Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 11.094
Filtrar
1.
Mol Cell ; 80(1): 114-126.e8, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916094

RESUMO

DNA replication is carried out by a multi-protein machine called the replisome. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the replisome is composed of over 30 different proteins arranged into multiple subassemblies, each performing distinct activities. Synchrony of these activities is required for efficient replication and preservation of genomic integrity. How this is achieved is particularly puzzling at the lagging strand, where current models of the replisome architecture propose turnover of the canonical lagging strand polymerase, Pol δ, at every cycle of Okazaki fragment synthesis. Here, we established single-molecule fluorescence microscopy protocols to study the binding kinetics of individual replisome subunits in live S. cerevisiae. Our results show long residence times for most subunits at the active replisome, supporting a model where all subassemblies bind tightly and work in a coordinated manner for extended periods, including Pol δ, redefining the architecture of the active eukaryotic replisome.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Células Eucarióticas/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4245, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843629

RESUMO

Diheme-containing succinate:menaquinone oxidoreductases (Sdh) are widespread in Gram-positive bacteria but little is known about the catalytic mechanisms they employ for succinate oxidation by menaquinone. Here, we present the 2.8 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Mycobacterium smegmatis Sdh, which forms a trimer. We identified the membrane-anchored SdhF as a subunit of the complex. The 3 kDa SdhF forms a single transmembrane helix and this helix plays a role in blocking the canonically proximal quinone-binding site. We also identified two distal quinone-binding sites with bound quinones. One distal binding site is formed by neighboring subunits of the complex. Our structure further reveals the electron/proton transfer pathway for succinate oxidation by menaquinone. Moreover, this study provides further structural insights into the physiological significance of a trimeric respiratory complex II. The structure of the menaquinone binding site could provide a framework for the development of Sdh-selective anti-mycobacterial drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Mycobacterium smegmatis/enzimologia , Succinato Desidrogenase/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Catálise , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium smegmatis/química , Oxirredução , Subunidades Proteicas/química , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Ácido Succínico/metabolismo , Vitamina K 2/metabolismo
3.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(4): 402-408, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669208

RESUMO

Aerobic fed-batch cultures were studied as a means of suppressing the production of lactate, which inhibits the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB produce lactate via lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) consumed during glycolysis. Therefore, we focused on NADH oxidase (NOX), employing oxygen as an electron acceptor, as an alternative pathway to LDH for NAD+ regeneration. To avoid glucose repression of NOX and NAD+ consumption by glycolysis exceeding NAD+ regeneration by NOX, glucose was fed gradually. When Lactococcus lactis MG 1363 was aerobically fed at a specific growth rate of 0.2 h-1, the amount of lactate produced per amount of grown cell was reduced to 12% of that in anaerobic batch cultures. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that in addition to NAD+ regeneration by NOX, ATP acquisition by production of acetate and NAD+ regeneration by production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol contributed to suppression of lactate production.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Ácido Láctico/biossíntese , Lactococcus lactis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactococcus lactis/metabolismo , Aerobiose , Glucose/metabolismo , Glicólise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 7844-7855, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652013

RESUMO

The catalytic activity of human AURORA-A kinase (AURKA) regulates mitotic progression, and its frequent overexpression in major forms of epithelial cancer is associated with aneuploidy and carcinogenesis. Here, we report an unexpected, kinase-independent function for AURKA in DNA replication initiation whose inhibition through a class of allosteric inhibitors opens avenues for cancer therapy. We show that genetic depletion of AURKA, or its inhibition by allosteric but not catalytic inhibitors, blocks the G1-S cell cycle transition. A catalytically inactive AURKA mutant suffices to overcome this block. We identify a multiprotein complex between AURKA and the replisome components MCM7, WDHD1 and POLD1 formed during G1, and demonstrate that allosteric but not catalytic inhibitors prevent the chromatin assembly of functional replisomes. Indeed, allosteric but not catalytic AURKA inhibitors sensitize cancer cells to inhibition of the CDC7 kinase subunit of the replication-initiating factor DDK. Thus, our findings define a mechanism essential for replisome assembly during DNA replication initiation that is vulnerable to inhibition as combination therapy in cancer.


