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1.
Ann Behav Med ; 55(3): 179-191, 2021 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High stress prenatally contributes to poor maternal and infant well-being. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created substantial stress for pregnant women. PURPOSE: To understand whether stress experienced by women pregnant at the beginning of the pandemic was associated with a greater prevalence of adverse perinatal outcomes. METHODS: Pregnant women across the USA aged ≥18 years old enrolled in a prospective cohort study during the pandemic onset (T1) in April-May 2020. This report focuses on the 1,367 participants who gave birth prior to July-August 2020 (T2). Hierarchical logistic regression models predicted preterm birth, small for gestational age infants, and unplanned operative delivery from T1 stress, sociodemographic, and medical factors. RESULTS: After controlling for sociodemographic and medical factors, preterm birth was predicted by high prenatal maternal stress, delivering an infant small for gestational age was predicted by interpersonal violence and by stress related to being unprepared for birth due to the pandemic, and unplanned cesarean or operative vaginal delivery was predicted by prenatal appointment alterations, experiencing a major stressful life event, and by stress related to being unprepared for birth due to the pandemic. Independent of these associations, African American women were more likely than other groups to deliver preterm. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women who are experiencing high stress during the COVID-19 pandemic are at risk of poorer perinatal outcomes. A longitudinal investigation is critical to determine whether prenatal maternal stress and resulting outcomes have longer-term consequences for the health and well-being of children born in the midst of the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Exposição à Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BJOG ; 128(3): 584-592, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a care bundle (antenatal information to women, manual perineal protection and mediolateral episiotomy when indicated) on obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) rates. DESIGN: Multicentre stepped-wedge cluster design. SETTING: Sixteen maternity units located in four regions across England, Scotland and Wales. POPULATION: Women with singleton live births between October 2016 and March 2018. METHODS: Stepwise region by region roll-out every 3 months starting January 2017. The four maternity units in a region started at the same time. Multi-level logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of the care bundle, adjusting for time trend and case-mix factors (age, ethnicity, body mass index, parity, birthweight and mode of birth). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Obstetric anal sphincter injury in singleton live vaginal births. RESULTS: A total of 55 060 singleton live vaginal births were included (79% spontaneous and 21% operative). Median maternal age was 30 years (interquartile range 26-34 years) and 46% of women were primiparous. The OASI rate decreased from 3.3% before to 3.0% after care bundle implementation (adjusted odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, P = 0.03). There was no evidence that the effect of the care bundle differed according to parity (P = 0.77) or mode of birth (P = 0.31). There were no significant changes in caesarean section (P = 0.19) or episiotomy rates (P = 0.16) during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of this care bundle reduced OASI rates without affecting caesarean section rates or episiotomy use. These findings demonstrate its potential for reducing perineal trauma during childbirth. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: OASI Care Bundle reduced severe perineal tear rates without affecting caesarean section rates or episiotomy use.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/normas , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Canal Anal/lesões , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/normas , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/normas , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Modelos Logísticos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Períneo/lesões , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 79, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality can be prevented in low-income settings through early health care seeking during maternity complications. While health system reforms in India prioritised institutional deliveries, inadequate antenatal and postnatal services limit the knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications to women, which delays the recognition of complications and seeking appropriate health care. Recently, a novel rapidly scalable community-based program combining maternal health literacy delivery through microfinance-based women-only self-help groups (SHG) was implemented in rural India. This study evaluates the impact of the integrated microfinance and health literacy (IMFHL) program on the knowledge of maternal danger signs in marginalised women from one of India's most populated and poorer states - Uttar Pradesh. Additionally, the study evaluates the presence of a diffusion effect of the knowledge of maternal danger signs from SHG members receiving health literacy to non-members in program villages. METHODS: Secondary data from the IMFHL program comprising 17,232 women from SHG and non-member households in rural Uttar Pradesh was included. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the program's effects on the knowledge of maternal danger signs adjusting for a comprehensive range of confounders at the individual, household, and community level. RESULTS: SHG member women receiving health literacy were 27% more likely to know all danger signs as compared with SHG members only. Moreover, the results showed that the SHG network facilitates diffusion of knowledge of maternal danger signs from SHG members receiving health literacy to non-members in program villages. The study found that the magnitude of the program impact on outcome remained stable even after controlling for other confounding effects suggesting that the health message delivered through the program reaches all women uniformly irrespective of their socioeconomic and health system characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The findings can guide community health programs and policy that seek to impact maternal health outcomes in low resource settings by demonstrating the differential impact of SHG alone and SHG plus health literacy on maternal danger sign knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração
4.
