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1.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 865-871, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921667

RESUMO

Bleeding complication has been considered as a serious problem in current percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Fortunately, several groups have already reported the effectiveness of protamine use just after PCI to immediately remove any arterial sheath. However, there is a concern that protamine reversal may increase non-occlusive thrombus and, in turn, lead to mid-term cardiovascular events such as target vessel revascularization (TVR) or stent thrombosis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether protamine use following elective PCI was associated with mid-term clinical outcomes. In total, 472 patients were included in this study; subsequently, they were divided into protamine group (n = 142) and non-protamine group (n = 330). The primary endpoint was the composite of ischemia-driven TVR and stent thrombosis. The median follow-up period was determined to be at 562 days. In total, 32 primary endpoints were observed during the study period, and the incidence of primary endpoints tended to be greater in the protamine group than in the non-protamine group (P = 0.056). However, the lesion length, the degree of calcification, and the prevalence of hemodialysis were significantly determined greater in the protamine group than in the non-protamine group. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, the use of protamine (versus non-protamine: hazard ratio 0.542 and 95% confidence interval 0.217-1.355, P = 0.191) was deemed not to be associated with the primary endpoint after controlling legion length, calcification, and hemodialysis. In conclusion, immediate protamine use following elective PCI did not increase mid-term ischemia-driven TVR or stent thrombosis. However, immediate protamine use after PCI should be discussed further for the safety of the patient.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária/cirurgia , Antagonistas de Heparina/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Protaminas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estenose Coronária/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Feminino , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Diálise Renal , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Trombose/induzido quimicamente , Calcificação Vascular/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e21386, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925711

RESUMO

Serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are standard biomarkers of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). However, recent studies suggest that serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (sNGAL) and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) may be better predictors, particularly within 24 hours of contrast medium exposure.We conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of 107 consecutive patients diagnosed with arteriosclerosis obliterans between February 2016 and October 2018. We divided the patients into 2 groups: CIN (n = 22) and non-CIN (n = 85). We assessed the correlation between sNGAL and uNGAL concentrations and standard renal markers at baseline, 6, 24, and 48 hours post-procedure. We constructed conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculated the area under the curve to assess the performance of SCr, eGFR, sNGAL, and uNGAL. We derived biomarker cutoff levels from ROC analysis to maximize sensitivity and specificity.The incidence of CIN within our cohort was 20.6%. sNGAL levels correlated significantly with SCr and eGFR at baseline, 6, 24, and 48 hours post-contrast medium exposure. Similarly, uNGAL levels correlated with SCr and eGFR at baseline, 24, and 48 hours post-exposure. sNGAL and uNGAL were significantly elevated as early as 6 hours post-catheterization in the CIN group, whereas only minor changes were observed in the non-CIN group. SCr was also significantly elevated in the CIN group, but not until 24 hours post-catheterization.Both sNGAL and uNGAL may be superior to SCr and eGFR as early biomarkers of CIN in patients with peripheral vascular disease undergoing endovascular therapy.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Lipocalina-2/análise , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Arteriosclerose Obliterante/cirurgia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933909

RESUMO

Autoimmune encephalitis is a rare spectrum of disease that can be a complication of chronic immunosuppression. Diagnosis often requires the presence of antineuronal antibodies, but many causative antibodies have not yet been identified. Antibody-negative autoimmune encephalitis (AbNAE) is especially difficult to diagnose and must rely largely on exclusion of other causes. In chronically immune-suppressed transplant recipients, the differential is broad, likely resulting in underdiagnosis and worse outcomes. Here, we present a 58-year-old liver transplant recipient taking tacrolimus for prevention of chronic rejection who presented with 5 days of confusion, lethargy and lightheadedness. He was diagnosed with AbNAE after an extensive workup and recovered fully after high-dose corticosteroids. Our case highlights the importance of recognising the association between chronic immunosuppression and autoimmune encephalitis. Autoimmune encephalitis, even in the absence of characterised antibodies, should be considered when transplant recipients present with central neurologic symptoms.


