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1.
BJOG ; 128(3): 584-592, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a care bundle (antenatal information to women, manual perineal protection and mediolateral episiotomy when indicated) on obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) rates. DESIGN: Multicentre stepped-wedge cluster design. SETTING: Sixteen maternity units located in four regions across England, Scotland and Wales. POPULATION: Women with singleton live births between October 2016 and March 2018. METHODS: Stepwise region by region roll-out every 3 months starting January 2017. The four maternity units in a region started at the same time. Multi-level logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of the care bundle, adjusting for time trend and case-mix factors (age, ethnicity, body mass index, parity, birthweight and mode of birth). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Obstetric anal sphincter injury in singleton live vaginal births. RESULTS: A total of 55 060 singleton live vaginal births were included (79% spontaneous and 21% operative). Median maternal age was 30 years (interquartile range 26-34 years) and 46% of women were primiparous. The OASI rate decreased from 3.3% before to 3.0% after care bundle implementation (adjusted odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, P = 0.03). There was no evidence that the effect of the care bundle differed according to parity (P = 0.77) or mode of birth (P = 0.31). There were no significant changes in caesarean section (P = 0.19) or episiotomy rates (P = 0.16) during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of this care bundle reduced OASI rates without affecting caesarean section rates or episiotomy use. These findings demonstrate its potential for reducing perineal trauma during childbirth. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: OASI Care Bundle reduced severe perineal tear rates without affecting caesarean section rates or episiotomy use.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/normas , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Canal Anal/lesões , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Cesárea/normas , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia/normas , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Modelos Logísticos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Períneo/lesões , Gravidez , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Escócia/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 79, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality can be prevented in low-income settings through early health care seeking during maternity complications. While health system reforms in India prioritised institutional deliveries, inadequate antenatal and postnatal services limit the knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications to women, which delays the recognition of complications and seeking appropriate health care. Recently, a novel rapidly scalable community-based program combining maternal health literacy delivery through microfinance-based women-only self-help groups (SHG) was implemented in rural India. This study evaluates the impact of the integrated microfinance and health literacy (IMFHL) program on the knowledge of maternal danger signs in marginalised women from one of India's most populated and poorer states - Uttar Pradesh. Additionally, the study evaluates the presence of a diffusion effect of the knowledge of maternal danger signs from SHG members receiving health literacy to non-members in program villages. METHODS: Secondary data from the IMFHL program comprising 17,232 women from SHG and non-member households in rural Uttar Pradesh was included. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the program's effects on the knowledge of maternal danger signs adjusting for a comprehensive range of confounders at the individual, household, and community level. RESULTS: SHG member women receiving health literacy were 27% more likely to know all danger signs as compared with SHG members only. Moreover, the results showed that the SHG network facilitates diffusion of knowledge of maternal danger signs from SHG members receiving health literacy to non-members in program villages. The study found that the magnitude of the program impact on outcome remained stable even after controlling for other confounding effects suggesting that the health message delivered through the program reaches all women uniformly irrespective of their socioeconomic and health system characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: The findings can guide community health programs and policy that seek to impact maternal health outcomes in low resource settings by demonstrating the differential impact of SHG alone and SHG plus health literacy on maternal danger sign knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Materna , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração
3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 707-715, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or special care nursery admission for deliveries with water immersion compared with deliveries in the matched control group without water immersion. Secondary outcomes included adverse neonatal diagnoses, maternal infections, and perineal lacerations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using electronic health record data (2014-2018) from two health systems (eight hospitals), with similar clinical eligibility, associated with low risks of intrapartum complications, and implementation policies for waterbirth. The water immersion group included women intending waterbirth. Water immersion was recorded prospectively during delivery. The comparison population were women who met the clinical eligibility criteria for waterbirth but did not experience water immersion during labor. Comparison cases were matched (1:1) using propensity scores. Outcomes were compared using Fischer's exact tests and logistic regression with stratification by stage of water immersion. RESULTS: Of the 583 women with water immersion, 34.1% (199) experienced first-stage water immersion only, 65.9% (384) experienced second-stage immersion, of whom 12.0% (70) exited during second stage, and 53.9% (314) completed delivery in the water. Neonatal intensive care unit or special care nursery admissions were lower for second-stage water immersion deliveries than deliveries in the control group (odds ratio [OR] 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). Lacerations were lower in the second-stage immersion group (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.7). Neonatal intensive care unit or special care nursery admissions and lacerations were not different between the first-stage immersion group and their matched comparisons. Cord avulsions occurred for 0.8% of second-stage water immersion deliveries compared with none in the control groups. Five-minute Apgar score (less than 7), maternal infections, and other adverse outcomes were not significantly different between either the first- or second-stage water immersion groups and their control group. CONCLUSION: Hospital-based deliveries with second-stage water immersion had lower risk of NICU or special care nursery admission and perineal lacerations than matched deliveries in the control group without water immersion.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Lacerações , Parto Normal , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Segunda Fase do Trabalho de Parto , Lacerações/diagnóstico , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Parto Normal/efeitos adversos , Parto Normal/métodos , Parto Normal/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/diagnóstico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Períneo/lesões , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 692-697, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925628

