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1.
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 273-276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877380

RESUMO

CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman presented to our emergency department during the outbreak of the covid-19 emergency in Italy with syncope, anosmia, mild dyspnoea and atypical chest and dorsal pain. A chest CT scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) and bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity, compatible with interstitial pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. For the persistence of chest pain, despite the analgesic therapy, we decided to treat her with a TEVAR. Patient's chest and back pain resolved during the first few days after the procedure. No surgical or respiratory complications occurred and the patient was discharged 14 days after surgery. DISCUSSION: By performing the operation under local anesthesia, it was possible to limit both the staff inside the operatory room and droplet/aerosol release. Since we had to perform the operation in a hemodynamics room, thanks to the limited extension of the endoprosthesis and the good caliber of the right vertebral artery we were able to reduce the risk of spinal cord ischemia despite the lack of a revascularization of the left subclavian artery. CONCLUSIONS: A minimally invasive total endovascular approach allows, through local anesthesia and percutaneous access, to avoid surgical cut down and orotracheal intubation. This, combined with a defined management protocol for infected patients, seems to be a reasonable way to perform endovascular aortic procedures in urgent setting, even in a SARSCoV- 2 positive patient. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Dissection, TEVAR.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Anestesia Local , Aneurisma Dissecante/complicações , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/complicações , Contraindicações de Procedimentos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Salas Cirúrgicas , Isolamento de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Isquemia do Cordão Espinal/prevenção & controle , Artéria Vertebral/cirurgia
2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(4): 847-858, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No consensus exists about the safest position for performing the osseous genioplasty, with 5 to 6 mm below the mental foramen being the most frequently recommended position. This study intends to generate a safe distance guide to minimize the risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury during osteotomy. METHODS: Pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography-derived three-dimensional models from adult patients with skeletal class I to III patterns and cleft lip/palate deformity who underwent orthodontic-surgical interventions (n = 317) were analyzed. A three-dimensional vertical distance between the inferior margin of the mental foramen and the lowest point of the inferior alveolar nerve canal was measured in each three-dimensional hemimandible (n = 634). Statistical analysis was performed to generate the safe distance guide in a stepwise fashion at 95, 99, and 99.99 percent confidence levels. RESULTS: Class III (4.35 ± 1.42 mm) and cleft lip/palate (4.42 ± 1.53 mm) groups presented significantly (p < 0.001) larger three-dimensional distances than class I (3.44 ± 1.54 mm) and class II (3.66 ± 1.51 mm) groups. By considering the 5- to 6-mm safe distance parameter, 6.4, 5.0, 10.6, 16, and 9.9 percent of hemimandibles were at risk of osteotomy-induced nerve injury in the class I, class II, class III, cleft lip/palate, and overall cohorts, respectively. Overall, the safe distance zone to perform the osteotomy was set at 7.06, 8.01, and 9.12 mm below the mental foramen, with risk probabilities of 2.5, 0.5, and 0.0005 percent, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to patient safety and surgeon practice by proving a safe distance guide for genioplasty.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Mentoplastia/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos do Nervo Mandibular/prevenção & controle , Nervo Mandibular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21517, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791767

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension. It is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Inappropriate treatment may cause worsening of symptoms which may lead to fatal outcomes. Anesthetic considerations and management for pulmonary hypertension are well described, but few anesthesiologists are aware of the entity of PVOD and its management. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of PVOD in a 73-year-old female who was on concurrent aspirin and anagrelide, requiring emergent open femoral hernia repair. DIAGNOSIS: PVOD and incarcerated femoral hernia INTERVENTION:: Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) was performed to enable the surgery. OUTCOME: Surgery was completed successfully under central neuraxial anesthesia and the patient remained stable and comfortable throughout, avoiding the need for general anesthesia. Due to the concurrent aspirin and anagrelide therapy, significant bleeding from the CSE puncture site was observed immediately post-operatively. This was resolved with external manual compression and withholding the aspirin and anagrelide. Patient remained well without neurological deficit and was discharged postoperative day seven. LESSONS: It is important to differentiate PVOD from PAH due to the controversial use of pulmonary vasodilators in PVOD. Pulmonary vasodilator is commonly used to treat acute pulmonary hypertension in PAH but its usage may lead to pulmonary edema in patients with PVOD. Hence, with no ideal treatment available, the avoidance of general anesthesia is crucial to prevent acute pulmonary hypertensive crisis in patient with PVOD. However, this needs to be weighed against the elevated risk of central neuraxial bleeding when performing a CSE in a patient on concurrent aspirin and anagrelide therapy. Calculated decision-making considering the risks and benefits of all alternatives should be carried out in such a scenario, and measures should be taken in anticipation of the potential consequences of the eventual decision. CONCLUSION: It is important to differentiate PVOD from PAH. PVOD has unique anesthetic considerations due to the controversial use of pulmonary vasodilators. This case also emphasizes the importance of active anticipation of potential issues and adequate follow up.