Assuntos
Encefalite/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Hashimoto/induzido quimicamente , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Fígado , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos/sangue , Encefalite/sangue , Doença de Hashimoto/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 629-636, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) with a non-depolarising mechanism of action carry the risk of postoperative residual paralysis and are associated with postoperative pulmonary complications (POPC). Owing to the shorter duration of action, the depolarising NMBA succinylcholine may be associated with less postoperative residual paralysis, and hence fewer POPC. We tested the association of succinylcholine administration during anaesthesia and POPC. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of registry data from two large US academic medical centres, 244 850 adult noncardiac surgical patients undergoing general anaesthesia were included. The primary outcome was POPC, defined as post-extubation haemoglobin oxygen de-saturation to <90%, or re-intubation requiring intensive care unit admission within 7 days after surgery. The association between succinylcholine and POPC and its dose-dependency were tested in a hierarchical fashion using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 13 206 patients (5.4%) experienced POPC. Use of succinylcholine was associated with increased risk of POPC (adjusted odds ratio [ORAdj]=1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.16; P<0.001; adjusted risk=5.18%; 95% CI, 5.06-5.30 without and 5.69%; 95% CI, 5.53-5.85 with succinylcholine), with a dose-dependent relationship (ORAdj=1.08; 95% CI, 1.05-1.11 per mg kg-1; P<0.001). In patients receiving non-depolarising NMBAs, succinylcholine further increased the risk of POPC (ORAdj=1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14; P=0.001). The association between succinylcholine and POPC was modified (P=0.03 for interaction) by the duration of surgery with higher odds of POPC in patients undergoing surgeries of <2 vs ≥2 h (ORAdj=1.24; 95% CI, 1.15-1.33 and 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.10, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to our prediction, succinylcholine administration was associated with an increased risk of POPC. This association was dose-dependent and magnified in surgeries of shorter duration.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Fármacos Neuromusculares Despolarizantes/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Succinilcolina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 466-482, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reported incidence of postoperative residual curarisation (PORC) is still unacceptably high. The capacity of intraoperative neuromuscular monitoring (NMM) to reduce the incidence of PORC has yet to be established from pooled clinical studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of data from 1979 to 2019 to reanalyse this relationship. METHODS: English language, peer-reviewed, and operation room adult anaesthesia setting articles published between 1979 and 2019 were searched for on PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ISI-WoK, and Scopus. The primary outcome was PORC incidence as defined by an at- or post-extubation train-of-four ratio (TOFR) of lower than 0.7, 0.9, or 1.0. Additional collected variables included the duration of action of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) used, sugammadex or neostigmine use, and the technique of anaesthesia maintenance. RESULTS: Fifty-three studies (109 study arms, 12 664 patients) were included. The pooled PORC incidence associated with the use of intermediate duration NMBAs and quantitative NMM was 0.115 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.057-0.188). This was significantly lower than the PORC rate for both qualitative NMM (0.306; 95% CI, 0.09-0.411) and no NMM (0.331; 95% CI, 0.234-0.435). Anaesthesia type did not significantly affect PORC incidence. Sugammadex use was associated with lower PORC rates. The GRADE global level of evidence was very low and the refined assessment of the network meta-analysis by means of a confidence in network meta-analysis raised concerns on within- and across-study bias. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative NMM outperforms both subjective and no NMM monitoring in reducing PORC as defined by a TOFR of <0.9.