BMJ ; 371: m3377, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rate of complicated birth at term in women classified at low risk according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline for intrapartum care (no pre-existing medical conditions, important obstetric history, or complications during pregnancy) and to assess if the risk classification can be improved by considering parity and the number of risk factors. DESIGN: Cohort study using linked electronic maternity records. PARTICIPANTS: 276 766 women with a singleton birth at term after a trial of labour in 87 NHS hospital trusts in England between April 2015 and March 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A composite outcome of complicated birth, defined as a birth with use of an instrument, caesarean delivery, anal sphincter injury, postpartum haemorrhage, or Apgar score of 7 or less at five minutes. RESULTS: Multiparous women without a history of caesarean section had the lowest rates of complicated birth, varying from 8.8% (4879 of 55 426 women, 95% confidence interval 8.6% to 9.0%) in those without specific risk factors to 21.8% (613 of 2811 women, 20.2% to 23.4%) in those with three or more. The rate of complicated birth was higher in nulliparous women, with corresponding rates varying from 43.4% (25 805 of 59 413 women, 43.0% to 43.8%) to 64.3% (364 of 566 women, 60.3% to 68.3%); and highest in multiparous women with previous caesarean section, with corresponding rates varying from 42.9% (3426 of 7993 women, 41.8% to 44.0%) to 66.3% (554 of 836 women, 63.0% to 69.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Nulliparous women without risk factors have substantially higher rates of complicated birth than multiparous women without a previous caesarean section even if the latter have multiple risk factors. Grouping women first according to parity and previous mode of birth, and then within these groups according to presence of specific risk factors would provide greater and more informed choice to women, better targeting of interventions, and fewer transfers during labour than according to the presence of risk factors alone.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Paridade , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/diagnóstico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
5.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 67(8): 438-445, oct. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193564

RESUMO

La infección por COVID-19 afecta también a las pacientes obstétricas. La atención obstétrica habitual ha continuado a pesar de la pandemia. Existen series de casos de pacientes obstétricas. Parece que las técnicas neuroaxiales son seguras y es importante asegurarse que los bloqueos funcionen correctamente antes de una cesárea. Es por esto que se recomienda que los bloqueos sean realizados por anestesiólogos expertos. La protección y seguridad de los profesionales es un punto fundamental y, en caso de anestesia general, también se recomienda acudir al anestesiólogo más experto. Las pacientes gravemente enfermas deben reconocerse rápida y precozmente, para poder suministrarles el tratamiento adecuado lo antes posible. La susceptibilidad a las trombosis hace que la anticoagulación profiláctica sea prioritaria


COVID-19 infection also affects obstetric patients. Regular obstetric care has continued despite the pandemic. Case series of obstetric patients have been published. Neuroaxial techniques appear to be safe and it is important to obtain the highest possible rate of success of the blocks before a cesarean section. For this reason, it is recommended that the blocks be carried out by senior anesthesiologists. The protection and safety of professionals is a key point and in case of general anesthesia, so it is also recommended to call to the most expert anesthesiologist. Seriously ill patients should be recognized quickly and early, in order to provide them with the appropriate treatment as soon as possible. Susceptibility to thrombosis makes prophylactic anticoagulation a priority


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Cesárea/métodos , Gestantes , Pandemias , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Precauções Universais/métodos
6.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 223(3): 445.e1-445.e15, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contemporary guidelines for labor management do not characterize abnormal labor on the basis of maternal and/or neonatal morbidity. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of abnormal duration of the first stage of term labor and the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all consecutive women admitted for delivery at a single center at ≥37 weeks and 0 to 7 days of gestation with singleton, nonanomalous, vertex infants from 2010 to 2015, who reached 10 cm cervical dilation. Multivariable logistic regression compared odds ratios for maternal and neonatal outcomes among women above and below the 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles for first stage of labor duration. Receiver operating characteristic curves estimated the association between first stage of labor duration and maternal morbidity. Maternal morbidity was a composite of maternal fever, hemorrhage, transfusion, or endomyometritis; prolonged second stage of labor duration; and