Assuntos
Anestesia Epidural , Raquianestesia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatia Veno-Oclusiva/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Hérnia Femoral/cirurgia , Herniorrafia , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20946, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The beach chair position (BCP), used during shoulder surgery, is associated with hypotension, bradycardia, and risk of cerebral hypoperfusion. Phenylephrine is commonly used as a first treatment of choice of intraoperative hypotension during surgery. We evaluated the hemodynamic effects of 2 doses of intravenous phenylephrine infusion administered before being placed in BCP for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. The primary endpoint was the incidence of hypotension after positional change. METHODS: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive either intravenous normal saline (group NS) or intravenous phenylephrine infusion (0.5 µg/kg/min, group LP or 1.0 µg/kg/min, group HP) for 5 minutes before being placed in the BCP. Mean arterial pressure(MAP), heart rate, stroke volume variation, and cardiac index were measured before and after positional change. RESULTS: The total incidence of hypotension after the BCP was 93.65%, but was not significantly different among the 3 groups. However, there was a significant difference in trends between the groups for MAP for 5 minutes after BCP (P = .028). Comparison of changes in MAP at 1 minute compared to post-induction MAP was significantly different between group HP and group NS (P = .014). CONCLUSION: Infusion of 0.5 and 1.0 µg/kg/min of phenylephrine for 5 minutes before the BCP has no preventive effect for incidence of hypotension. However, this study showed that 1.0 µg/kg/min of phenylephrine infusion for 5 minutes can attenuate the severity of hypotension.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Posicionamento do Paciente/efeitos adversos , Fenilefrina/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
5.
Ann Surg ; 272(2): 220-226, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and evaluate a novel instrument to measure SEVERE processes using video data. BACKGROUND: Surgical video data can serve an important role in understanding the relationship between intraoperative events and postoperative outcomes. However, a standard tool to measure severity of intraoperative events is not yet available. METHODS: Items to be included in the instrument were identified through literature and video reviews. A committee of experts guided item reduction, including pilot tests and revisions, and determined weighted scores. Content validity was evaluated using a validated sensibility questionnaire. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated on a sample of 120 patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure, in which comprehensive video data was obtained. RESULTS: SEVERE index measures severity of 5 event types using ordinal scales. Each intraoperative event is given a weighted score out of 10. Inter-rater reliability was excellent [0.87 (95%-confidence interval, 0.77-0.92)]. In a sample of consecutive 120 patients undergoing gastric bypass procedures, a median of 12 events [interquartile range (IQR) 9-18] occurred per patient and bleeding was the most frequent type (median 10, IQR 7-14). The median SEVERE score per case was 11.3 (IQR 8.3-16.9). In risk-adjusted multivariable regression models, history of previous abdominal surgery (P = 0.02) and body mass index (P = 0.005) were associated with SEVERE scores, demonstrating construct validity evidence. CONCLUSION: The SEVERE index may prove to be a useful instrument in identifying patients with high risk of developing postoperative complications.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Gravação em Vídeo , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Ontário , Projetos Piloto , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD002251, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal hypotension is the most frequent complication of spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. It can be associated with nausea or vomiting and may pose serious risks to the mother (unconsciousness, pulmonary aspiration) and baby (hypoxia, acidosis, neurological injury). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prophylactic interventions for hypotension following spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (9 August 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, including full texts and abstracts, comparing interventions to prevent hypotension with placebo or alternative treatment in women having spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. We excluded studies if hypotension was not an outcome measure. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data from eligible studies. We report 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 125 studies involving 9469 women. Interventions were to prevent maternal hypotension following spinal anaesthesia only, and we excluded any interventions considered active treatment. All the included studies reported the review's primary outcome. Across 49 comparisons, we identified three intervention groups: intravenous fluids, pharmacological interventions, and physical interventions. Authors reported no serious adverse effects with any of the interventions investigated. Most trials reported hypotension requiring intervention and Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes as the only outcomes. None of the trials included in the comparisons we describe reported admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Crystalloid versus control (no fluids) Fewer women experienced hypotension in the crystalloid group compared with no fluids (average risk ratio (RR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.98; 370 women; 5 studies; low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference between groups in numbers of women with nausea and vomiting (average RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.01 to 3.91; 1 study; 69 women; very low-quality evidence). No baby had an Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes in either group (60 babies, low-quality evidence). Colloid versus crystalloid Fewer women experienced hypotension in the colloid group compared with the crystalloid group (average RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.81; 2009 women; 27 studies; very low-quality evidence). There were no clear differences between groups for maternal hypertension requiring intervention (average RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.09 to 4.46, 3 studies, 327 women; very low-quality evidence), maternal bradycardia requiring intervention (average RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.78, 5 studies, 413 women; very low-quality evidence), nausea and/or vomiting (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.19, 14 studies, 1058 women, I² = 29%; very low-quality evidence), neonatal acidosis (average RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.15 to 4.52, 6 studies, 678 babies; very low-quality evidence), or Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes (average RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.05, 10 studies, 730 babies; very low-quality evidence). Ephedrine versus phenylephrine There were no clear differences between ephedrine and phenylephrine groups for preventing maternal hypotension (average RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.18; 401 women; 8 studies; very low-quality evidence) or hypertension (average RR 1.72, 95% CI 0.71 to 4.16, 2 studies, 118 women, low-quality evidence). Rates of bradycardia were lower in the ephedrine group (average RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.64, 5 studies, 304 women, low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference in the number of women with nausea and/or vomiting (average RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.49, 4 studies, 204 women, I² = 37%, very low-quality evidence), or babies with neonatal acidosis (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.07 to 12.00, 3 studies, 175 babies, low-quality evidence). No baby had an Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes in either group (321 babies; low-quality evidence). Ondansetron versus control Ondansetron administration was more effective than control (placebo saline) for preventing hypotension requiring treatment (average RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.83; 740 women, 8 studies, low-quality evidence), bradycardia requiring treatment (average RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.87; 740 women, 8 studies, low-quality evidence), and nausea and/or vomiting (average RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.51; 653 women, 7 studies, low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference between the groups in rates of neonatal acidosis (average RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.09; 134 babies; 2 studies, low-quality evidence) or Apgar scores of less than 8 at five minutes (284 babies, low-quality evidence). Lower limb compression versus control Lower limb compression was more effective than control for preventing hypotension (average RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.78, 11 studies, 705 women, I² = 65%, very low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference between the groups in rates of bradycardia (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.11 to 3.56, 1 study, 74 women, very low-quality evidence) or nausea and/or vomiting (average RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.27, 4 studies, 276 women, I² = 32%, very-low quality evidence). No baby had an Apgar score of less than 8 at five minutes in either group (130 babies, very low-quality evidence). Walking versus lying There was no clear difference between the groups for women with hypotension requiring treatment (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.21, 1 study, 37 women, very low-quality evidence). Many included studies reported little to no information that would allow an assessment of their risk of bias, limiting our ability to draw meaningful conclusions. GRADE assessments of the quality of evidence ranged from very low to low. We downgraded evidence for limitations in study design, imprecision, and indirectness; most studies assessed only women scheduled for elective caesarean sections. External validity also needs consideration. Readers should question the use of colloids in this context given the serious potential side effects such as allergy and renal failure associated with their administration. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: While interventions such as crystalloids, colloids, ephedrine, phenylephrine, ondansetron, or lower leg compression can reduce the incidence of hypotension, none have been shown to eliminate the need to treat maternal hypotension in some women. We cannot draw any conclusions regarding rare adverse effects associated with use of the interventions (for example colloids) due to the relatively small numbers of women studied.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Cesárea , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Coloides/uso terapêutico , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Efedrina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Soluções Isotônicas/uso terapêutico , Ondansetron/uso terapêutico , Fenilefrina/uso terapêutico , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Caminhada
7.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (6): 82-89, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate loading on the course of perioperative period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 93 patients who underwent elective abdominal and retroperitoneal surgery. In the main group (n=47), carbohydrate drink was prescribed prior to surgery (33.5 g of carbohydrates and 4 g of hydrolyzed protein per 100 ml): 400 ml in the evening before surgery and 200 ml 2 hours before surgery. The control group included 46 patients who followed conventional fasting protocol recommended by the ASA (solid food no later than 6 hours before surgery, intake of clear fluids no later than 2 hours before surgery). Surgical interventions and anesthetic management were similar in both groups. RESULTS: There were no differences in perioperative glycemia between both groups. The main group was characterized by less intraoperative infusion volume and more stable hemodynamic parameters, the number of patients with organ dysfunction and complications was significantly lower. Postoperative nausea and vomiting and general weakness were less significant in the main group while subjective assessment of patient's satisfaction with postoperative period was higher. CONCLUSION: Preoperative carbohydrate loading does not affect perioperative glycemia, reduces intraoperative infusion volume, the number of patients with organ dysfunction and complications, postoperative nausea and vomiting, ensures more stable intraoperative hemodynamics and more comfortable subjective perception of early postoperative period.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Jejum , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
8.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(5): 458-459, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rigid oesophagoscopy is a widely used therapeutic and diagnostic procedure. Smooth friction-free insertion of the rigid scope is important to prevent oral and oesophageal mucosal damage, as such damage can cause delays in oral intake or more serious complications such as perforation. Protection appliances such as gum guards are useful adjuncts to cushion the teeth in rigid oesophagoscopy; however, there are no specific adjuncts for the edentulous patient. METHODS: In order to investigate different adjuncts, the force required to pull a standard adult rigid oesophagoscope from a metal clamp whilst enclosed in dry gauze, wet gauze, a gum guard or sleek on gauze was recorded, and a prospective audit of post-procedural trauma was performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Less force was required to create movement of the scope against sleek on gauze, with a lower rate of oral trauma (8 per cent) compared to that reported in the literature. Sleek on gauze is recommended for the edentulous patient.


Assuntos
Esofagoscópios/efeitos adversos , Esofagoscopia/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Boca Edêntula/complicações , Boca/lesões , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Esofagoscopia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Protetores Bucais , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(1): 53-55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549725

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to describe a novel approach to manage the challenges of phacoemulsification in vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: Intraoperative titrated intravitreal injection of balanced salt solution (BSS) through pars plana was done using a 30G needle hooked to a 1 cc syringe to build up the vitreous pressure. RESULTS: Five eyes of five patients who had previous vitrectomy were given intraoperative injection. This led to the prevention of lens-iris diaphragm retropulsion and routine completion of phacoemulsification. The preoperative visual acuity was < 6/60 in all patients. The postoperative visual acuity was 6/9 or better in all patients, except in one patient which was 6/60, which is explained by diabetic ischemic maculopathy. Neither injection-related intraoperative nor postoperative complications were noted. CONCLUSION: Challenges of phacoemulsification in vitrectomized eyes can be prevented by a simple titrated intraoperative injection of BSS intravitreally through pars plana.