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate characteristics associated with adverse outcomes in low-risk nulliparous women randomized to elective labor induction at 39 weeks of gestation or expectant management. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of women randomized during the 38th week to induction at 39 weeks of gestation or expectant management. Deliveries before 39 weeks of gestation and those not adherent to study protocol or with fetal anomalies were excluded. A composite of adverse outcomes (perinatal death or severe neonatal complications), third- or fourth-degree lacerations, and postpartum hemorrhage were evaluated. Log binomial regression models estimated relative risks and 95% CIs for associations of outcomes with patient characteristics including randomly assigned treatment group. Interactions between patient characteristics and treatment group were tested. RESULTS: Of 6,096 women with outcome data, 5,007 (82.1%) met criteria for inclusion in this analysis. Frequency of the perinatal composite was 252 (5.0%), 166 (3.3%) for third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration, and 237 (4.7%) for postpartum hemorrhage. In multivariable analysis, intended labor induction at 39 weeks of gestation was associated with a reduced perinatal composite outcome (4.1% vs 6.0%; adjusted relative risk [aRR] 0.71; 95% CI 0.55-0.90), whereas increasing body mass index (BMI) was associated with an increased perinatal composite outcome (aRR 1.04/unit increase; 95% CI 1.02-1.05). Decreased risk of third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration was observed with increasing BMI (aRR 0.96/unit increase; 95% CI 0.93-0.98) and in Black women compared with White women (1.2% vs 3.9%; aRR 0.34; 95% CI 0.19-0.60). Increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage was observed in Hispanic women compared with White women (6.3% vs 4.0%; aRR 1.64; 95% CI 1.18-2.29). Patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes were similar between treatment groups (P for interaction >.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with expectant management, intended induction at 39 weeks of gestation was associated with reduced risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes were few and similar between groups. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01990612.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Lacerações , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Lacerações/diagnóstico , Lacerações/etnologia , Lacerações/etiologia , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Parto Normal/efeitos adversos , Parto Normal/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Paridade , Morte Perinatal , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etnologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/etiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
5.
Obstet Gynecol ; 136(4): 698-705, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop models to predict vaginal delivery in low-risk, nulliparous women contemplating elective induction of labor or expectant management at 39 weeks of gestation. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of planned elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation compared with expectant management for low-risk nulliparous women. Two groups were included for this analysis: 1) women who were randomized to the induction of labor group and underwent elective induction at 39 0/7-39 4/7 weeks of gestation and 2) women who were randomized to the expectant management group who experienced spontaneous labor or medically indicated delivery (including postterm). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for each group using patient characteristics that would be available at the time of counseling. Model selection was based on k-fold cross-validation using backward elimination and variables that remained significant at P<.05 were retained. To compare estimated with observed rates, the elective induction of labor model was then applied to each woman in both groups to estimate individualized predicted probabilities of vaginal delivery with elective induction of labor. RESULTS: Of 6,106 women enrolled in the trial, 4,661 met criteria for this analysis. Vaginal delivery occurred in 80.6% of the 2,153 women in the elective induction of labor group and 77.2% of the 2,508 women in the expectant management group (P=.005). The final elective induction of labor model included age, height, weight, and modified Bishop score (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] 0.72, 95% CI 0.70-0.75). The same variables were included in the final expectant management model (AUROC 0.70, 95% CI 0.67-0.72). Across the range of predicted probability deciles derived from the elective induction of labor model, almost all women who underwent elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation had a higher observed chance of vaginal delivery than expectant management. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of the individual predicted chance of vaginal delivery from elective induction of labor at 39 weeks of gestation, vaginal delivery is generally more frequent if elective induction of labor is undertaken rather than expectant management. These data can be used to counsel nulliparous women regarding their "customized" chances of vaginal delivery as they choose between elective induction of labor or expectant management at 39 weeks of gestation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01990612.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Adulto , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Parto Normal/efeitos adversos , Parto Normal/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Paridade , Gravidez , Prognóstico
6.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 3631808, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32695513