third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration. Neonatal morbidity was a composite of hypothermic therapy, need for mechanical ventilation, respiratory distress syndrome, meconium aspiration syndrome, birth injury or trauma, and neonatal seizure or sepsis. RESULTS: Of 6823 women included in this study, 682 were anticipated to have first stage of labor duration above the 90th percentile cutoff point, which was associated with an increased risk of composite maternal morbidity, maternal fever, postpartum transfusion, prolonged second stage of labor duration, third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration, and cesarean or operative vaginal delivery (P≤.02) and an increased risk of composite neonatal morbidity, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, and neonatal sepsis (P≤.03). Composite maternal morbidity was 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.7), 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.4), and 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.5) times more likely to occur among women above the 90th, 95th, and 97th percentile, respectively, for first stage of labor duration from 4 to 10 cm. Composite neonatal morbidity was 2.6 (95% confidence interval, 2.1-3.2), 2.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.9), and 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.8) times more likely to occur among infants delivered by women above the 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles for first stage of labor duration from 4 to 10 cm. Receiver operating characteristic curves among all women from 4 to 10 cm and 6 to 10 cm, including when stratified by parity and type of labor onset, had an area under the curve of 0.51 to 0.62 and 0.53 to 0.71 for maternal and neonatal morbidity, respectively. Thus, duration of labor has moderate predictive ability, at best, for composite maternal or neonatal morbidity. No curve demonstrated a clear point at which adverse maternal or neonatal outcomes increased that could be used to define abnormal labor. CONCLUSION: The benefit of expectantly managing a prolonged first stage of labor with duration above the 90th percentile in anticipation of vaginal delivery must be weighed against the increased risk of composite maternal and neonatal morbidity. Risks associated with performing cesarean delivery as an alternative management for women with prolonged first stage of labor duration must also be considered.


Assuntos
Primeira Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Assistência Perinatal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Missouri/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/mortalidade , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 782-791, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the addition of embryo biopsy performed during preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic diseases is associated with a higher risk of obstetric and neonatal complications compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF) without preimplantation genetic testing or spontaneously conceived pregnancies. METHODS: This is a cohort study of all pregnancies conceived after preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic diseases (PGT-M group) from 2006 to 2018 at Sheba Medical Center, Israel. The control groups included patients who had conceived spontaneously (spontaneous conception group) or by IVF without preimplantation genetic testing (IVF group) and delivered at Sheba Medical Center. The obstetrics outcomes were compared among the groups. Multivariable regression modeling was performed, focusing on the relationship between preimplantation genetic testing and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Final analysis included 345 singleton and 76 twin deliveries in the PGT-M group. The spontaneous conception group included 5,290 singleton and 92 twin deliveries. The IVF group included 422 singleton and 101 twin deliveries. Among singleton pregnancies, patients in the PGT-M group had a higher rate of hypertensive disorders (6.9%) compared with those in the spontaneous conception group (2.3%; odds ratio [OR] 3.3; 95% CI 1.9-4.8; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14.8; 95% CI 7.4-29.8) and the IVF group (4.7%; OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.8-2.7; aOR 5.9; 95% CI 1.9-18.2). Likewise, patients in the PGT-M group had a higher rate of small-for-gestational age neonates (12.4%) compared with those in the spontaneous conception group (3.9%; OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.4-4.9; aOR 2.3; 95% CI 1.5-3.4) and the IVF group (4.5%; OR 3; 95% CI 1.7-5.2; aOR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7-5.2). Among twin pregnancies, patients in the PGT-M group also had an increased rate of hypertensive disorders compared with those in the spontaneous conception group (4.3%; OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.2-13.3; aOR 10.9; 95% CI 2.3-50) and the IVF group (4%; OR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4-14.7; aOR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.8). CONCLUSION: Pregnancies conceived after preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disorders were associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications compared with pregnancies conceived spontaneously or by IVF without preimplantation genetic testing.