Assuntos
Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Facoemulsificação/métodos , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Vitrectomia , Corpo Vítreo/cirurgia , Idoso , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Injeções Intravítreas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia
10.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(5): 568-572, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349598

RESUMO

Continuous technical improvement in spinal surgical procedures, with the aim of enhancing patient outcomes, can be assisted by the deployment of advanced technologies including navigation, intraoperative CT imaging, and surgical robots. The latest generation of robotic surgical systems allows the simultaneous application of a range of digital features that provide the surgeon with an improved view of the surgical field, often through a narrow portal. There is emerging evidence that procedure-related complications and intraoperative blood loss can be reduced if the new technologies are used by appropriately trained surgeons. Acceptance of the role of surgical robots has increased in recent years among a number of surgical specialities including general surgery, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgeons performing major joint arthroplasty. However, ethical challenges have emerged with the rollout of these innovations, such as ensuring surgeon competence in the use of surgical robotics and avoiding financial conflicts of interest. Therefore, it is essential that trainees aspiring to become spinal surgeons as well as established spinal specialists should develop the necessary skills to use robotic technology safely and effectively and understand the ethical framework within which the technology is introduced. Traditional and more recently developed platforms exist to aid skill acquisition and surgical training which are described. The aim of this narrative review is to describe the role of surgical robotics in spinal surgery, describe measures of proficiency, and present the range of training platforms that institutions can use to ensure they employ confident spine surgeons adequately prepared for the era of robotic spinal surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(5):568-572.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/normas , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(20): e20254, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will be designed to appraise the effects of intraoperative pressure ulcer preventive nursing (IPUPN) on inflammatory markers (IMs) in patients with high-risk pressure ulcers (HRPU) based on high quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: In this study, we will perform a rigorous literature search from the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database. All electronic databases will be retrieved from their initial time to March 1, 2020 without limitations of language and publication status. We will only consider high quality RCTs that explored the effects of IPUPN on IMs in patients with HRPU. Two investigators will identify relevant trials, extract data, and appraise risk of bias in each eligible trial. Data will be pooled by either a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model according to the results of heterogeneity identification. The primary outcomes include IMs, and incidence of new pressure ulcers. The secondary outcomes are time to ulcer development, quality of life, length of hospital stay, and adverse events. Statistical analysis will be undertaken using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This study will summarize high quality clinical evidence of RCTs to evaluate the effects of IPUPN on IMs in patients with HRPU. CONCLUSION: The expected findings may provide helpful evidence to determine whether IPUPN is an effective intervention on IMs in patients with HRPU. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202040029.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Inflamação/sangue , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores/sangue , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/enfermagem , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Metanálise como Assunto , Lesão por Pressão/enfermagem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20036, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For relatively invasive upper gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, such as an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and also lower gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, intravenous anesthesia is routinely used to reduce patient anxiety. However, with the use of intravenous anesthesia, even at mild to moderate depth of anesthesia, there is always a risk of upper airway obstruction due to a relaxation of the upper airway muscles.With the advent of nasal high flow (NHF) devices that allow humidified high flow air through the nasal cavity, can be used as a respiratory management method in the context of anesthesia. AIRVO is commonly used for patients with obstructive sleep apnea and other respiratory disorders. This device uses a mild positive pressure load (several cmH2O) that improves carbon dioxide (CO2) washout and reduces rebreathing to improve respiratory function and therefore is widely used to prevent hypoxemia and hypercapnia.This study aims to maintain upper airway patency by applying NHF with air (AIRVO) as a respiratory management method during intravenous anesthesia for patients undergoing an ERCP. In addition, this study investigates whether the use of an NHF device in this context can prevent intraoperative hypercapnia and hypoxemia. METHODS/DESIGN: This study design employed 2 groups of subjects. Both received intravenous anesthesia while undergoing an ERCP, and 1 group also used a concurrent nasal cannula NHF device. Here we examine if the use of an NHF device during intravenous anesthesia can prevent hypoxemia and hypercapnia, which could translate to improved anesthesia management.Efficacy endpoints were assessed using a transcutaneous CO2 monitor (TCM). This device measured the changes in CO2 concentration during treatment. Transcutaneous CO2 (PtcCO2) concentrations of 60 mm Hg or more (PaCO2 > 55 mm Hg) were considered marked hypercapnia. PtcCO2 concentrations of 50 to 60 mm Hg or more (equivalent to PaCO2 > 45 mm Hg) were considered moderate hypercapnia.Furthermore, the incidence of hypoxemia with a transcutaneous oxygen saturation value of 90% or less, and whether the use of NHF was effective in preventing this adverse clinical event were evaluated. DISCUSSION: The purpose of this study was to obtain evidence for the utility of NHF as a potential therapeutic device for patients undergoing an ERCP under sedation, assessed by determining if the incidence rates of hypercapnia and hypoxemia decreased in the NHF device group, compared to the control group that did not use this device. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered in the jRCTs 072190021.URL https://jrct.niph.go.jp/en-latest-detail/jRCTs072190021.