RESUMO

Background: Obstructed or prolonged labor is a major cause of maternal deaths. Prolonged and obstructed labor contributed to 13% of global maternal deaths which can be reduced by proper utilization of a partograph during labor. Obstetric caregivers' use of the partograph during labor has paramount importance in identifying any deviation during labor. Even though partograph use is influenced by different factors as obtained from the literatures, the magnitude of partograph utilization and the factors associated with its use are not well determined in the health facilities of Wolaita Zone. Objective: To assess the magnitude of partograph utilization and factors that affect its utilization among obstetric caregivers in public health facilities of Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia, 2017. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted on obstetric caregivers. A pretested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was entered to EpiData version 3.01 and exported to SPSS version 23.0 for further analysis. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables. Result: A total of 269 obstetric caregivers participated in the study. Among those who were utilizing the partograph, 193 (71.7%) routinely used it for all laboring mothers and 76 (28.3%) of participants reported that they do not routinely utilize it. Greater number of service years (AOR = 4.93, 95% CI: 1.53-15.88), on-the-job training (AOR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.06-0.43), good knowledge (AOR = 3.35, 95% CI: 1.61-6.97), and favorable attitude towards partograph utilization (AOR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.28-7.03) were significantly associated with partograph utilization. Conclusion and Recommendation. Partograph utilization among obstetric caregivers in the public health facilities was good. Greater years of work experience, in-service training, having good knowledge, and favorable attitude towards partograph utilization among obstetric caregivers independently determined partograph utilization. Provision of on-the-job training to make obstetric caregivers improve knowledge and skill on partograph utilization, maintaining caregivers' retention to decrease turnover by providing different incentives to more experienced obstetric care providers, and establishing favorable attitude could improve the proper use of the tool.


Assuntos
Monitorização Fetal/métodos , Monitorização Fetal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 939, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Middle East, tremendous efforts have been made to promote both maternal and child health. However, there is little information in the literature about maternal knowledge of obstetric danger signs. Thus, this study aims to investigate Saudi Arabian women's knowledge of obstetric danger signs and their determinant factors. METHODS: A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh City. A proportionate random sample of women who have delivered during the past 2 years was selected from the PHCCs. Data were then collected through structured interviews; the questionnaire was developed based on the literature review. RESULTS: A random sample of 1397 women were included in the final analysis of this study. During pregnancy, 21.1% of the participants reported that they knew about swollen hands or faces. During labor, 23.1% of the participants reported that they knew about prolonged labor (> 12 h). At postpartum, 26.3% of the participants reported that they knew about foul-smelling vaginal discharge. In this study, women in the northern region of Riyadh who visited government hospitals had significantly higher odds of knowing at least one obstetric danger sign. A statistically significant difference was found between the participants' knowledge of at least one obstetric danger sign and her 11-15 times of antenatal care visit. CONCLUSIONS: A dedicated health education guide, and a kingdom-wide maternal and child health preventive care promotion program could improve the health and wellbeing of expectant mothers. In these programs, it is essential to focus on birth preparedness, with danger signs recognition, and the integrate health-related data for the whole kingdom.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J. negat. no posit. results ; 5(6): 597-602, jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192323