Assuntos
Biópsia , Fertilização In Vitro , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação , Adulto , Biópsia/métodos , Biópsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fertilização , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/diagnóstico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
BMJ ; 370: m2519, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the ongoing pregnancy rate between a freeze-all strategy and a fresh transfer strategy in assisted reproductive technology treatment. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: Outpatient fertility clinics at eight public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Spain. PARTICIPANTS: 460 women aged 18-39 years with regular menstrual cycles starting their first, second, or third treatment cycle of in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. INTERVENTIONS: Women were randomised at baseline on cycle day 2 or 3 to one of two treatment groups: the freeze-all group (elective freezing of all embryos) who received gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist triggering and single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent modified natural cycle; or the fresh transfer group who received human chorionic gonadotropin triggering and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh cycle. Women in the fresh transfer group with more than 18 follicles larger than 11 mm on the day of triggering had elective freezing of all embryos and postponement of transfer as a safety measure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the ongoing pregnancy rate defined as a detectable fetal heart beat after eight weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were live birth rate, positive human chorionic gonadotropin rate, time to pregnancy, and pregnancy related, obstetric, and neonatal complications. The primary analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Ongoing pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between the freeze-all and fresh transfer groups (27.8% (62/223) v 29.6% (68/230); risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.10, P=0.76). Additionally, no significant difference was found in the live birth rate (27.4% (61/223) for the freeze-all group and 28.7% (66/230) for the fresh transfer group; risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.10, P=0.83). No significant differences between groups were observed for positive human chorionic gonadotropin rate or pregnancy loss, and none of the women had severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome; only one hospital admission related to this condition occurred in the fresh transfer group. The risks of pregnancy related, obstetric, and neonatal complications did not differ between the two groups except for a higher mean birth weight after frozen blastocyst transfer and an increased risk of prematurity after fresh blastocyst transfer. Time to pregnancy was longer in the freeze-all group. CONCLUSIONS: In women with regular menstrual cycles, a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist triggering for final oocyte maturation did not result in higher ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates than a fresh transfer strategy. The findings warrant caution in the indiscriminate application of a freeze-all strategy when no apparent risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is present. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02746562.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Blastocisto , Criopreservação , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Transferência de Embrião Único/métodos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Gonadotropina Coriônica/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Ciclo Menstrual , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520949727, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: maternal and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia is a major reproductive health problem. Obstructed labor is one of the leading causes of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity in developing countries. The evidence regarding its determinants at the tertiary level of care is sparse. Therefore, this study aimed to study the determinants of obstructed labor among women attending intrapartum care in Amhara region referral hospitals. METHODS: A Hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 1stto August 30, 2017. Cases were women whose labor was obstructed (n = 270), and controls were women whose labor was not obstructed (n = 540). Both cases and controls were selected randomly, and a proportional to size allocation was made to the referral hospitals selected for the study. A binary and a multivariable logistic regression model was computed to identify the determinant factors at 95% CI. RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants was 27.66 years (27.4 ± 5.44 for cases and 28.15 ± 6.16 for controls), ranging between 16 and 45 years. Relatively, higher proportions of cases than controls were unable to read and write (58.5%) and were urban residents (53.7%). Distance from hospital, distance from health center, mothers inability to read and write, mothers primary level of education, more than 28 weeks of gestation at the first visit of antenatal care, 37 to 42 weeks at admission, above 42 weeks at admission, women of a merchant spouse, and history of pregnancy-related complications were the positive determinants of obstructed labor. However, mothers whose gestational age was 16 to 28 weeks at the first antenatal care visit were 62% less likely to be exposed to obstructed labor. CONCLUSIONS: Obstetric, service-related, and system factors were predictors of obstructed labor. Improving women's literacy status, health service access, and utilization will help reduce obstructed labor.