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Hipercapnia/prevenção & controle , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Oxigenoterapia , Adulto , Cânula , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Humanos , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20038, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For relatively invasive upper gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, such as an endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), intravenous anesthesia is routinely used to reduce patient anxiety. However, with the use of intravenous sedation, even at mild to moderate depth of anesthesia, there is always a risk of upper airway obstruction due to a relaxation of the upper airway muscles.With the advent of Nasal High Flow (NHF) devices that allow humidified high flow air through the nasal cavity, can be used as a respiratory management method in the context of anesthesia. AIRVO is commonly used for patients with obstructive sleep apnea and other respiratory disorders. This device uses a mild positive pressure load (several cmH2O) that improves carbon dioxide (CO2) washout and reduces rebreathing to improve respiratory function and therefore is widely used to prevent hypoxemia and hypercapnia.This study aims to maintain upper airway patency by applying NHF with air (AIRVO) as a respiratory management method during intravenous anesthesia for patients undergoing an ESD. In addition, this study investigates whether the use of an NHF device in this context can prevent intraoperative hypercapnia and hypoxemia. METHODS/DESIGN: This study design employed 2 groups of subjects. Both received intravenous anesthesia while undergoing an ESD, and 1 group also used a concurrent nasal cannula NHF device. Here we examine if the use of an NHF device during intravenous anesthesia can prevent hypoxemia and hypercapnia, which could translate to improved anesthesia management.Efficacy endpoints were assessed using a transcutaneous CO2 monitor. This device measured the changes in CO2 concentration during treatment. Transcutaneous CO2 (PtcCO2) concentrations of 60 mmHg or more (PaCO2 > 55 mmHg) were considered marked hypercapnia. PtcCO2 concentrations of 50 to 60 mmHg or more (equivalent to PaCO2 > 45 mmHg) were considered moderate hypercapnia.Furthermore, the incidence of hypoxemia with a transcutaneous oxygen saturation value of 90% or less, and whether the use of NHF was effective in preventing this adverse clinical event were evaluated. DISCUSSION: The purpose of this study was to obtain evidence for the utility of NHF as a potential therapeutic device for patients undergoing an ESD under anesthesia, assessed by determining if the incidence rates of hypercapnia and hypoxemia decreased in the NHF device group, compared to the control group that did not use of this device. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered the jRCTs 072190022.URL https://jrct.niph.go.jp/en-latest-detail/jRCTs072190022.


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Hipercapnia/prevenção & controle , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Oxigenoterapia , Adulto , Humanos , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação
14.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3261, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to validate the Risk Assessment Scale for the Development of Injuries due to Surgical Positioning in the stratification of risk for injury development in perioperative patients at a rehabilitation hospital. METHOD: analytical, longitudinal and quantitative study. An instrument and the scale were used in the three perioperative phases in 106 patients. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: most patients showed high risk for perioperative injuries, both in the scale score with estimated time and in the real-time score, with a mean of 19.97 (±3.02) and 19.96 (±3.12), respectively. Most participants did not show skin lesions (87.8%) or pain (92.5%). Inferential analysis enabled us to assert that the scale scores are associated with the appearance of injuries resulting from positioning, therefore, it can adequately predict that low-risk patients are unlikely to have injuries and those at high risk are more likely to develop injuries. CONCLUSION: the scale validation is shown by the association of scores with the appearance of injuries, therefore, it is a valid and useful tool, and it can guide the clinical practice of perioperative nurses in rehabilitation hospitals in order to reduce risk for injuries due to surgical positioning.