RESUMO

Nos hallamos ante una situación epidemiológica causada por un coronavirus del cual todavía desconocemos muchos datos. Pese a esa carencia de información, los sistemas sanitarios están implantando protocolos para intentar proteger no sólo a los pacientes, si no a los sanitarios que en ellos trabajan. Además, tampoco sabemos demasiado del impacto del COVID-19 sobre poblaciones teóricamente más vulnerables, como las gestantes, en las cual se hace más necesario si cabe adoptar protocolos de actuación lo más basados en la evidencia posible para no caer en una deshumanización en su atención


We are facing a epidemiological situation caused by a coronavirus for which we still don't know much data. Despite this lack of information, health systems are implementing protocols to try to protect the patients, and also its health workers. Furthermore, we also don't know too much about the theoric impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable populations, such pregnant women, in which it becomes more necessary if it possible to adopt evidence-based protocols and not to fall into dehumanized treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Parto Humanizado , Entorno do Parto/tendências , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 24(1): 121-132, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358944

RESUMO

In efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, it is recommended that all pregnant women be counseled on signs of pregnancy related complications and neonatal illness. In resource limited settings, such counselling may be task-shifted to lay health workers. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey of community health workers/volunteers in North and East Kamagambo of the Rongo Sub- County of Migori County, Kenya, between January-April 2018. A survey tool was administered through face-to-face interviews to investigate the level of knowledge of obstetric and neonatal danger signs among community health workers in North Kamagambo after one year of participation in the Lwala program, as well as to evaluate baseline knowledge of community health volunteers in East Kamagambo at the beginning of Lwala's expansion and prior to their receiving training from Lwala. The North Kamagambo group identified more danger signs in each category. The percentage of participants with adequate knowledge in the pregnancy, postpartum, and neonatal categories was significantly higher in North Kamagambo than in East Kamagambo. Sixty percent of participants in North Kamagambo knew 3 or more danger signs in 3 or more categories, compared to 24% of participants in East Kamagambo. Location in North Kamagambo (OR 2.526, p=0.03) and a shorter time since most recent training (OR 2.291, p=0.025) were associated with increased knowledge. Our study revealed varying levels of knowledge among two populations of lay health workers. This study highlights the benefit of frequent trainings and placing greater emphasis on identified gaps in knowledge of the labor and postpartum periods.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Estudos Transversais , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(3): 299-304, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324661

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of cesarean delivery is increasing worldwide despite the advance of Trial of Labor After Cesarean section. In many countries, a history of previous cesarean section is an almost absolute indication for a repeat cesarean section. The purpose of this review was to examine if the perioperative anesthetic management of patients with repeat cesarean section is different from the anesthetic management of patients with primary cesarean section. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses important topics, such as early diagnosis of cases with a potentially high risk for complications; the need for assessment of patients diagnosed with abnormal placentation; the importance of a multidisciplinary approach that includes interaction of the anesthesiologist, gynaecologist, and invasive radiologist; emphasizing the need for reinforcement of new methods of invasive procedures; management of massive bleeding, use of new technologies, and development of an institutional protocol for management of patients with abnormal placentation. SUMMARY: According to this review, we show that the management of patients with repeat cesarean section without abnormal placentation is almost the same as the management of patients for primary cesarean section. Timely diagnosis of patient with abnormal placentation and multidisciplinary approach is crucial for prevention of morbidity or even mortality.


Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Recesariana/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência
12.
BJOG ; 127(8): 951-956, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The assessment of risk factors, including mediolateral episiotomy (MLE), for the recurrence of obstetric anal sphincter injury (rOASI). DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Data from the nationwide database of the Dutch Perinatal Registry (Perined). POPULATION: A cohort of 391 026 women at term, of whom 9943 had an OASI in their first delivery and had a second vaginal delivery of a liveborn infant in cephalic position. METHODS: Possible risk factors were tested for statistical significance using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of rOASI. RESULTS: The rate of rOASI was 5.8%. Multivariate analysis identified a birthweight of ≥4000 g (adjusted OR, aOR, 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.6) and a duration of second stage of ≥30 minutes (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.3) as statistically significant risk factors for rOASI. Mediolateral episiotomy was associated with a statistically significant lower rate of rOASI in spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.5) and in operative vaginal delivery (OVD) (aOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Women with a history of OASI have a higher rate of OASI in their next delivery. Duration of the second stage of ≥30 minutes and a birthweight of ≥4000 g are significantly associated with an increased rate of rOASI. Mediolateral episiotomy is associated with a significantly lower rate of rOASI in both SVD and OVD. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Mediolateral episiotomy is associated with a significant lower recurrence rate of OASI in women with an OASI in their first delivery.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/lesões , Episiotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Lacerações/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Períneo/lesões , Vácuo-Extração/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto , Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Estudos Longitudinais , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 40, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of obstetric fistula in the rural area of the south eastern community of India and the training of community health workers for its prevention. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the south eastern rural community of India. A total of 3939 women were included in the study and Probability proportional to size sampling was used in the study. Frequency distribution and logistic regression were computed to analyse the data using STATA version 11.2. RESULTS: Out of 3939 participants interviewed, 23.7% women reported obstetric fistula symptoms whereas after clinical diagnosis and speculum examination the obstetric morbidity pattern was: Obstetric fistula 0.3%, stress urinary incontinence 20.0%, pelvic inflammatory diseases 1.2%, uterine prolapse 1.4% and urinary tract infection 3.8%. The awareness level of the rural women regarding the obstetric fistula was assessed by a structured knowledge questionnaire and found to be very poor, hence community based fistula training was implemented among community health workers as a health system based strategy for its prevention. Obstetric fistula found to be more prevalent among women of poor educational level, low socioeconomic status, less no of antenatal visits, delay in accessing the emergency obstetric care and prolonged labour (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION: Finding of the study indicated that the prevalence and risk of developing obstetric fistula was associated with less number of antenatal visits, prolonged labour, delay in timely intervention, delay in accessing emergency obstetric care and more number of movements from home to the delivery place. Finally, our study suggests that emphasis needs to be placed on training of community health workers to facilitate early screening for identification and referral of women with obstetric fistula.


Assuntos
Fístula/epidemiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , População Rural , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(1): 60-67, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174617

RESUMO

Context: Birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) have been shown to increase knowledge of danger signs and enhance access to skilled obstetric care. Previous studies have focused on intermediate outcomes of BPCR such as utilization of skilled care for pregnancy and delivery. Aims: This study aims to determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with birth preparedness and complication readiness. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study involving 827 recently delivered women, attending selected health facilities in Ikenne, southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: BPCR was determined from a set of eight indicators that were developed by the John Hopkin's Bloomberg School of Public Health. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Bivariate analysis was done using Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression model was used to assess factors related to BPCR practice among respondents. The level of statistical significance was set to P < 0.05. Results: BPCR was observed in 470/827 (56.8%) of the participants. Only a minority had knowledge of financial - 125/827 (15.1%) and transportation assistance - 56/827 (6.8%). Knowledge of ≥ 5 danger signs of pregnancy was also low, 286/827 (34.6%). Institutional delivery was in only 331/827 (40%), and it depended on being birth prepared and complication ready (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.534, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.319-0.893). Significantly more perinatal deaths occurred to women who were not birth prepared (AOR = 2.951, 95% CI = 1.436-6.062), although no difference existed for perinatal (AOR = 1.202, 95% CI = 0.653-2.214) and maternal (AOR = 0.744, 95% CI = 0.452-1.226) morbidities. Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of key indicators of BPCR that reflect utilization of community resources in Ikenne Local Government Area is very poor. BPCR was an important determinant of perinatal survival.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
16.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 60(2): 175-182, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Third- and fourth-degree tears are associated with significant pain, discomfort and impact on quality of life and intimate relationships. Australian women experience comparatively higher rates of third- and fourth-degree tears relative to countries of similar economic development. AIMS: We aimed to conduct a comprehensive review of the literature, published over the past five years, to identify the best ways to prevent and manage third- and fourth-degree perineal tears in Australian maternity centres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the literature using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Maternity and Infant Care Database and Google Scholar for articles published since 2013 using key search terms. A review of reviews was undertaken given the extensive amount of literature on this topic. RESULTS: Twenty-six systematic reviews were identified. The most common risk factors reported in the literature for third- and fourth-degree tears included primiparity, mother's ethnicity, large for gestational age infants and certain interventions used in labour and birth, such as instrumental deliveries. Preventive practices with varying degrees of effectiveness and often dependant on parity included: antenatal perineal massage, different maternal birthing positions, water births, warm compresses, protection of the perineum and episiotomy for instrumental births. CONCLUSIONS: Third- and fourth-degree perineal tears are associated with immediate and long-term implications for women and health systems. Evidence-based approaches can reduce the number of women who sustain a severe perineal tear and alleviate the associated disease burden for those who do.