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , História Reprodutiva , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Maternidades , Hospitais Estaduais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perinatal , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 377-385, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is a relationship between evening, night, and weekend births and severe unexpected neonatal morbidity in low-risk term singleton births. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional analysis. Severe unexpected neonatal morbidity as defined by the National Quality Forum specification 0716 was derived from linked birth certificate and hospital discharge summaries for 1,048,957 low-risk singleton term Californian births during 2011 through 2013. The association between the nursing shift (7 am-3 pm vs 3-11 pm and 11 pm -7 am) and weekday compared with weekend birth and the risk of severe unexpected neonatal morbidity was estimated using mixed effects logistic regression models. RESULTS: Severe unexpected neonatal morbidity was higher among births during the 3-11 pm evening shift (2.1%) and the 11 pm-7 am night shift (2.1%), compared with those during the 7 am-3 pm day shift (1.8%). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 1.10 (95% CI 1.06-1.13) for the evening shift and 1.15 (1.11-1.19) for the night shift. The adjusted ORs of severe unexpected neonatal morbidity were increased only on Sunday, as compared with other days (adjusted OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14). When our analysis was by perinatal region, the increase was seen in four of the nine perinatal regions. CONCLUSION: After risk adjustment, the risk of severe unexpected morbidity in the low-risk singleton California birth cohort was significantly increased on Sundays and births during evening and night shifts. These elevations were detected in only four of California's nine perinatal regions. Further analysis at the individual hospital level is warranted.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil , Adolescente , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Parto , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(2): 394-401, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate complications associated with early postpartum therapeutic anticoagulation. METHODS: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was done to evaluate the association between therapeutic anticoagulation postpartum and major complications (hemorrhagic and wound complications). Secondary outcomes included minor complications, risk factors associated with total complications (including the time to therapeutic anticoagulation resumption after delivery) and recurrent thrombotic events within 6 weeks postpartum. RESULTS: From 2003 to 2015, 232 consecutive women were treated with therapeutic anticoagulation within 96 hours postpartum; among those treated, 91 received unfractionated heparin, 138 received low-molecular-weight heparin, and three received other anticoagulants. The primary outcome, a composite of major hemorrhagic complications (requiring transfusion, hospitalization, volume resuscitation, transfer to intensive care unit, or surgery) and major wound complications, occurred in 7 of 83 (8.4%) for cesarean deliveries and 9 of 149 (6.0%) for vaginal deliveries (P=.490). Total complications (including major and minor hemorrhagic and wound complications) occurred in 13 of 83 (15.7%) for cesarean deliveries compared with 9 of 149 (6.0%) for vaginal deliveries (P=.016). When comparing cases associated with and without complications, the median delay before resuming anticoagulation was significantly shorter for both cesarean (12 vs 33 hours, P=.033) and vaginal deliveries (6 vs 19 hours, P=.006). For vaginal deliveries, 8 of 51 (15.7%) women had complications when anticoagulation was started before 9.25 hours postpartum, compared with 1 of 98 (1.0%) when started after 9.25 hours. For cesarean deliveries, 7 of 21 (33.3%) of women experienced complications compared with 6 of 62 (9.7%) if anticoagulation was started before or after 15.1 hours, respectively. Two (0.9%) episodes of venous thromboembolism occurred within 6 weeks postpartum. CONCLUSION: Among postpartum women who received early therapeutic anticoagulation, major complications occurred in 8.4% for cesarean deliveries and 6.0% for vaginal deliveries. Complications were associated with earlier resumption of therapeutic anticoagulation, particularly before 9.25 hours for vaginal deliveries and before 15.1 hours for cesarean deliveries.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Heparina/efeitos adversos , Heparina/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/induzido quimicamente , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/induzido quimicamente , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 6029160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695514

RESUMO