Assuntos
Hospitais de Reabilitação/normas , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Posicionamento do Paciente/efeitos adversos , Enfermagem Perioperatória/normas , Fatores de Risco , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
15.
Ann Surg ; 272(1): 3-23, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BDI is the most common serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. To address this problem, a multi-society consensus conference was held to develop evidenced-based recommendations for safe cholecystectomy and prevention of BDI. METHODS: Literature reviews were conducted for 18 key questions across 6 broad topics around cholecystectomy directed by a steering group and subject experts from 5 surgical societies (Society of Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons, Americas Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association, International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association, Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, and European Association for Endoscopic Surgery). Evidence-based recommendations were formulated using the grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation methodology. When evidence-based recommendations could not be made, expert opinion was documented. A number of recommendations for future research were also documented. Recommendations were presented at a consensus meeting in October 2018 and were voted on by an international panel of 25 experts with greater than 80% agreement considered consensus. RESULTS: Consensus was reached on 17 of 18 questions by the guideline development group and expert panel with high concordance from audience participation. Most recommendations were conditional due to low certainty of evidence. Strong recommendations were made for (1) use of intraoperative biliary imaging for uncertainty of anatomy or suspicion of biliary injury; and (2) referral of patients with confirmed or suspected BDI to an experienced surgeon/multispecialty hepatobiliary team. CONCLUSIONS: These consensus recommendations should provide guidance to surgeons, training programs, hospitals, and professional societies for strategies that have the potential to reduce BDIs and positively impact patient outcomes. Development of clinical and educational research initiatives based on these recommendations may drive further improvement in the quality of surgical care for patients undergoing cholecystectomy.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/lesões , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/normas , Doença Iatrogênica/prevenção & controle , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Anesth Analg ; 131(2): 527-536, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Catecholamine inotropes are frequently used after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but may have undesirable effects. The aim was to identify whether the routine use of inhaled pulmonary vasodilators might reduce the requirement for inotrope drugs after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of sequential patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the Royal Melbourne Hospital performed by a single surgeon and anesthesia care team, within 14 months before and after routine implementation of inhaled pulmonary vasodilators, August 2017. Milrinone 4 mg and iloprost 20 µg were inhaled using a vibrating mesh nebulizer (Aerogen) before initiation of CPB and at chest closure. Other aspects of clinical management were unaltered over the time period. Two investigators blinded to each other extracted data from electronic and written medical records. The primary outcome was any use of inotropes in the perioperative period; a Fisher exact test was used to analyze any differences between the 2 groups. Demographic data, hemodynamic data, and use of inotropes and vasopressors were collected from induction of anesthesia to 36 hours postoperative in the intensive care unit (ICU). Hospital and ICU length of stay, cost, and complications were collected. RESULTS: Any use of inotropes was significantly lower with inhaled pulmonary dilators (62.5% vs 86.8%, odds ratio [95% confidence interval {CI}], 0.253 (0.083-0.764); P = .011), including intraoperative inotrope use (37.5% vs 86.8%, odds ratio [95% CI], 0.091 (0.03-0.275); P < .001). ICU length of stay was significantly lower with inhaled pulmonary dilators (45 hours, interquartile range [IQR], 27-65 vs 50 hours, IQR, 45-74; P = .026). There were no significant differences among major postoperative complications or costs between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Routine use of inhaled milrinone 4 mg and iloprost 20 µg before and after CPB is associated with reduced postoperative inotrope use.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Iloprosta/administração & dosagem , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Milrinona/administração & dosagem , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(6): 684-692, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether remifentanil infusion decreased intraoperative hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance compared with intermittent fentanyl administration in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a randomised, prospective, open-label trial. Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery (n=116) were randomised to receive either continuous intravenous remifentanil infusion or intermittent fentanyl boluses. Hourly blood glucose values were obtained for 24 h starting from induction of anaesthesia. The difference in percentage of patients with ≥2 intraoperative blood glucose concentrations >10 mM (180 mg dl-1) between the groups was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included insulin requirements, select stress hormone and inflammatory cytokine concentrations, and safety events and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: The trial included 106 subjects in the final intention-to-treat analysis. There were fewer patients with ≥2 intraoperative blood glucose values >10 mM (180 mg dl-1) in the remifentanil group (17 [31.5%]) compared with the fentanyl group (33 [63.5%]) (relative risk: 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-0.77; P=0.001). The administered intraoperative insulin was a median of 8.1 units (range: 0-46.7) in the fentanyl group and 2.9 units (range: 0-35.1) in the remifentanil group (median difference=5 units; 95% CI: 1-7; P=0.004). Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone were increased less in the remifentanil group (P<0.001), but there was no relative decrease in this group in select inflammatory cytokines. Postoperative measures of glycaemic control and adverse clinical outcomes were not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with patients treated with intermittent fentanyl, patients receiving continuous remifentanil infusion had fewer episodes of hyperglycaemia and less need for insulin administration during the intraoperative period of cardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02349152.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Resistência à Insulina , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Remifentanil/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos Opioides/sangue , Feminino , Fentanila/sangue , Fentanila/farmacologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Complicações Intraoperatórias/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Perioperatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Remifentanil/sangue
19.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(3): 441-447, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324665

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There have been both technological and philosophical advances over the last decade regarding pacemakers and implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Collectively, these devices are currently referred to as cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Technological advances include the introduction of leadless pacemakers, subcutaneous defibrillators and cardiac event recorders, enhancements regarding compatibility of CIEDs for MRI scanning, the ability to interrogate devices remotely, and improved programming modes that preserve battery life. Philosophical advances have been mainly in the area of perioperative management of CIED patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Current practice recommendations now acknowledge that not every patient requires a formal interrogation of their CIED before and after surgery (as was previously recommended). The response to magnet application is standardized across manufacturer's platforms, and it is known that sources of electromagnetic interference remote from the CIED and its leads do not usually cause any interference with device function. SUMMARY: Educated anesthesia teams can independently manage the vast majority of CIED patients perioperatively with magnet application alone. Furthermore, this portends enhanced patient safety and improved workflows in the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Anestesiologia/organização & administração , Marca-Passo Artificial , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Segurança do Paciente , Período Perioperatório , Fluxo de Trabalho
20.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1639, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol recommends prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, the beneficial effect of maintaining normothermia after radical cystectomy has not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluid warming nursing in elderly patients undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy. METHODS: A total of 108 patients with bladder cancer scheduled to undergo DaVinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy were recruited and randomly divided into the control group (n=55), which received a warming blanket (43°C) during the intraoperative period and the warming group (n=53), in which all intraoperative fluids were administered via a fluid warmer (41°C). The surgical data, body temperature, coagulation function indexes, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the warming group had significantly less intraoperative transfusion (p=0.028) and shorter hospitalization days (p<0.05). During the entire intraoperative period (from 1 to 6h), body temperature was significantly higher in the warming group than in the control group. There were significant differences in preoperative fibrinogen level, white blood cell count, total bilirubin level, intraoperative lactose level, postoperative thrombin time (TT), and platelet count between the control and warming groups. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that TT was the only significant factor, suggesting that the warming group had a lower TT than the control group. CONCLUSION: Fluid warming nursing can effectively reduce transfusion requirement and hospitalization days, maintain intraoperative normothermia, and promote postoperative coagulation function in elderly patients undergoing Da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy.


Assuntos
Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Cistectomia/métodos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Laparoscopia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Tremor por Sensação de Frio/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
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