Assuntos
Lacerações/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Períneo/lesões , Canal Anal/lesões , Austrália , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Episiotomia , Feminino , Humanos , Lacerações/terapia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/terapia , Gravidez , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
17.
BJOG ; 127(7): 886-896, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test whether providing psychological self-help materials would significantly lower the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 6-12 weeks postnatally. DESIGN: Open-label randomised controlled trial, with blinded outcome assessment. SETTING: Community midwifery services in two National Health Service (NHS) trusts in the North West. SAMPLE: A cohort of 2419 women receiving normal NHS postnatal care. METHODS: Midwives screened women for traumatic birth experience; 678 women who screened positively (28.1%) were randomly allocated to self-help with usual care (n = 336) or to usual care alone (n = 342). The self-help materials were a leaflet and online film designed to prevent the development of PTSD after trauma exposure through explaining how to manage early psychological responses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was a composite of diagnostic and subdiagnostic PTSD at 6-12 weeks postnatally using the gold-standard Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-5) interview. RESULTS: Of the 678 women correctly randomised plus the nine women randomised in error, 478 (70.5%) were followed up. Diagnostic or subdiagnostic PTSD rates at follow-up did not differ between groups who received self-help (26.7%, 65/243) or usual care alone (26.2%, 64/244) (intention-to-treat analysis: RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.68-1.53). Findings remained consistent in the per-protocol analysis (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.85-1.27). Women viewed the materials very positively. There were no adverse effects. Health economic micro-costing indicated implementation would be very low cost. CONCLUSIONS: Many women experience a traumatic birth and risk developing PTSD, but self-help strategies without professional support are insufficient and should not be routinely introduced. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Self-help information alone does not reduce the number of women developing PTSD after a traumatic childbirth.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Folhetos , Parto/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Tocologia/métodos , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/diagnóstico , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Técnicas Psicológicas , Autogestão/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Reprod Health ; 17(1): 21, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstetric fistula is still common in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) despite the on-going shift to increased facility deliveries in the same settings. The social behavioural circumstances in which fistula, as well as its consequences, still occur are poorly documented, particularly from the perspective of the experiences of women with obstetric fistula. This study sought to describe women's experiences of antenatal, partum and post-partum care in southern Mozambique, and to pinpoint those experiences that are unique to women with fistula in order to understand the care-seeking and care provision circumstances which could have been modified to avoid or mitigate the onset or consequences of fistula. METHODS: This study took place in Maputo and Gaza provinces, southern Mozambique, in 2016-2017. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews conducted with 14 women with positive diagnoses of fistula and an equal number of women without fistula. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to thematic analysis using NVivo11. RESULTS: Study participants had all attended antenatal care (ANC) visits and had prepared for a facility birth. Prolonged or obstructed labour, multiple referrals, and delays in receiving secondary and tertiary health care were common among the discourses of women with fistula. The term "fistula" was rarely known among participants, but the condition (referred to as "loss of water" or "illness of spillage") was recognised after being prompted on its signs and symptoms. Women with fistula were invariably aware of the links between fistula and poor birth assistance, in contrast with those without fistula, who blamed the condition on women's physiological and behavioural characteristics. CONCLUSION: Although women do seek antenatal and peri-partum care in health facilities, deficiencies and delays in birth assistance, referral and life-saving interventions were commonly reported by women with fistula. Furthermore, weaknesses in quality of care, not only in relation to prevention, but also the resolution of the damage, were evident. Quality improvement of birth care is necessary, both at primary and referral level. There is a need to increase awareness and develop guidelines for prevention, early detection and management of obstetric fistula, including early postpartum treatment, availability of fistula repair for complex cases, and rehabilitation, coupled with the promotion of community consciousness of the problem.