Assuntos
Aurora Quinase A/fisiologia , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Aurora Quinase A/antagonistas & inibidores , Aurora Quinase A/genética , Aurora Quinase A/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular , Células HeLa , Humanos , Interfase/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Origem de Replicação
5.
Nature ; 585(7824): 288-292, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641834

RESUMO

The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) is necessary for tumour growth1-6 and its inhibition has demonstrated anti-tumour efficacy in combination with targeted therapies7-9. Furthermore, human brain and lung tumours display robust glucose oxidation by mitochondria10,11. However, it is unclear why a functional ETC is necessary for tumour growth in vivo. ETC function is coupled to the generation of ATP-that is, oxidative phosphorylation and the production of metabolites by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Mitochondrial complexes I and II donate electrons to ubiquinone, resulting in the generation of ubiquinol and the regeneration of the NAD+ and FAD cofactors, and complex III oxidizes ubiquinol back to ubiquinone, which also serves as an electron acceptor for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)-an enzyme necessary for de novo pyrimidine synthesis. Here we show impaired tumour growth in cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III. This phenotype was rescued by ectopic expression of Ciona intestinalis alternative oxidase (AOX)12, which also oxidizes ubiquinol to ubiquinone. Loss of mitochondrial complex I, II or DHODH diminished the tumour growth of AOX-expressing cancer cells deficient in mitochondrial complex III, which highlights the necessity of ubiquinone as an electron acceptor for tumour growth. Cancer cells that lack mitochondrial complex III but can regenerate NAD+ by expression of the NADH oxidase from Lactobacillus brevis (LbNOX)13 targeted to the mitochondria or cytosol were still unable to grow tumours. This suggests that regeneration of NAD+ is not sufficient to drive tumour growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that tumour growth requires the ETC to oxidize ubiquinol, which is essential to drive the oxidative TCA cycle and DHODH activity.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Ciona intestinalis/enzimologia , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Citosol/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactobacillus brevis/enzimologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ubiquinona/metabolismo
6.
Nat Chem Biol ; 16(9): 973-978, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632294

RESUMO

The AROM complex is a multifunctional metabolic machine with ten enzymatic domains catalyzing the five central steps of the shikimate pathway in fungi and protists. We determined its crystal structure and catalytic behavior, and elucidated its conformational space using a combination of experimental and computational approaches. We derived this space in an elementary approach, exploiting an abundance of conformational information from its monofunctional homologs in the Protein Data Bank. It demonstrates how AROM is optimized for spatial compactness while allowing for unrestricted conformational transitions and a decoupled functioning of its individual enzymatic entities. With this architecture, AROM poses a tractable test case for the effects of active site proximity on the efficiency of both natural metabolic systems and biotechnological pathway optimization approaches. We show that a mere colocalization of enzymes is not sufficient to yield a detectable improvement of metabolic throughput.


Assuntos
Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , 3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase/química , 3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase/genética , 3-Fosfoshikimato 1-Carboxiviniltransferase/metabolismo , Acanthamoeba castellanii/química , Domínio Catalítico , Chaetomium/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Fósforo-Oxigênio Liases/química , Fósforo-Oxigênio Liases/genética , Fósforo-Oxigênio Liases/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Ácido Chiquímico/metabolismo , Toxoplasma/química , Difração de Raios X
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3109, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561741

RESUMO

The replication and transfer of genomic material from a cell to its progeny are vital processes in all living systems. Here we visualize the process of chromosome replication in widened E. coli cells. Monitoring the replication of single chromosomes yields clear examples of replication bubbles that reveal that the two replisomes move independently from the origin to the terminus of replication along each of the two arms of the circular chromosome, providing direct support for the so-called train-track model, and against a factory model for replisomes. The origin of replication duplicates near midcell, initially splitting to random directions and subsequently towards the poles. The probability of successful segregation of chromosomes significantly decreases with increasing cell width, indicating that chromosome confinement by the cell boundary is an important driver of DNA segregation. Our findings resolve long standing questions in bacterial chromosome organization.