Assuntos
Monitorização Intraoperatória , Metanálise em Rede , Monitoração Neuromuscular , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD005259, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee arthroscopy (KA) is a routine orthopedic procedure recommended to repair cruciate ligaments and meniscus injuries and in eligible patients, to assist the diagnosis of persistent knee pain. KA is associated with a small risk of thromboembolic events. This systematic review aims to assess if pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions may reduce this risk. This review is the second update of the review first published in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions, whether mechanical, pharmacological, or in combination, for thromboprophylaxis in adult patients undergoing KA. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registries, on 14 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), whether blinded or not, of all types of interventions used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in males and females aged 18 years and older undergoing KA. There were no restrictions on language or publication status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed trial quality with the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and extracted data. A third author addressed discrepancies. We contacted study authors for additional information when required. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: This update adds four new studies, bringing the total of included studies to eight and involving 3818 adult participants with no history of thromboembolic disease undergoing KA. Studies compared daily subcutaneous (sc) low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus control (five studies); oral rivaroxaban 10 mg versus placebo (one study); daily sc LMWH versus graduated compression stockings (GCS) (one study); and aspirin versus control (one study). The incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in all trials combined was low, with seven cases in 3818 participants.There were no deaths in any of the intervention or control groups. LMWH versus control When compared with control, LMWH probably results in little to no difference in the incidence of PE in patients undergoing KA (risk ratio (RR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 6.65; 1820 participants; 3 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). LMWH showed no reduction of the incidence of symptomatic DVT (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.03; 1848 participants; 4 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). LMWH may reduce the risk of asymptomatic DVT but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.61; 369 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of an increased risk of all adverse events combined (RR 1.85, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.59; 1978 participants; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). No evidence of a clear effect on major bleeding (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.72; 1451 participants; 1 study; moderate-certainty evidence), or minor bleeding was observed (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.84; 1978 participants; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). Rivaroxaban versus placebo One study with 234 participants compared oral rivaroxaban 10 mg versus placebo. No evidence of a clear impact on the risk of PE (no events in either group), symptomatic DVT (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.29; moderate-certainty evidence); or asymptomatic DVT (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.01; very low-certainty evidence) was detected. Only bleeding adverse events were reported. No major bleeds occurred in either group and there was no evidence of differences in minor bleeding between the groups (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.19; moderate-certainty evidence). Aspirin versus control One study compared aspirin with control. No PE, DVT or asymptomatic events were detected in either group. Adverse events including pain and swelling were reported but it was not clear what groups these were in. No bleeds were reported. LMWH versus GCS One study with 1317 participants compared the use of LMWH versus GCS. There was no clear difference in the risk of PE (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.14 to 7.05; low-certainty evidence). LMWH use did reduce the risk of DVT compared to people using GCS (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.75; low-certainty evidence). No clear difference in effects was seen between the groups for asymptomatic DVT (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.09; very low-certainty evidence); major bleeding (RR 3.01, 95% CI 0.61 to 14.88; moderate-certainty evidence) or minor bleeding (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.08; moderate-certainty evidence). Levels of thromboembolic events were higher in the GCS group than in any other group. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for imprecision resulting from overall small event numbers; risk of bias due to concerns about lack of blinding, and indirectness as we were uncertain about the direct clinical relevance of asymptomatic DVT detection. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a small risk that healthy adult patients undergoing KA will develop venous thromboembolism (PE or DVT). There is moderate- to low-certainty evidence of no benefit from the use of LMWH, aspirin or rivaroxaban in reducing this small risk of PE or symptomatic DVT. There is very low-certainty evidence that LMWH use may reduce the risk of asymptomatic DVT when compared to no treatment but it is uncertain how this directly relates to incidence of DVT or PE in healthy patients. No evidence of differences in adverse events (including major and minor bleeding) was seen, but data relating to this were limited due to low numbers of events in the studies reporting within the comparisons.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Meias de Compressão
7.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(10): 673-678, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358305

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Cohort. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing minimally invasive spine surgery of the lumbar spine while continuing the antiplatelet drug (APD) perioperatively as compared with those not continuing these drugs and those not on these drugs. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: While discontinuation of antiplatelet drugs carries with it the risk of thrombosis of the cardiac stents, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular occlusion, cerebro-vascular events and other thrombotic complications, continuation of these drugs has the risk of intra spinal bleeding and the serious consequences of subsequent epidural hematoma with associated spinal cord compression. METHODS: This institutional review board approved study included 1587 patients from 2011 to 2018. Perioperative parameters were analyzed for 216 patients who underwent spinal surgery after the discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy, 240 patients who continued to take APD daily through the perioperative period and 1131 patients who were never exposed to APD therapy. The operative time, intraoperative estimated blood loss, length of hospital stay, incidence of clinically evident hematoma, and transfusion of blood products were also recorded and compared in three cohorts. RESULTS: The patients who continued taking APD in the perioperative period had a longer length of hospital stay on average (2.5 ±â€Š0.67 vs. 1.59 ±â€Š0.76 and 1.67 ±â€Š0.83, P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in the operative time, estimated blood loss, the amount of blood products transfused, and overall intra and postoperative complication rate. There were no instances of postoperative wound soakage or neurological deficit suggestive of possible spinal epidural hematomas in either of the study groups. CONCLUSION: The current study has observed no appreciable increase in perioperative morbidities including bleeding related complication rates in patients undergoing lumbar minimally invasive spine surgery while continuing to take APD compared with patients who either discontinued APD prior to surgery or those not taking APD. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/tendências , Morbidade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/tendências , Assistência Perioperatória/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória/tendências , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(3): 417-422, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324663