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Fístula Vesicovaginal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fístula Vesicovaginal/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 49, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partograph is cost effective and affordable tool designed to provide a continuous pictorial overview and labour progress used to prevent prolonged and obstructed labour. It consists of key information about progress of labour, fetal condition and maternal condition. Its role is to improve outcomes and predict the progress of labour. The aim of this study was to assess utilization of partograph and its predictors among midwives working in public health facilities, Addis Ababa city administration, Ethiopia, 2017. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 15/10/2017-15/12/2017.Simple random sampling under multistage sampling technique was applied to select a total of 605 midwives working in maternity unit of selected public health facilities. Data were collected using structured self-administered questionnaire. Checklist based direct observations were made to all midwife participants to determine the actual practical use of partograph. Data first entered in to EpiInfo version 3.5.1 and transported to SPSS Version 21.Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, and median were calculated. Biviriate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were applied. Any personal identification of the study participants was not recorded during data collection to ensure confidentiality of information. RESULTS: In this study, the utilization of partograph was 409(69%) out of 594 study participants. Being mentored(AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.7, 5.3),received training (AOR = 2.4; 95% CI:1.5,3.6),being knowledgeable about partograph (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5), health center workers(AOR = 12.6; 95% CI:5.1,31.6),supportive supervision 4 times per year (AOR = 18.6; 95% CI: 6.6,25),supportive supervision twice per a year (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 1.9, 11.3),supportive supervision once per year (AOR =3.8;95% CI:1.7,8.8) were positive predictors of partograph utilization. Two midwives per shift (AOR = 0.101; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.65), and 4 per shift (AOR = 0.105, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.40) were protective predictors of partograph utilization. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the respondents utilized partograph. All public health institutions avail partograph in their laboring room but didn't utilize it according to WHO recommended standard. Working facility, supportive supervision, mentoring, training on partograph, number of midwives working per shift, and knowledge were factors affecting partograph utilization. Encouraging interventions are recommended to the response of the above significantly associated factors.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Obstétrico e Ginecológico/enfermagem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Tocologia/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Monitorização Uterina/enfermagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 56, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women with spinal cord injuries (SCI) represent a high risk population during pregnancy with comparatively few studies in the literature regarding their management and pregnancy outcomes, due to the relative rarity of the condition. Our objective was to assess pregnancy outcomes in women with spinal cord injury. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study of pregnancy outcomes by reviewing maternity records of all pregnant women with SCI attending the National Spinal Injury Centre at Buckinghamshire NHS Trust between 1991 and 2016. The outcome measures were Maternal demographic data, antenatal complications, method of anaesthetic, intrapartum data (gestation at delivery, onset of labour, mode of delivery, indication for obstetric intervention) and neonatal outcomes (low birth weight, stillbirth, neonatal death). RESULTS: Fifty women with a total of 68 pregnancies were identified. Five patients sustained SCI during pregnancy and the remaining 63 pregnancies were conceived at least 1 year after SCI, of which 45 pregnancies had a SCI at T10 or above (73%) and 23 pregnancies at T11 or below (27%). The most common antenatal complications in SCI patients were worsening of spasms (38%) and urinary tract infection (24%). Preterm delivery occurred in 18% of women. Vaginal delivery was achieved in 77% of pregnancies, including 14% instrumental delivery rate and 23% Caesarean delivery rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the current evidence that pregnancy outcomes are generally successful and that vaginal delivery can be safely achieved in the majority of women, independent of the level of SCI.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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