Assuntos
Segregação de Cromossomos , Cromossomos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008892, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569316

RESUMO

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an essential coenzyme that has emerged as a central hub linking redox equilibrium and signal transduction in living organisms. The homeostasis of NAD is required for plant growth, development, and adaption to environmental cues. In this study, we isolated a chilling hypersensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant named qs-2 and identified the causal mutation in the gene encoding quinolinate synthase (QS) critical for NAD biosynthesis. The qs-2 mutant is also hypersensitive to salt stress and abscisic acid (ABA) but resistant to drought stress. The qs-2 mutant accumulates a reduced level of NAD and over-accumulates reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ABA-hypersensitivity of qs-2 can be rescued by supplementation of NAD precursors and by mutations in the ABA signaling components SnRK2s or RBOHF. Furthermore, ABA-induced over-accumulation of ROS in the qs-2 mutant is dependent on the SnRK2s and RBOHF. The expression of QS gene is repressed directly by ABI4, a transcription factor in the ABA response pathway. Together, our findings reveal an unexpected interplay between NAD biosynthesis and ABA and stress signaling, which is critical for our understanding of the regulation of plant growth and stress responses.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Complexos Multienzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Mutação , NAD/biossíntese , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(14): 8128-8145, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585006

RESUMO

The eukaryotic replisome must faithfully replicate DNA and cope with replication fork blocks and stalling, while simultaneously promoting sister chromatid cohesion. Ctf18-RFC is an alternative PCNA loader that links all these processes together by an unknown mechanism. Here, we use integrative structural biology combined with yeast genetics and biochemistry to highlight the specific functions that Ctf18-RFC plays within the leading strand machinery via an interaction with the catalytic domain of DNA Pol ϵ. We show that a large and unusually flexible interface enables this interaction to occur constitutively throughout the cell cycle and regardless of whether forks are replicating or stalled. We reveal that, by being anchored to the leading strand polymerase, Ctf18-RFC can rapidly signal fork stalling to activate the S phase checkpoint. Moreover, we demonstrate that, independently of checkpoint signaling or chromosome cohesion, Ctf18-RFC functions in parallel to Chl1 and Mrc1 to protect replication forks and cell viability.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Sítios de Ligação , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
10.
Nature ; 583(7814): 122-126, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461692

RESUMO

The cellular NADH/NAD+ ratio is fundamental to biochemistry, but the extent to which it reflects versus drives metabolic physiology in vivo is poorly understood. Here we report the in vivo application of Lactobacillus brevis (Lb)NOX1, a bacterial water-forming NADH oxidase, to assess the metabolic consequences of directly lowering the hepatic cytosolic NADH/NAD+ ratio in mice. By combining this genetic tool with metabolomics, we identify circulating α-hydroxybutyrate levels as a robust marker of an elevated hepatic cytosolic NADH/NAD+ ratio, also known as reductive stress. In humans, elevations in circulating α-hydroxybutyrate levels have previously been associated with impaired glucose tolerance2, insulin resistance3 and mitochondrial disease4, and are associated with a common genetic variant in GCKR5, which has previously been associated with many seemingly disparate metabolic traits. Using LbNOX, we demonstrate that NADH reductive stress mediates the effects of GCKR variation on many metabolic traits, including circulating triglyceride levels, glucose tolerance and FGF21 levels. Our work identifies an elevated hepatic NADH/NAD+ ratio as a latent metabolic parameter that is shaped by human genetic variation and contributes causally to key metabolic traits and diseases. Moreover, it underscores the utility of genetic tools such as LbNOX to empower studies of 'causal metabolism'.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Variação Genética , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Lactobacillus brevis/enzimologia , Lactobacillus brevis/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Life Sci ; 255: 117847, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470450

RESUMO

Icariin (ICA), a flavonol glycoside isolated from Epimedium, has been considered as a potential alternative therapy for ischemic stroke. However, the protective mechanisms of ICA on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) are not fully illuminated yet. The effects of ICA on ER stress and inflammatory response which were involved in the pathological process of cerebral I/R were investigated in vitro. Microglia and neurons were subjected to OGD/R. ICA was administrated to microglia 1 h before OGD and maintained 2 h throughout OGD. At 24 h after reoxygenation, the protein expression of IL-1 ß, IL-6, TNF-α in the supernatant of microglia was measured using ELISA assay; neuronal apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining; and cell viability was detected using CKK-8 assay; the expression of IRE1α, XBP1u, XBP1s, and cleaved caspase-3 in neurons was examined by western blotting and qRT-PCR; the expression of p-IRE1α in neurons was detected by western blotting. We found that OGD/R induced the expression of IL-1 ß, IL-6, TNF-α in the supernatant of microglia; OGD/R and these proinflammatory cytokines promoted the mRNA as well as protein expression of XBP1u, XBP1s and cleaved caspase-3, increased the ratio of p-IRE1α/IRE1α, as well as apoptosis, and decreased cell viability in primary cortical neurons, while ICA reversed the levels of the above factors. IRE1 overexpression enhanced ER stress as well as apoptosis, and impaired the protective effects of ICA. These results suggested that ICA can inhibit apoptosis in neurons after OGD/R through IRE1/XBP1 signaling pathway beside its anti-inflammatory effect.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(5): e1008722, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392214