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although the indications for ß-blockers in the management of patients with congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction are well established, the use of ß-blockers in the perioperative setting remains controversial. RECENT FINDINGS: Since 2008 PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation Trial, there have been numerous studies suggesting that perioperative ß-blockers are associated with adverse events such as hypotension, bradycardia, increased mortality, and stroke. SUMMARY: In this article, we review the most recent evidence to suggest an approach to perioperative ß-blocker use tailored to patient and surgical risk factors. We also review recent studies on off-label uses for perioperative ß-blockers.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Anestesiologia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Assistência Perioperatória , Período Perioperatório , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente
9.
Anesthesiology ; 132(6): 1371-1381, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Five percent of adult patients undergoing noncardiac inpatient surgery experience a major pulmonary complication. The authors hypothesized that the choice of neuromuscular blockade reversal (neostigmine vs. sugammadex) may be associated with a lower incidence of major pulmonary complications. METHODS: Twelve U.S. Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group hospitals were included in a multicenter observational matched-cohort study of surgical cases between January 2014 and August 2018. Adult patients undergoing elective inpatient noncardiac surgical procedures with general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation receiving a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade agent and reversal were included. Exact matching criteria included institution, sex, age, comorbidities, obesity, surgical procedure type, and neuromuscular blockade agent (rocuronium vs. vecuronium). Other preoperative and intraoperative factors were compared and adjusted in the case of residual imbalance. The composite primary outcome was major postoperative pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, respiratory failure, or other pulmonary complications (including pneumonitis; pulmonary congestion; iatrogenic pulmonary embolism, infarction, or pneumothorax). Secondary outcomes focused on the components of pneumonia and respiratory failure. RESULTS: Of 30,026 patients receiving sugammadex, 22,856 were matched to 22,856 patients receiving neostigmine. Out of 45,712 patients studied, 1,892 (4.1%) were diagnosed with the composite primary outcome (3.5% sugammadex vs. 4.8% neostigmine). A total of 796 (1.7%) patients had pneumonia (1.3% vs. 2.2%), and 582 (1.3%) respiratory failure (0.8% vs. 1.7%). In multivariable analysis, sugammadex administration was associated with a 30% reduced risk of pulmonary complications (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.77), 47% reduced risk of pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.62), and 55% reduced risk of respiratory failure (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.56), compared to neostigmine. CONCLUSIONS: Among a generalizable cohort of adult patients undergoing inpatient surgery at U.S. hospitals, the use of sugammadex was associated with a clinically and statistically significant lower incidence of major pulmonary complications.


Assuntos
Neostigmina/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Respiratórios/induzido quimicamente , Sugammadex/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(4): 474e-481e, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345835

RESUMO

Dietary supplements are frequently used in surgical patients. Surgeons should be up to date with regard to the efficacies and potential complications related to these supplements. This article provides the most updated practices and evidence of commonly used supplements.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fitoterapia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fitoterapia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
11.
Am Heart J ; 223: 44-47, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151822

RESUMO

The originally-proposed PRECISE-DAPT score is a 5-item risk score supporting decision-making for dual antiplatelet therapy1 duration after PCI. It is unknown if a simplified version of the score based on 4 factors (age, hemoglobin, creatinine clearance, prior bleeding), and lacking white-blood cell count, retains potential to guide DAPT duration. The 4-item PRECISE-DAPT was used to categorize 10,081 patients who were randomized to short (3-6 months) or long (12-24 months) DAPT regimen according to high (HBR defined by PRECISE-DAPT ≥25 points) or non-high bleeding risk (PRECISE-DAPT<25) status. Long treatment duration was associated with higher bleeding rates in HBR (ARD +2.22% [95% CI +0.53 to +3.90]) but not in non-HBR patients (ARD +0.25% [-0.14 to +0.64]; pint = 0.026), and associated with lower ischemic risks in non-HBR (ARD -1.44% [95% CI -2.56 to -0.31]), but not in HBR patients (ARD +1.16% [-1.91 to +4.22]; pint = 0.11). Only non-HBR patients experienced lower net clinical adverse events (NACE) with longer DAPT (pint = 0.043). A 4-item simplified version of the PRECISE-DAPT score retains the potential to categorize patients who benefit from prolonged DAPT without concomitant bleeding liability from those who do not.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/normas , Duração da Terapia , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Medição de Risco
13.
Transplant Proc ; 52(3): 836-842, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little evidence on the long-term effects of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal and substitution with everolimus and mycophenolate mofetil in maintenance therapy of patients who have received heart transplants and have concurrent CNI nephrotoxicity. Aims of this study were to evaluate the progression of renal dysfunction after discontinuation of CNIs and to monitor for major adverse events after therapy change. METHODS: Data from 41 patients who underwent heart transplant and have different degrees of renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), without evidence of proteinuria, and in whom CNI therapy was replaced by everolimus, were analyzed. At the time of CNI withdrawal, clinical parameters, echocardiographic data, blood tests of renal function, and monitoring of adverse events were recorded. The median follow-up period was 5 years ± 28 months. RESULTS: In 52% of patients, there was a clear improvement in renal function (10.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 of extra eGFR on average). The former were characterized by less advanced age and a short time from the heart transplant. The echocardiographic parameters showed a significant reduction in septum thickness (11.58 ± 2 mm vs 10.29 ± 2 mm; P = .0001) and in left ventricle posterior wall thickness (10.74 ± 1 mm vs 9.74 ± 1 mm; P = .0004). The incidence of late acute rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy was similar in our population compared to literature data. CONCLUSIONS: A therapeutic switch from CNIs to everolimus and mycophenolate mofetil can improve renal function in patients with CNI nephrotoxicity, especially in those with a shorter time period from transplantation, without exposing them to a higher incidence of late acute rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy.


