultrastructure, and stomatal closure. The physiological implications of subcellular distribution and chemical forms are discussed in relation to Pb accumulation and detoxification. However, Pb accumulation significantly impaired photosynthesis and membrane integrity in the fronds of S. polyrhiza.


Assuntos
Araceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Araceae/anatomia & histologia , Araceae/metabolismo , Araceae/ultraestrutura , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Transporte de Elétrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 306-314, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207491

RESUMO

Prosopis strombulifera (Lam.) Benth. is a halophytic shrub found in highly saline soils in Argentina, with high tolerance against NaCl but strong growth inhibition by Na2SO4. In the present study, the differences in the physiological responses caused by these salts and an iso-osmotic combination thereof on photosynthesis, mineral composition and metabolism were analyzed. Na2SO4 treated plants were the most affected by salinity, showing a significant decrease in several photosynthetic parameters. Proline and cysteine accumulated significantly in the plants in response to salt stress. These results show by the first time that the SO42- anion is triggering damage in the photosynthetic apparatus and consequently affecting the photosynthetic process, which may explain the strong growth inhibition in these plants at high salinity. Moreover, the SO42- anion provoke challenges in the incorporation of nutrients, decreasing the levels of K, Ca, P and Mg, and inducing a strong antioxidant activity in P. strombulifera.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Prosopis/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Sulfatos/química , Ânions , Argentina , Cálcio/química , Clorofila/química , Grupo dos Citocromos b/metabolismo , Magnésio/química , Osmose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo/química , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/química , Prosopis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica , Salinidade , Sódio/química
13.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 195: 58-66, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100638

RESUMO

The potential of excitation-emission fluorescence spectroscopy combined with three-way analysis was investigated for discriminating the photosystem II (PSII) (with the water-oxidizing complex) and without the water-oxidizing complex (wPSII) using unsupervised classification methods. The water-oxidizing complex within PSII carry out the reaction of water splitting which is as a vital process on the earth. Therefore, discriminating the presence of the water-oxidizing complex in protein samples is crucial. Low cost and accurate spectroscopic determination of the amount of clusters inside PSII or any other protein containing species are important when investigating the inclusion and exclusion of such clusters into and from species. Fluorescence data of samples were similar, and we showed the potential usefulness of multivariate methods, such as parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principal component analysis (PCA) for recognition of the two types of samples. Both techniques were applied to the excitation-emission fluorescence matrices (EEM) of solutions at two of different pH values (2.0 and 12.0). Three fluorescent components were found for all samples that are related to tyrosine (Tyr), tryptophan (Trp) and phenylalanine (Phe) amino acids. These three amino acids are representative of all datasets and indicate their similarities and differences. We then found the effectual wavelengths for separation of samples in a specific acidity, including the excitation wavelengths of 220 and 230 nm and the emission wavelengths of 300 and 305 nm. The acidity of the solutions has various influences on the conformation of proteins. In PSII and PSII the without water-oxidizing complex samples conformational changes can change their spectra which was applied for discrimination purpose. This separation was better in pH = 12.0. We also showed the effect of time on small conformational changes within datasets were higher in pH = 2.0. In the end, for indicating the high distribution of spectral data from proteins which is the result of conformational changes, we compared the distribution of measured spectral data with that from a simple organic molecule, fluorescein. Altogether, we could distinguish between the two groups of protein samples properly at pH = 12.0 using low-cost EEM spectral images and PARAFAC.


Assuntos
Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Água/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Análise Multivariada , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 186, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation can affect several aspects ranging from plant growth to metabolic regulation. Maca is a Brassicaceae crop native to the Andes growing in above 3500 m of altitude. Although maca has been the focus mainly due to its nutraceutical properties, it remains unknown how maca plants tolerate to harsh environments, such as strong UV-B. Here, we present the first study that reports the physiological responses of maca plants to counteract and recover to repeated acute UV-B irradiation. RESULTS: In detail, plants were daily exposed to acute UV-B irradiation followed by a recovery period under controlled conditions. The results showed that repeated acute UV-B exposures reduced biomass and photosynthetic parameters, with gradual senescence induction in exposed leaves, reduction of young leaves expansion and root growth inhibition. Negative correlation between increased UV-B and recovery was observed, with marked production of new biomass in plants treated one week or more. CONCLUSIONS: A differential UV-B response was observed: stress response was mainly controlled by a coordinated source-sink carbon allocation, while acclimation process may require UV-B-specific systemic defense response reflected on the phenotypic plasticity of maca plants. Moreover, these differential UV-B responses were also suggested by multifactorial analysis based on biometric and physiological data.


Assuntos
Lepidium/fisiologia , Lepidium/efeitos da radiação , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos da radiação , Clorofila A/química , Fluorescência , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Amido/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 184, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since their discovery, vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) have consistently been investigated as programmed cell death (PCD) initiators and participants in plant development and responses to biotic or abiotic stresses, in part due to similarities with the apoptosis regulator caspase-1. However, recent studies show additional functions of VPE in tomatoes, specifically in sucrose accumulation and fruit ripening. RESULTS: Herein, we evaluated the functions of VPE from sweetpotato, initially in expression pattern analyses of IbVPE1 during development and senescence. Subsequently, we identified physiological functions by overexpressing IbVPE1 in Arabidopsis thaliana, and showed reduced leaf sizes and numbers and early flowering, and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: The present data demonstrate functions of the VPE gene family in development and senescence and in regulation of flowering times, leaf sizes and numbers, and senescence phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Flores/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ipomoea batatas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Escuridão , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fenótipo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 526-534, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128550

RESUMO

With the continued increase of technological uses of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs or nanoceria) and their unregulated disposal, the accumulation of nanoceria in the environment is inevitable. Concomitantly, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels continue to rise, increasing the concentrations of bicarbonate ions in aquatic ecosystems. This study investigates the influence of CeO2 NPs (from 0 to 100 µgL-1) in the presence and absence of an elevated bicarbonate (HCO3-) ion concentration (1 mM), on vibrational biochemical parameters and photosystem II (PSII) activity in leaf discs of Salvinia auriculata. Fourier transform-infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was capable of diagnostic use to understand biochemical and metabolic changes in leaves submitted to the CeO2 NPs and also detected interactive responses between CeO2 NPs and HCO3- exposure at the tissue level. The results showed that the higher CeO2 NPs levels in the presence of HCO3- increased the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and coefficient of photochemical quenching in dark (qPd) compared to the absence of HCO3. Moreover, the presence of HCO3- significantly decreased the NPQ at all levels of CeO2 NPs demonstrating that HCO3- exposure may change the non-radiative process involved in the operation of the photosynthetic apparatus. Overall, the results of this study are useful for providing baseline information on the interactive effects of CeO2 NPs and elevated HCO3- ion concentration on photosynthetic systems.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Cério/toxicidade , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Gleiquênias/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/análise , Gleiquênias/metabolismo , Fluorometria , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083418

RESUMO

EM (effective microorganisms) is a biofertilizer consisting of a mixed culture of potentially beneficial microorganisms. In this study, we investigated the effects of EM treatment on leaf in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II (PSII), yield, and macronutrient content of bean plants grown on different substrates (nutrient rich substrate vs. nutrient poor sandy soil) in controlled environmental conditions (pot experiment in greenhouse). EM-treated plants maintained optimum leaf photosynthetic efficiency two weeks longer than the control plants, and increased yield independent of substrate. The levels of seed nutritionally-relevant molecules (proteins, lipids, and starch) were only slightly modified, apart from the protein content, which increased in plants grown in sandy soil. Although EM can be considered a promising and environmentally friendly technology for sustainable agriculture, more studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of EM, as well as its efficacy under open field conditions.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , Íons , Metais/análise , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo
18.
Aquat Toxicol ; 212: 20-27, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039523

RESUMO

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a series of highly persistent organic pollutants (POPs), are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems. As key primary producers, microalgae are of great importance on evaluating the environmental outcome of PBDEs pollution. In this study, the toxic mechanisms of BDE-47 on the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana were evaluated by measuring multiple physiological processes. Three concentrations of BDE-47 (25, 15 and 5 µg L-1) were used along with two controls (blank: no BDE-47 or DMSO; negative control: only DMSO). Experiments lasted 144 h (6 days), in which the actual BDE-47 concentrations, cell densities, nutrient (nitrate and phosphate) uptake, pigment compositions, photosynthetic physiology, cell morphology and cellular contents (organic carbon and nitrogen) were measured at 12-48 h intervals. The toxic mechanisms of BDE-47 on T. pseudonana cells were evaluated by measuring multiple physiological processes including photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, cellular material synthesis and cell cycle progressions. The cell divisions of T. pseudonana were severely inhibited by the stress of BDE-47, but the photosynthetic parameters were much less declined and recovered earlier than the cell divisions in the same BDE-47 treatments. The unsuppressed uptake rates of nutrients, increased cell volume and cellular contents indicated the cellular material synthesis proceeded normally. Finally, we found that the cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase under the stress of BDE-47, we thus concluded that the inhibition of cell divisions by BDE-47 was not due to the lack of energy or cellular materials, where the cell cycle arrest happened; this might be the most important toxicological outcome.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 680: 23-34, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085442

RESUMO

High dose rates of ionizing radiation have been reported to cause adverse effects such as reduction in reproduction and growth, and damage to protein and lipids in primary producers. However, the relevant effects of ionizing radiation are still poorly understood in aquatic plants. This study was intended to characterize the biological effects and modes of action (MoAs) of ionizing radiation using gamma radiation as the prototypical stressor and duckweed Lemna minor as a model organism. Lemna minor was exposed to 1, 14, 24, 46, 70 mGy/h gamma radiation dose rates from a cobalt-60 source for 7 days following the testing principles of the OECD test guideline 221. A suite of bioassays was applied to assess the biological effects of gamma radiation at multiple levels of biological organization, including detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative stress responses (total glutathione, tGSH; lipid peroxidation, LPO), DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunctions (mitochondrial membrane potential, MMP), photosynthetic parameters (chlorophyll a, chl a; chlorophyll b, chl b; carotenoids; Photosystem II (PSII) performance; CO2 uptake), intercellular signaling (Ca2+ release) and growth. Gamma radiation increased DNA damage, tGSH level and Ca2+ content together with reduction in chlorophyll content, maximal PSII efficiency and CO2 uptake at dose rates between 1 and 14 mGy/h, whereas increases in cellular ROS and LPO, inhibition of MMP and growth were observed at higher dose rates (≥24 mGy/h). A network of toxicity pathways was proposed to portray the causal relationships between gamma radiation-induced physiological responses and adverse outcomes to support the development of Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) for ionizing radiation-mediated effects in primary producers.


Assuntos
Araceae/efeitos da radiação , Raios gama , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
20.
Planta ; 250(2): 589-601, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134341

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The absence of state transitions in a Nt(Hn) cybrid is due to a cleavage of the threonine residue from the misprocessed N-terminus of the LHCII polypeptides. The cooperation between the nucleus and chloroplast genomes is essential for plant photosynthetic fitness. The rapid and specific interactions between nucleus-encoded and chloroplast-encoded proteins are under intense investigation with potential for applications in agriculture and renewable energy technology. Here, we present a novel model for photosynthesis research in which alien henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) chloroplasts function on the nuclear background of a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The result of this coupling is a cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) with inhibited state transitions-a mechanism responsible for balancing energy absorption between photosystems. Protein analysis showed differences in the LHCII composition of the cybrid plants. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a novel banding pattern in the cybrids with at least one additional 'LHCII' band compared to the wild-type parental species. Proteomic work suggested that the N-terminus of at least some of the cybrid Lhcb proteins was missing. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the lack of state transitions-the N-terminal truncation of the Lhcb proteins in the cybrid included the threonine residue that is phosphorylated/dephosphorylated in order to trigger state transitions and therefore crucial energy balancing mechanism in plants.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/genética , Fosforilação , Fotossíntese , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/genética , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Proteômica , Treonina/metabolismo , Tabaco/fisiologia
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