RESUMO

To survive an environmental stress, organisms must detect the stress and mount an appropriate response. One way that bacteria do so is by phosphorelay systems that respond to a stress by activating a regulator that modifies gene expression. To ensure an appropriate response, a given regulator is typically activated solely by its cognate phosphorelay protein(s). However, we now report that the regulator RcsB is activated by both cognate and non-cognate phosphorelay proteins, depending on the condition experienced by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The RcsC and RcsD proteins form a phosphorelay that activates their cognate regulator RcsB in response to outer membrane stress and cell wall perturbations, conditions Salmonella experiences during infection. Surprisingly, the non-cognate phosphorelay protein BarA activates RcsB during logarithmic growth in Luria-Bertani medium in three ways. That is, BarA's cognate regulator SirA promotes transcription of the rcsDB operon; the SirA-dependent regulatory RNAs CsrB and CsrC further increase RcsB-activated gene transcription; and BarA activates RcsB independently of the RcsC, RcsD, and SirA proteins. Activation of a regulator by multiple sensors broadens the spectrum of environments in which a set of genes is expressed without evolving binding sites for different regulators at each of these genes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/fisiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/metabolismo , Transativadores/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Percepção de Quorum/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/metabolismo
13.
Mol Cell ; 78(4): 670-682.e8, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343944

RESUMO

Biomolecular condensates play a key role in organizing RNAs and proteins into membraneless organelles. Bacterial RNP-bodies (BR-bodies) are a biomolecular condensate containing the RNA degradosome mRNA decay machinery, but the biochemical function of such organization remains poorly defined. Here, we define the RNA substrates of BR-bodies through enrichment of the bodies followed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). We find that long, poorly translated mRNAs, small RNAs, and antisense RNAs are the main substrates, while rRNA, tRNA, and other conserved non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are excluded from these bodies. BR-bodies stimulate the mRNA decay rate of enriched mRNAs, helping to reshape the cellular mRNA pool. We also observe that BR-body formation promotes complete mRNA decay, avoiding the buildup of toxic endo-cleaved mRNA decay intermediates. The combined selective permeability of BR-bodies for both enzymes and substrates together with the stimulation of the sub-steps of mRNA decay provide an effective organization strategy for bacterial mRNA decay.


Assuntos
Caulobacter crescentus/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Organelas/metabolismo , Polirribonucleotídeo Nucleotidiltransferase/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Caulobacter crescentus/genética , Caulobacter crescentus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endorribonucleases/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Organelas/genética , Polirribonucleotídeo Nucleotidiltransferase/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Antissenso/genética , RNA Antissenso/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , RNA de Transferência/genética , RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo
14.
Science ; 368(6488): 283-290, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299949

RESUMO

Metabolons, multiprotein complexes consisting of sequential enzymes of a metabolic pathway, are proposed to be biosynthetic "hotspots" within the cell. However, experimental demonstration of their presence and functions has remained challenging. We used metabolomics and in situ three-dimensional submicrometer chemical imaging of single cells by gas cluster ion beam secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-SIMS) to directly visualize de novo purine biosynthesis by a multienzyme complex, the purinosome. We found that purinosomes comprise nine enzymes that act synergistically, channeling the pathway intermediates to synthesize purine nucleotides, increasing the pathway flux, and influencing the adenosine monophosphate/guanosine monophosphate ratio. Our work also highlights the application of high-resolution GCIB-SIMS for multiplexed biomolecular analysis at the level of single cells.