Assuntos
Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Coração , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(3): 251-260, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007241

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has revolutionised the treatment of oncologic malignancies. Immune checkpoint inhibitors represent a new class of immunotherapy drugs. Although these drugs show promise, they are associated with immune-related adverse reactions. An increasing number of patients who undergo surgery will have had treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In this narrative review article, we discuss their mechanism of action, therapeutic effects, pertinent toxicities, and address specific perioperative considerations for patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Papel do Médico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/imunologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(3): 189-194, 2020 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018295

RESUMO

HISTORY: A 72-year-old heart transplant recipient presented to the hospital with progressive dyspnea. His immunosuppressive therapy was switched to the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus. A few months before, due to a progressive decline in renal function. Primarily, a community-acquired pneumonia was suspected and an empiric antibiotic therapy was initiated. Despite antimicrobial treatment, an acute respiratory distress syndrome developed and mechanical ventilation became necessary. INVESTIGATIONS: During the following extensive diagnostic a transbronchial lung biopsy was performed and histological analysis revealed a drug induced lung injury. DIAGNOSIS: Based on the clinical and histological findings an everolimus induced pneumonitis was suspected. TREATMENT AND COURSE: The drug was immediately discontinued and a high-dose steroid treatment was started, resulting in a significant improvement of respiratory function. CONCLUSION: Everolimus-related interstitial pneumonitis represents a rare but important adverse effect of everolimus in immunosuppressed patients. Recognition of everolimus induced pneumonitis is of high clinical relevance and should be considered in all patients on everolimus presenting with respiratory symptoms of unknown origin.


Assuntos
Transplante de Coração , Imunossupressores , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia/patologia
16.
Transplant Proc ; 52(2): 556-558, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcineurin inhibitors have been implicated in acute and chronic kidney disease after liver transplant (LT). Everolimus (EVR) is a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor efficacious in preventing acute cellular rejection while preserving renal function among LT recipients. We evaluated the benefits on renal function of EVR immunosuppression in LT recipients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and observational study in 477 LT recipients in Virgen de las Nieves Hospital from 2002 to 2019 on the use of EVR with tacrolimus minimization or withdrawal in LT recipients with renal dysfunction. The study included 100 patients starting EVR (20.96%); in 66 (66%) the indication was renal dysfunction. The change in renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 software (IBM, Munich, Germany). RESULTS: Fifty 8 patients received mycophenolate mofetil (87.8%), and tacrolimus therapy was stopped in 27 patients (40.9%). Induction therapy with basiliximab was administered in 41 patients (62.12%). There was significant difference between estimated glomerular filtration rate at the time of starting EVR and the first month at last follow-up (49.42 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs 75.27 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < .001) and at end of follow-up (24 months) (49.42 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs 64.32 mL/min/1.73 m2; P = .001). The rate of incidence of adverse events was 48.48% (32/66). Seven patients died during follow-up (10.6%), but there were no EVR-related deaths. Eleven patients (16.6%) developed biopsy-proven acute rejection. CONCLUSION: This study showed that EVR is associated with a beneficial effect on glomerular filtration rate in both the short and long term in LT recipients.