Background: Maternal near miss refers to a very ill pregnant or delivered woman who nearly died but survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. Maternal death; the most catastrophic end is frequently described as just "tip of the iceberg," whereas maternal near-miss as the "base." Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the factors associated with maternal near-miss among women admitted in public hospitals of West Arsi zone, Ethiopia. Methods: A facility-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from Mar 1 to Apr 30, 2019. Three hundred twenty-one (80 cases and 241 controls) study participants were involved in the study. Cases were recruited consecutively as they present, whereas controls were selected by systematic sampling method. Cases were women admitted to hospitals during pregnancy, delivery, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy and fulfilled at least one of the maternal near-miss disease-specific criteria, while controls were women admitted and gave birth by normal vaginal delivery. The interviewer-administered structured questionnaire and data abstraction tool was used to collect data. Data were entered Epi data 3.1 and then transferred into SPSS 20 for analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used, and the significance level was declared at p value ≤ 0.05. Results: The major maternal near-miss morbidities were severe obstetric hemorrhage (32.5%), pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (31.3%), and obstructed labor (26.3%), followed by 6.3% and 3.8% of severe anemia and pregnancy-induced sepsis, respectively. The odds of maternal near miss were statistically significantly associated with women's lack of formal education [AOR = 2.24, 95% CI: (1.17, 4.31)]. Not attending antenatal care [AOR = 3.71, 95% CI: (1.10, 12.76)], having prior history of cesarean section [AOR = 3.53, 95% CI: (1.49, 8.36)], any preexisting chronic medical disorder [AOR = 2.04, 95% CI: (1.11, 3.78)], and having experienced first delay [AOR = 5.74, 95% CI: (2.93, 11.2)]. Conclusions: Maternal education, antenatal care, chronic medical disorders, previous cesarean section, and first delay of obstetric care-seeking were identified as factors associated with maternal near-miss morbidity. Therefore, this finding implies the need to get better with those factors, to preclude severe maternal complications and subsequent maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/mortalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/mortalidade , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 131, 2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of postpartum anal incontinence among women who delivered vaginally, and to assess the extent to which obstetric injuries to the anal sphincters are missed. METHODS: All women (both primiparous and multiparous) who delivered vaginally and received any kind of sutures in the perineal area at Innlandet Hospital Trust Elverum in Norway between January 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016 were invited to answer a questionnaire on St. Mark's incontinence score and to participate in a clinical examination of the pelvic floor including endoanal sonography. RESULTS: In total 52,3% (n = 207) of the 396 invited women participated in the study. Mean St. Mark's score was 1.8 points (95% CI 1.4 to 2.1) at examination 14 months (mean) postpartum, and none of the participants suffered from weekly fecal leakage. Fecal urgency affected 11.7% (95% CI 7.1 to 16.3) of the participants, and 8.7% (95%CI 5.1 to 12.8) had weekly involuntary leakage of flatus. Nine women (9.3%, 95% CI 4.1 to 15.5) had a previously undetected third degree obstetric anal sphincter injury. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anal incontinence among women who have delivered vaginally and received sutures due to 1st and 2nd degree perineal lacerations is low. Some obstetric anal sphincter injuries remain unrecognized at the time of delivery, but the symptoms of anal incontinence due to these injuries are in the lower half of the St. Mark's incontinence score. Women with persistent symptoms like fecal urgency or leakage of gas and/or feces should be referred to evaluation by a colorectal surgeon in order to achieve optimal treatment.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/lesões , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Incontinência Fecal/epidemiologia , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Períneo/lesões , Adulto , Canal Anal/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Períneo/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida
14.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 130, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistulas are one of the most tragic injuries that occur after difficult, prolonged childbirth without timely intervention. These fistulas cause discomfort to patients and result in emotional, social, and even physical suffering. The present study aimed to explore the experiences of women with rectovaginal fistula in Kamyaran city, in Kurdestan province, west of Iran. METHODS: In a phenomenological study, 16 patients, healthcare personnel, and patients' families were investigated. Purposive sampling was performed and Study participants were interviewed in-depth semi-structured interviews. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim (word by word), and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. For determining the validity of the study, Lincoln and Guba's criteria, which include credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability, were considered. RESULTS: Five general themes and 10 sub-themes emerged after investigating interviews. Themes include religious harassment the sub-theme of being defiled), fail (sub-themes of loss and negative attitudes, disrupted sex (the sub-theme of sexual dissatisfaction), consequence (three sub-themes of sleep disturbance, mental crisis, and isolation), and ultimately panic (three sub-themes of humiliation, secrecy, and fear). CONCLUSION: The rectovaginal fistula is a complex and multifaceted problem with social, individual, familial, religious, and ethnic-environmental dimensions, so there is no simple solution to interact with this problem and there is a need to find a solution, considering the dimensions of the problem and plan for help these patients cope with their disease, and take steps to fully treat it.


Assuntos
Islamismo , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fístula Retovaginal/etnologia , Fístula Retovaginal/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fístula Retovaginal/etiologia
15.
Ceska Gynekol ; 85(2): 139-143, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To informed about international surveillance network severe maternal morbidity and mortality - INOSS. DESIGN: Literature review. SETTINGS: 1st Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and University Hospital, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. METHODS: Literate review of articles published till august 2019. RESULTS: The International Network of Obstetric Survey Systems (INOSS) is an international network that connects countries with the same or similar system of surveillance of acute severe maternal morbidity and mortality. The INOSS was established in year 2010 by twelve countries. Nowadays 19 countries are involved in the INOSS. The cooperation between member countries is focused on the acquisition of relevant data about rare severe acute maternal morbidities. INOSS in 2017 year unified definitions of 8 severe acute maternal morbidities according Delphi method: eclampsia, amniotic fluid embolism, peripartum hysterectomy, severe primary postpartum haemorrhage, uterine rupture, abnormally invasive placenta, spontaneous hemoperitoneum in pregnancy, and cardiac arrest in pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The international cooperation allows the acquisition of relevant epidemiologic data and the optimalization of the treatment according the evidence-based medicine.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Vigilância da População , Complicações na Gravidez , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(1): 77-83, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388778

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of a selective use of episiotomy combined with Couder's maneuver on the incidence of perineal tears in spontaneous term deliveries. METHODS: A comparative, retrospective, mono-centric study in a university maternity unit was designed and included all primiparous women who delivered spontaneously after 37 weeks of gestation in cephalic presentation. Two cohorts were studied, before and after the practice of Couder's maneuver. In the first cohort, the ''OSE cohort'' only selective episiotomies were performed from January 2009 to December 2010. In the second cohort, from January 2016 to December 2017, the ''SEC cohort'' selective episiotomies combined with Couder's maneuver were performed by midwives and obstetricians. The primary outcome was the type of perineal tears, according to the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) classification. RESULTS: A total of 2081 patients were included: 909 patients in the OSE cohort and 1172 patients in the SEC cohort. Couder's maneuver was performed in 59% of the SEC cohort. In the SEC cohort, there were an increase in the number of intact perinea (55% versus 63%, p < 0.001), a decrease in second-degree perineal tears (18% versus 11%, p < 0.001) and a decrease in labia minora tears (48% versus 37%, p < 0.001). The rate of obstetrical anal sphincter injuries was less than 1% in both cohorts (0.3% versus 0.5%, p = 0.7). CONCLUSION: A selective use of episiotomy combined with Couder's maneuver could reduce the incidence of perineal tears, particularly second-degree perineal tears, without increasing the rate of obstetrical anal sphincter injuries.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/lesões , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/cirurgia , Períneo/lesões , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Tocologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Paridade , Períneo/cirurgia , Médicos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
BJOG ; 127(8): 951-956, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The assessment of risk factors, including mediolateral episiotomy (MLE), for the recurrence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (rOASI). DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Data from the nationwide database of the Dutch Perinatal Registry (Perined). POPULATION: A cohort of 391 026 women at term, of whom 9943 had an OASI in their first delivery and had a second vaginal delivery of a liveborn infant in cephalic position. METHODS: Possible risk factors were tested for statistical significance using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of rOASI. RESULTS: The rate of rOASI was 5.8%. Multivariate analysis identified a birthweight of ≥4000 g (adjusted OR, aOR, 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.6) and a duration of second stage of ≥30 minutes (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.3) as statistically significant risk factors for rOASI. Mediolateral episiotomy was associated with a statistically significant lower rate of rOASI in spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.5) and in operative vaginal delivery (OVD) (aOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Women with a history of OASI have a higher rate of OASI in their next delivery. Duration of the second stage of ≥30 minutes and a birthweight of ≥4000 g are significantly associated with an increased rate of rOASI. Mediolateral episiotomy is associated with a significantly lower rate of rOASI in both SVD and OVD. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Mediolateral episiotomy is associated with a significant lower recurrence rate of OASI in women with an OASI in their first delivery.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/lesões , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Períneo/lesões , Vácuo-Extração/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária
18.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 301(5): 1133-1138, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253552

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While the increased rates of high degree perineal tears were previously associated with the use of forceps, in the current era of low volume of forceps practice, factors associated with the occurrence of this potential complication remain understudied. We aim to evaluate factors associated with obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASIS) in obstetric units with a low volume forceps practice. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two tertiary medical centers. All singleton pregnancies delivered by forceps extraction between 2011 and 2019 were analyzed. Women who experienced anal sphincter injury were compared to those who did not. RESULTS: The study cohort included 764 forceps deliveries. There were 19 (2.5%) cases of OASIS. Women with anal sphincter injury had higher rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (21% vs. 5.6%, OR [95% CI] 4.46 (1.41-14.04), p = 0.02). Birth weights and the rate of macrosomia did not differ between groups. Induction of labor was more common among the OASIS group (68% vs. 41.7%, OR [95% CI] 3.0 (1.1-8.0), p = 0.02). Sequential use of forceps (after failed vacuum attempt) was associated with OASIS (8 (42%) vs. 76 (10.2%), OR [95% CI] 6.4 (2.5-16.4), p < 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression, sequential forceps was the only factor independently associated with OASIS (OR [95% CI] 4.7 (1.3-18.2), p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Rate of OASIS was relatively low in the current cohort. Sequential use of forceps was found to be the most important determinant in OASIS occurrence.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/lesões , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 40, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of obstetric fistula in the rural area of the south eastern community of India and the training of community health workers for its prevention. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the south eastern rural community of India. A total of 3939 women were included in the study and Probability proportional to size sampling was used in the study. Frequency distribution and logistic regression were computed to analyse the data using STATA version 11.2. RESULTS: Out of 3939 participants interviewed, 23.7% women reported obstetric fistula symptoms whereas after clinical diagnosis and speculum examination the obstetric morbidity pattern was: Obstetric fistula 0.3%, stress urinary incontinence 20.0%, pelvic inflammatory diseases 1.2%, uterine prolapse 1.4% and urinary tract infection 3.8%. The awareness level of the rural women regarding the obstetric fistula was assessed by a structured knowledge questionnaire and found to be very poor, hence community based fistula training was implemented among community health workers as a health system based strategy for its prevention. Obstetric fistula found to be more prevalent among women of poor educational level, low socioeconomic status, less no of antenatal visits, delay in accessing the emergency obstetric care and prolonged labour (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: Finding of the study indicated that the prevalence and risk of developing obstetric fistula was associated with less number of antenatal visits, prolonged labour, delay in timely intervention, delay in accessing emergency obstetric care and more number of movements from home to the delivery place. Finally, our study suggests that emphasis needs to be placed on training of community health workers to facilitate early screening for identification and referral of women with obstetric fistula.


Assuntos
Fístula/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , População Rural , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 60, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced maternal age generally denotes age after 35 years during the time of delivery. Despite the fact that being pregnant at any reproductive age is not risk-free, older gravidity usually culminates with adverse outcomes both to the mother and fetus or neonate. This study aimed to determine the association of adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcomes with advanced maternal age pregnancy. The study was conducted in Ayder comprehensive specialized hospital, north Ethiopia, from 2015 to 2017. METHODS: chart review comparative cross-sectional study was employed. Data were retrieved from medical charts of 752 pregnant mothers (376 each for both the study;> 35-year-old and reference group;20-34 year old). Data was collected using a pretested and structured checklist using systematic sampling and data was entered & analyzed using SPSS version 20. Binary and multivariable logistic regression was run to determine the association of independent variables with dependent variables. RESULTS: This study revealed that advanced maternal age pregnancy was significantly associated with pregnancy induced hypertension [AOR 4.15, 95% CI (2.272-7.575), p <  0.001], ante partum hemorrhage [AOR 2.54, 95% CI (1.32-4.91), P = 0.005] & cesarean delivery [AOR 2.722, 95% CI (1.777-4.170), p <  0.001]. Furthermore, advanced maternal age pregnancy was also increasingly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes like preterm delivery [AOR 3.622, 95% CI (1.469-8.930), p = 0.005], low birth weight [AOR 3.137, 95% CI (1.324-7.433), p = 0.009], perinatal death [AOR 2.54, 95% CI (1.141-5.635), p = 0.022] and low fifth minute APGAR score [AOR 7.507, 95% CI (3.134-17.98), p <  0.001]. Notwithstanding this, maternal age was not found to be associated with amniotic fluid disturbances, premature rupture of membranes and post-term pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced maternal age is markedly linked with adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcomes. Therefore, it is better for health care providers to counsel couples, who seek to have a child in their later ages, about the risks of advanced maternal age pregnancy. In addition, health care workers need to emphasize on how to improve advanced age mothers' health through the utilization of contraception to reduce pregnancy in this age group.


Assuntos
Idade Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Gravidez , Probabilidade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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