Assuntos
Metabolômica/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Purinas/biossíntese , Espectrometria de Massa de Íon Secundário/métodos , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230786, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302313

RESUMO

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis and has evolved an ability to survive in hostile host environments. M. tuberculosis is thought to utilize the rTCA cycle to sustain its latent growth during infection, but the enzymatic characteristics and physiological function for the key citrate lyase of the rTCA cycle, MtbCitE, in the important pathogen remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the function of MtbCitE based on its structural properties and sequence comparisons with other bacterial citrate lyase subunits. We showed that several amino acid residues were important for the citrate cleavage activity of MtbCitE. Strikingly, the citrate cleavage activity of MtbCitE was inhibited by ATP, indicating that energy metabolism might couple with the regulation of MtbCitE activity, which differed from other CitEs. More interestingly, deletion of citE from Mycobacterium bovis BCG decreased the mycobacterial survival rate under hypoxic conditions, whereas complementation with citE restored the phenotype to wild-type levels. Consistently, three key rTCA cycle enzymes were positively regulated under hypoxic conditions in mycobacteria. Therefore, we characterized a unique citrate lyase MtbCitE from M. tuberculosis and found that the CitE protein significantly contributed to mycobacterial survival under hypoxic conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Oxo-Ácido-Liases/metabolismo , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos , Mycobacterium bovis/metabolismo , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Células RAW 264.7 , Taxa de Sobrevida , Virulência/fisiologia
16.
Food Chem ; 322: 126767, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330787

RESUMO

Due to the lack of innovative valorization strategies, berry pomaces are a poorly utilized as a cheap source of valuable nutrients and phytochemicals. An effective biorefining scheme was developed to recover functional components from lingonberry pomace by consecutive supercritical CO2 (SFE-CO2), pressurized liquid (PLE) and enzyme assisted (EAE) extractions. SFE-CO2 at optimized parameters yielded 11.8 g/100 g of lipophilic fraction, containing 43.3 and 37.4% of α-linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, respectively. The combined PLE with ethanol and water additionally recovered 61.8 g/100 g of polar constituents and reduced the antioxidant capacity of starting material by up to 94%. The major portion of the antioxidants (89-94% in different assays), anthocyanins (231 mg/100 g pomace) and proanthocyanidins (15.9 g/100 g pomace) was present in PLE-EtOH extract. Cyanidin-3-galactoside was the major anthocyanin (146.9 mg/100 g). High-pressure fractionation was more efficient for obtaining bioactive pomace constituents as compared with conventional and enzyme-assisted extractions.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Solventes/química , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Etanol/química , Frutas/química , Galactosídeos/análise , Galactosídeos/química , Química Verde , Resíduos Industriais , Complexos Multienzimáticos/química , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Pressão , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/química , Água
17.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1988-1994, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241481

RESUMO

The effect of a low-ME diet with a multienzyme (Kemzyme Plus, Kemin, Des Moines, IA) blend on performance, meat quality, and carcass traits was evaluated in Hubbard broiler chicks. A total of 120 Hubbard broiler chicks were allocated to the following 4 experimental groups and every group was separated into 6 replicates, with 5 birds per replicate: control (3,180 kcal/kg of ME), control + 0.50 g/kg diet of enzyme (Cont-Enz), low-ME diet (3,080 kcal/kg), and low-ME + 0.50 g/kg diet of enzyme (low-ME-Enz). The trail lasted for 16 D (32 to 48 D of age). No significant differences in growth parameters or carcass traits were observed among treatments. However, liver weight increased with the low-ME-Enz diet (P = 0.038). The low-ME diet recorded the highest weight for the bursa (P = 0.043) and thymus (P = 0.019). Dietary treatments had significant impacts on the length of duodenum, ileum, and cecum, as well as the weight of duodenum. The length of duodenum, ileum, and cecum increased with enzyme supplementation. The myofibril fragmentation index was lower with the Cont-Enz, low-ME, and low-ME-Enz diets than with the control diet (P = 0.043). The shear force increased with the low-ME-Enz diet (P = 0.022) than the control diet. Dietary treatments influenced breast meat yellowness (P = 0.019), whereas the low-ME diet had the lowest yellowness at the slaughtering age. The dietary treatments affected the breast meat pH (P = 0.001), with the control diet having the highest pH value after 24 hours. Thus, there was no effect of low-ME or enzyme supplementation to the control or low-ME diet on growth performance or carcass yield. However, feeding a low-ME diet or Cont-Enz preparation influenced organ and small intestine weights and meat characteristics.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Carne/análise , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Complexos Multienzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(13)2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303553