Assuntos
Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Basiliximab/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Inibidores de Calcineurina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunossupressão/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 120-122, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929218

RESUMO

We present a very rare case of Sevoflurane Induced Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage in a young male patient with a closed tibial fracture after direct trauma to the right cruris. The patient was operated for tibial fracture, but diffuse alveolar haemorrhage developed after sevoflurane inhalation in the postoperative period following general anesthesia. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is associated with inhalation injury from halogenated gases and reported as a unique entity in the literature that practicing clinicians should be aware of and consider in post-operative cases of acute respiratory distress. As DAH usually presents with symptoms the presence of hemoptysis, anemia, dyspnoea and radiological alveolar infiltrates, rapid detection of the aetiology and initiation of cause-directed treatment are of great importance on survival.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/efeitos adversos , Hemoptise/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Alvéolos Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Sevoflurano/farmacologia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia , Adulto , Anestesia Geral , Broncoscopia , Hemoptise/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Período Pós-Operatório , Alvéolos Pulmonares/patologia , Tomógrafos Computadorizados , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Anaesthesia ; 75(4): 499-508, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984478

RESUMO

Interscalene brachial plexus block provides analgesia for shoulder surgery but is associated with hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. Before considering a combined suprascapular and axillary nerve block as an alternative to interscalene brachial plexus block, evaluation of the incidence of diaphragmatic dysfunction according to the approach to the suprascapular nerve is necessary. We randomly allocated 84 patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery to an anterior or a posterior approach to the suprascapular nerve block combined with an axillary nerve block using 10 ml ropivacaine 0.375% for each nerve. The primary outcome was the incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis diagnosed by ultrasound. Secondary outcomes included: characterisation of the hemidiaphragmatic paralysis over time; numeric rating scale pain scores; oral morphine equivalent consumption; and patient satisfaction. The incidence of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis was 40% (n = 17) vs. 2% (n = 1) in the anterior and posterior groups, respectively (p < 0.001). In one third of patients with hemidiaphragmatic paralysis, it persisted beyond the eighth hour. The median (interquartile range [range]) oral morphine equivalent consumption was significantly higher in the posterior approach when compared with the anterior approach, whether in the recovery area (20 [5-31 (0-60)] mg vs. 7.5 [0-14 (0-52)] mg, respectively; p = 0.004) or during the first 24 h (82 [61-127 (12-360) mg] vs. 58 [30-86 (0-160)] mg, respectively; p = 0.01). Patient satisfaction was comparable between groups (p = 0.6). Compared with the anterior approach, diaphragmatic function is best preserved with the posterior needle approach to the suprascapular nerve block.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Paralisia Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Ombro/inervação , Ombro/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e919828, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Phenytoin is an antiepileptic drug that is usually prescribed as a prevention treatment for tonic-clonic seizures or partial seizures, and as a prophylaxis for the neurosurgical related seizures. Phenytoin administration has several drawbacks; one drawback phenytoin-induced thrombocytopenia, which is a rare and significant adverse event. We report a rare adverse event after phenytoin prophylaxis therapy after a brain tumor debulking surgery, which resulted in severe unpredicted thrombocytopenia. CASE REPORT A 40-year-old male with no known health problems started to have an on/off headaches and loss of memory. Clinical investigations revealed a right frontal brain lesion. On the first day of admission, the patient was managed on neurosurgical seizure prophylaxis therapy of 100 mg intravenous phenytoin every 8 hours and 4 mg oral dexamethasone every 6 hours. On the fifth day of hospital admission, the patient underwent tumor debulking surgery. Twenty-four hours post-surgery, the patient's platelet level dropped to 26×109/L. Severe thrombocytopenia was managed first by transfusion of 17 units of platelets and by cessation of intravenous phenytoin plus the starting of 500 mg levetiracetam orally twice daily. Further management included infusion of 34 grams (0.4 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) over 5 days. Five days later, the patient gradually recovered with a platelet count of 239×109/L. CONCLUSIONS Phenytoin-induced thrombocytopenia is considered a rare event, but it has life-threatening consequences. The first and cornerstone management of this event is the cessation of phenytoin, followed by consideration of appropriate management based on the level of thrombocytopenia severity, and avoiding concomitant therapy of phenytoin and the use of dexamethasone as neurosurgical-related seizure prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Masculino
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