RESUMO

At present, little is known about the RNA metabolism driven by the RNA degradosome in cyanobacteria. RNA helicase and enolase are the common components of the RNA degradosome in many bacteria. Here, we provide evidence that both enolase and the DEAD-box RNA helicase CrhB can interact with RNase E in Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. strain PCC 7120 (referred to here as PCC 7120). Furthermore, we found that the C-terminal domains of CrhB and AnaEno (enolase of PCC 7120) are required for the interaction, respectively. Moreover, their recognition motifs for AnaRne (RNase E of PCC 7120) turned out to be located in the N-terminal catalytic domain, which is obviously different from those identified previously in Proteobacteria We also demonstrated in enzyme activity assays that CrhB can induce AnaRne to degrade double-stranded RNA with a 5' tail. Furthermore, we investigated the localization of CrhB and AnaRne by green fluorescent protein (GFP) translation fusion in situ and found that they both localized in the center of the PCC 7120 cytoplasm. This localization pattern is also different from the membrane binding of RNase E and RhlB in Escherichia coli Together with the previous identification of polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) in PCC 7120, our results show that there is an RNA degradosome-like complex with a different assembly mechanism in cyanobacteria.IMPORTANCE In all domains of life, RNA turnover is important for gene regulation and quality control. The process of RNA metabolism is regulated by many RNA-processing enzymes and assistant proteins, where these proteins usually exist as complexes. However, there is little known about the RNA metabolism, as well as about the RNA degradation complex. In the present study, we described an RNA degradosome-like complex in cyanobacteria and revealed an assembly mechanism different from that of E. coli Moreover, CrhB could help RNase E in Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 degrade double-stranded RNA with a 5' tail. In addition, CrhB and AnaRne have similar cytoplasm localizations, in contrast to the membrane localization in E. coli.


Assuntos
Anabaena/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Anabaena/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Polirribonucleotídeo Nucleotidiltransferase/genética , Polirribonucleotídeo Nucleotidiltransferase/metabolismo , RNA Helicases/genética , RNA Helicases/metabolismo
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1478, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198374

RESUMO

The Escherichia coli transcription-repair coupling factor Mfd displaces stalled RNA polymerase and delivers the stall site to the nucleotide excision repair factors UvrAB for damage detection. Whether this handoff from RNA polymerase to UvrA occurs via the Mfd-UvrA2-UvrB complex or alternate reaction intermediates in cells remains unclear. Here, we visualise Mfd in actively growing cells and determine the catalytic requirements for faithful recruitment of nucleotide excision repair proteins. We find that ATP hydrolysis by UvrA governs formation and disassembly of the Mfd-UvrA2 complex. Further, Mfd-UvrA2-UvrB complexes formed by UvrB mutants deficient in DNA loading and damage recognition are impaired in successful handoff. Our single-molecule dissection of interactions of Mfd with its partner proteins inside live cells shows that the dissociation of Mfd is tightly coupled to successful loading of UvrB, providing a mechanism via which loading of UvrB occurs in a strand-specific manner.


Assuntos
Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/metabolismo , Reparo do DNA/fisiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Imagem Individual de Molécula/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases , Proteínas de Bactérias , ATPases Bacterianas Próton-Translocadoras , DNA Helicases/genética , DNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Modelos Moleculares , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Dedos de Zinco/genética , Dedos de Zinco/fisiologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(13): 7516-7523, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170009

RESUMO

Among CO2-fixing metabolic pathways in nature, the linear Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) in phylogenetically diverse acetate-forming acetogens comprises the most energetically efficient pathway, requires the least number of reactions, and converts CO2 to formate and then into acetyl-CoA. Despite two genes encoding glycine synthase being well-conserved in WLP gene clusters, the functional role of glycine synthase under autotrophic growth conditions has remained uncertain. Here, using the reconstructed genome-scale metabolic model iSL771 based on the completed genome sequence, transcriptomics, 13C isotope-based metabolite-tracing experiments, biochemical assays, and heterologous expression of the pathway in another acetogen, we discovered that the WLP and the glycine synthase pathway are functionally interconnected to fix CO2, subsequently converting CO2 into acetyl-CoA, acetyl-phosphate, and serine. Moreover, the functional cooperation of the pathways enhances CO2 consumption and cellular growth rates via bypassing reducing power required reactions for cellular metabolism during autotrophic growth of acetogens.


Assuntos
Aminoácido Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Aminometiltransferase/metabolismo , Processos Autotróficos/fisiologia , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Aminoácido Oxirredutases/genética , Aminometiltransferase/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clostridium/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Família Multigênica , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA