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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1920053, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995216

RESUMO

Importance: Access to reproductive health services is a public health goal. It is unknown how geographic and health plan network availability of Catholic and non-Catholic hospitals may be associated with access to reproductive health services in the United States. Objective: To characterize the market share of Catholic hospitals in the United States, both overall and within Marketplace health insurance plans' hospital networks. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study of US counties used data on hospitals' Catholic affiliation and discharges, hospital networks in Marketplace health insurance plans, and US Census population data to construct a national, county-level data set. The Catholic hospital market share overall in each county and in Marketplace plans' hospital networks in each county were calculated. The study examined whether the Catholic hospital market share was different within Marketplace networks compared with the counties they served. Data analysis was conducted in May and June 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: The overall Catholic hospital market share was calculated on the basis of the share of discharges in Catholic hospitals in a county compared with all hospital discharges. Overall market share was categorized as minimal (≤2%), low (>2% to ≤20%), high (>20% to ≤70%), or dominant (>70%). The Catholic hospital market share in Marketplace networks was calculated as the share of Catholic hospital discharges in each Marketplace network. Results: The sample included 4450 hospitals in 3101 counties. Overall, 26.1% of US counties had minimal Catholic hospital market share, 38.6% had low Catholic hospital market share, and 35.3% had high or dominant Catholic hospital market share; 38.7% of US reproductive-aged women resided in counties with high or dominant Catholic hospital market share. Among counties with Catholic hospital market share greater than 2%, the distribution of the median Marketplace network's Catholic hospital market share (median [interquartile range], 4.6% [0%-24.3%]) was lower than overall Catholic hospital market share (median [interquartile range], 18.5% [8.1%-36.5%]). The median Marketplace hospital network had a lower Catholic hospital market share than the county overall in 68.0% of US counties with Catholic hospital market share greater than 2%. Conclusions and Relevance: In this national study, 35.3% of counties had high or dominant Catholic hospital market share serving an estimated 38.7% of US women of reproductive age. Marketplace health insurance plans' hospital networks included a lower share of Catholic hospitals than the counties they serve.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Religiosos/organização & administração , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Catolicismo , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803342

RESUMO

Introduction: Every day, approximately 830 women globally die from pregnancy-child birth related complications and all maternal deaths are mainly due to the three phases of delay usually experienced in maternal care which originates from inadequate or lack of birth and emergency preparedness. Despite the benefit of Birth Preparedness and Complications Readiness (BPACR) in the reduction of the three phases of delay and thus reduction of maternal deaths and complications, no study has been conducted in Adjumani district to assess the knowledge and practice of birth preparedness and complication readiness, thus our objective was to assess the knowledge and practice of Birth Preparedness and Complications Readiness (BPACR) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Openzinzi Health Centre (HC) III in Adjumani District. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study design with a sample of 80 respondents was used for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select the respondents in the study area. A research administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Most of the respondents (27.5%) were in the age group of 26-35 years. The majority 43.75% ended at primary level of education, 50% were unemployed, and the majority 71.25% and 70% knew identifying skilled birth attendants and health facilities respectively as components of BPACR. 76.25% of the respondents mentioned vaginal bleeding and 62.5% over vomiting as danger signs in pregnancy while 12.5% did not know any danger sign in pregnancy. 76.25% identified place for skilled birth, 66.25% identified skilled birth attendant, and only 15% identified blood donor. Conclusion: The practice of BPACR was poor among the pregnant women attending antenatal care at Openzinzi Health Centre III in Adjumani District. The knowledge about BPACR was higher among the educated respondents involved in the study.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Morte Materna/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nurs Res ; 68(6): 494-500, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recognizing the effects of acculturation on quality of life and emotional health, especially during pregnancy, we developed an intervention that would target these factors in order to improve maternal well-being during the prenatal period and potentially improve infant outcomes, particularly preterm birth for Mexican-American women (Latinas). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of these pilot studies was to test the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of the mastery lifestyle intervention (MLI) to decrease depressive and anxiety symptoms and improve coping as implemented in prenatal clinics with culturally homogenous groups of Latinas. METHODS: The MLI was tested in three small pilot studies (n = 15), one in El Paso, Texas (an urban area), and two in Bastrop, Texas (a rural area outside Austin), for acceptability and feasibility. A pretest/posttest, quasi-experimental design was used with pregnant self-identified Mexican-American Latinas at 14-20 weeks' gestation. Measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and positive and negative coping were used. RESULTS: Feasibility was a success in terms of implementation of the MLI in an active prenatal clinic setting and the use of electronic tablets for data collection and entry of data into REDcap. Satisfaction was high, with the location of the MLI being at their primary OB/GYN clinic. Participants reported that six intervention sessions appear to be ideal as was the class length of 1.5 to 2 hours. On Cohen's d, there were medium to large effect size decreases in depressive and anxiety symptoms and small to medium effect size decreases in the use of negative coping strategies and small effect sizes for increases in positive coping strategies. DISCUSSION: Pilot testing of the MLI indicated that it was well accepted from the participants and feasible as a culturally tailored behavioral therapy administered in a group setting by nurse practitioners. Our initial pilot results also suggest preliminary efficacy as indicated by moderate to large Cohen's d effect sizes for depression and anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Aculturação , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Qualidade de Vida , Texas
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(10): 1951-1959, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of supervised moderate to vigorous exercise on gestational weight gain, its related risks (gestational diabetes [GD]), macrosomia, and type of delivery), and the preventive effects on women who exceed the weight gain recommendations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-center, 2-armed, randomized controlled trial between October 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011, in which 678 women were assessed and 345 were randomized by a central computer system to an intervention group (N=115) or a standard care group (N=230). The intervention exercise program consisted of 70 to 78 sessions (24 weeks, 3 times per week, 60-65 minutes per session, moderate to vigorous intensity). The standard care group received usual care. Excessive gestational weight (EGW) gain was calculated on the basis of the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. RESULTS: Of the 345 women randomized for treatment, 44 were lost to follow-up, leaving 301 women for analysis (intervention, 100; standard care, 201). Fewer women in the intervention group exceeded IOM recommendations (22 [22.0%] vs 69 [34.3%]; P=.03), including overweight and obese women (15 of 35 [42.9%] vs 40 of 50 [80.0%]; P=.001). Analysis of women exceeding weight recommendations revealed that the 3 main related risks were directly related to EGW gain in the standard care group (GD, P=.003; macrosomia, P<.001; type of delivery, P<.001) but not in the intervention group (GD, P>.99; macrosomia, 0%; type of delivery, P=.46). CONCLUSION: Supervised moderate to vigorous exercise performed throughout gestation was effective in the prevention of EGW gain even for women with a pregestational body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2. It also prevented its related risks (GD, macrosomia, and type of delivery) including for women exceeding the IOM recommendations, so we suggest that being active outweighs the effect of possible weight gain. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01477372.


Assuntos
Exercício , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/complicações , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia
7.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573669

RESUMO

MM-ARG, the Swedish maternal maternity mortality group within SFOG (Swedish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology) has, since 2008, surveyed and analysed maternal deaths in Sweden with the aim to find and give feedback on lessons learned to the medical professions.  MM-ARG consists of obstetricians, midwives and anesthetists and the strength of the working model is that the profession itself takes responsibility for the scrutiny.  A summary of 67 known maternal deaths from 2007‒2017 is presented. Direct causes of death are dominated by hypertensive disease/preeclampsia, followed by thromboembolic disease, sepsis and obstetric bleeding. Indirect death, where a known or unknown underlying disease is exacerbated by pregnancy, is dominated by cardiovascular disease. This review shows that the diagnostics and clinical management could be improved. Besides obstetrics/gynecology, maternal mortality affects other specialties and thus holds important lessons to many.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Morte Materna , Transtornos Mentais/mortalidade , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/mortalidade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Pré-Eclâmpsia/mortalidade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Sociedades Médicas , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suécia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle
9.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(12): 1604-1612, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nearly half of all women gain above gestational weight gain (GWG) recommendations. This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a pilot behavioral intervention on GWG and physical activity behaviors. METHODS: Women (n = 45) 14-20 weeks gestation enrolled in a behavioral intervention. Physicians 'prescribed' the intervention to low risk patients. The intervention included self-monitoring, support, and optional walking groups. Process evaluation measures regarding usage and acceptability of study components were obtained. Physical activity was objectively measured at baseline and 35 weeks. The percentage of participants with appropriate GWG was calculated. Control data was obtained from the same clinic where participants were recruited. RESULTS: Overall, the intervention was acceptable to participants; attrition was low (6.7%), weekly contact was high (87%), and self-monitoring was high (Fitbit worn on 82% of intervention weeks; weekly weighing on 81%). Facebook (40% of weeks) and study website use (19%) was low, as was walking group attendance (7% attended a single group). Participants reported a lack of discussions about the study with their physician. Results showed no significant difference between intervention and control participants in the percentage who gained excess weight (p = 0.37). There was a significant decrease in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in intervention participants (p < 0.0001). DISCUSSION: Continued efforts for promoting physical activity and appropriate GWG are needed. Although acceptable, the intervention was not efficacious. Trainings for, or input from prenatal healthcare providers on how to best encourage and support patients' engagement in healthy behaviors, such as PA, are warranted.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Exercício , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD012544, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common medical condition that complicates pregnancy and causes adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. At present, most treatment strategies focus on normalisation of maternal blood glucose values with use of diet, lifestyle modification, exercise, oral anti-hyperglycaemics and insulin. This has been shown to reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes, such as birth trauma and macrosomia. However, this involves intensive monitoring and treatment of all women with GDM. We propose that using medical imaging to identify pregnancies displaying signs of being affected by GDM could help to target management, allowing low-risk women to be spared excessive intervention, and facilitating better resource allocation. OBJECTIVES: We wanted to address the following question: in women with gestational diabetes, does the use of fetal imaging plus maternal blood glucose concentration to indicate the need for medical management compared with glucose concentration alone reduce the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes? SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (29 January 2019), ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (both on 29 January 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials, including those published in abstract form only. Studies using a cluster-randomised design and quasi-randomised controlled trials were both eligible for inclusion, but we didn't identify any. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion in our review.We included women carrying singleton pregnancies who were diagnosed with GDM, as defined by the trials' authors. The intervention of interest was the use of fetal biometry on imaging methods in addition to maternal glycaemic values for indicating the use of medical therapy for GDM. The control group was the use of maternal glycaemic values alone for indicating the use of such therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed risk of bias. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. MAIN RESULTS: Three randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria for our systematic review - the studies randomised a total of 524 women.We assessed the three included studies as being at a low to moderate risk of bias; the nature of the intervention made it difficult to achieve blinding of participants and personnel and none of the trial reports contained information about methods of allocation concealment (and were therefore assessed as being at an unclear risk of selection bias).In all studies, the intervention was the use of fetal biometry on ultrasound to identify fetuses displaying signs of fetal macrosomia, and the use of this information to indicate the use of medical anti-hyperglycaemic treatments. Those pregnancies were subject to more stringent blood glucose targets than those without signs of fetal macrosomia.Maternal outcomesThe use of fetal biometry in addition to maternal blood glucose concentration (compared with maternal blood glucose concentration alone) may make little or no difference to the incidence of caesarean delivery (risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.10; 2 trials, 428 women; low-certainty evidence). We are unclear about the results for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.89; 2 trials, 325 women) due to very low-certainty evidence. The included trials did not report on development of type 2 diabetes in the mother or maternal hypoglycaemia.Fetal and neonatal outcomesThe use of fetal biometry may make little or no difference to the incidence of neonatal hypoglycaemia (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.42; 3 trials, 524 women; low-certainty evidence). Very low-certainty evidence means that we are unclear about the results for large-for-gestational age (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.74; 3 trials, 524 women); shoulder dystocia (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.98; 1 trial, 96 women); a composite measure of perinatal morbidity or mortality (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.21 to 4.71; 1 study, 96 women); or perinatal mortality (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.98; 1 trial, 96 women). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review is based on evidence from three trials involving 524 women. The trials did not report some important outcomes of interest to this review, and the majority of our secondary outcomes were also unreported. The available evidence ranged from low- to very low-certainty, with downgrading decisions based on limitations in study design, imprecision and inconsistency.There is insufficient evidence to evaluate the use of fetal biometry (in addition to maternal blood glucose concentration values) to assist in guiding the medical management of GDM, on either maternal or perinatal health outcomes, or the associated costs.More research is required, ideally larger randomised studies which report the maternal and infant short- and long-term outcomes listed in this review, as well as those outcomes relating to financial and resource implications.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Macrossomia Fetal/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10599-10605, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447163

RESUMO

The supply of methionine (Met) in late pregnancy can alter mRNA abundance of genes associated with metabolism and immune response in liver and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of the neonatal calf. Whether prenatal supply of Met elicits postnatal effects on systemic inflammation and innate immune response of the calf is not well known. We investigated whether enhancing the maternal supply of Met via feeding ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected Met (RPM) was associated with differences in calf innate immune response mRNA abundance in PMN and systemic indicators of inflammation during the first 50 d of life. Calves (n = 14 per maternal diet) born to cows fed RPM at 0.09% of diet dry matter per day (MET) for the last 28 ± 2 d before calving or fed a control diet with no added Met (CON) were used. Blood for biomarker analysis and isolation of PMN for innate immune function assays and mRNA abundance was harvested at birth (before colostrum feeding) and at 7, 21 and 50 d of age. Whole blood was challenged with enteropathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli 0118:H8) and phagocytosis and oxidative burst of neutrophils and monocytes were quantified via flow cytometry. Although concentration of haptoglobin and activity of myeloperoxidase among calves from both maternal groups increased markedly between 0 and 7 d of age followed by a decrease to baseline at d 21 the responses were lower in MET compared with CON calves. Nitric oxide concentration decreased markedly between 0 and 7 d regardless of maternal group but MET calves tended to have lower overall concentrations during the study. In vitro phagocytosis in stimulated neutrophils increased markedly over time in both CON and MET calves but responses were overall greater in MET calves. Oxidative burst in both neutrophils and monocytes increased over time regardless of maternal treatment. The mRNA abundance of lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8) in PMN was overall greater in MET calves. Overall data suggest that increasing the maternal supply of Met during late pregnancy could affect the neonatal calf inflammatory status and innate immune response. Although changes in mRNA abundance could play a role in coordinating the immune response the exact mechanisms merit further study.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/veterinária , Contagem de Leucócitos , Fígado/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/veterinária , Rúmen/metabolismo
12.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 153, 2019 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378201

RESUMO

Pregnant women are highly susceptible to anaemia and iron deficiency due to the increased demands of pregnancy as well as other factors. Iron supplementation is recommended in pregnancy, yet the benefits on newborn outcomes are variable between populations, most likely due to the heterogeneity in the prevalence of iron deficiency, detrimental birth outcomes and infectious diseases. Furthermore, there are concerns regarding iron supplementation in malaria-endemic areas due to reports of increased risk of malaria in those receiving iron. This is compounded by limited knowledge of how iron deficiency, anaemia, malaria, and other infections may interact to influence birth outcomes. In a recent cohort study in Papua New Guinea, where there is a high burden of infections and iron deficiency, we found that iron deficiency in pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, this effect could not be wholly explained by interactions between iron deficiency and malaria. We proposed that iron deficiency may confer a degree of protection against other infectious pathogens, which in turn caused improvements in birthweight. We argue that further studies in multiple populations are crucial to elucidate interactions between iron status, iron supplementation and birthweight as well as to understand the context-specific benefits of iron supplementation in pregnancy and inform public policy. Focus should be given to haematological studies on anaemia, haemodilution and iron absorption, as well as investigating infectious diseases and other nutritional deficiencies. This is a particular priority in resource-constrained settings where the prevalence of iron deficiency, poor nutrition, infections and poor birth outcomes are high. While current recommendations of iron supplementation and malaria prophylaxis to reduce the burden of poor pregnancy outcomes should be supported, the strength of evidence underpinning these must be improved and new insights should be garnered in order to maximise improvements in maternal and child health.Please see related article: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-018-1146-z .Please see related article: https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-019-1375-9 .


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro/efeitos adversos , Malária , Complicações na Gravidez , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Peso ao Nascer , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Malária/epidemiologia , Papua Nova Guiné , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez , Saúde Pública
13.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 46(3): 431-440, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378286

RESUMO

Pregnancy complications provide insight into women's future health risks and have long term implications for maternal and child health. Obesity has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and is a risk factor for chronic disease. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy often translates into postpartum weight retention, increasing women's risk for obesity. Pregnancy and the postpartum period provides a unique opportunity to discuss health beyond pregnancy, emphasize interconception care, and implement appropriate prevention strategies. We aim to review the impact of obesity, gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and role of nutrition and exercise on pregnancy and lifelong health.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
15.
BJOG ; 126(13): 1524-1533, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are questions about the use of the 'one-centimetre per hour rule' as a valid benchmark for assessing the adequacy of labour progress. OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of the alert (1-cm/hour) and action lines of the cervicograph in the partograph to predict adverse birth outcomes among women in first stage of labour. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, POPLINE, Global Health Library, and reference lists of eligible studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Observational studies and other study designs reporting data on the correlation between the alert line status of women in labour and the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers at a time independently identified eligible studies and independently abstracted data including population characteristics and maternal and perinatal outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen studies in which 20 471 women participated were included in the review. The percentage of women crossing the alert line varied from 8 to 76% for all maternal or perinatal outcomes. No study showed a robust diagnostic test accuracy profile for any of the selected outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review does not support the use of the cervical dilatation over time (at a threshold of 1 cm/h during active first stage) to identify women at risk of adverse birth outcomes. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Alert line of partograph does not identify women at risk of adverse birth outcomes.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Monitorização Uterina , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Nascimento a Termo , Inércia Uterina/diagnóstico , Monitorização Uterina/instrumentação
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD008873, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may be needed to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. This is an update of a review that was first published in 2012 and then in 2016. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether vitamin D supplementation alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (12 July 2018), contacted relevant organisations (15 May 2018), reference lists of retrieved trials and registries at clinicaltrials.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (12 July 2018). Abstracts were included if they had enough information to extract the data. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy in comparison to placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of trials against the inclusion criteria, ii) extracted data from included trials, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included trials. The certainty of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 30 trials (7033 women), excluded 60 trials, identified six as ongoing/unpublished trials and two trials are awaiting assessments.Supplementation with vitamin D alone versus placebo/no interventionA total of 22 trials involving 3725 pregnant women were included in this comparison; 19 trials were assessed as having low-to-moderate risk of bias for most domains and three trials were assessed as having high risk of bias for most domains. Supplementation with vitamin D alone during pregnancy probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (risk ratio (RR) 0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30 to 0.79; 4 trials, 499 women, moderate-certainty evidence) and gestational diabetes (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.97; 4 trials, 446 women, moderate-certainty evidence); and probably reduces the risk of having a baby with low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.87; 5 trials, 697 women, moderate-certainty evidence) compared to women who received placebo or no intervention. Vitamin D supplementation may make little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks compared to no intervention or placebo (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.30; 7 trials, 1640 women, low-certainty evidence). In terms of maternal adverse events, vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.91; 1 trial, 1134 women, low-certainty evidence). There were no cases of hypercalcaemia (1 trial, 1134 women, low-certainty evidence), and we are very uncertain as to whether vitamin D increases or decreases the risk of nephritic syndrome (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.01 to 4.06; 1 trial, 135 women, very low-certainty evidence). However, given the scarcity of data in general for maternal adverse events, no firm conclusions can be drawn.Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium versus placebo/no interventionNine trials involving 1916 pregnant women were included in this comparison; three trials were assessed as having low risk of bias for allocation and blinding, four trials were assessed as having high risk of bias and two had some components having a low risk, high risk, or unclear risk. Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium during pregnancy probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.78; 4 trials, 1174 women, moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of the intervention is uncertain on gestational diabetes (RR 0.33,% CI 0.01 to 7.84; 1 trial, 54 women, very low-certainty evidence); and low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.10 to 4.55; 2 trials, 110 women, very low-certainty evidence) compared to women who received placebo or no intervention. Supplementation with vitamin D and calcium during pregnancy may increase the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks in comparison to women who received placebo or no intervention (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.28; 5 trials, 942 women, low-certainty evidence). No trial in this comparison reported on maternal adverse events.Supplementation with vitamin D + calcium + other vitamins and minerals versus calcium + other vitamins and minerals (but no vitamin D)One trial in 1300 participants was included in this comparison; it was assessed as having low risk of bias. Pre-eclampsia was not assessed. Supplementation with vitamin D + other nutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.59; 1 trial, 1298 women, low-certainty evidence); or low birthweight (less than 2500 g) (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.51; 1 trial, 1298 women, low-certainty evidence). It is unclear whether it makes any difference to the risk of gestational diabetes (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.10 to 1.73) or maternal adverse events (hypercalcaemia no events; hypercalciuria RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.02 to 3.97; 1 trial, 1298 women,) because the certainty of the evidence for both outcomes was found to be very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We included 30 trials (7033 women) across three separate comparisons. Our GRADE assessments ranged from moderate to very low, with downgrading decisions based on limitations in study design, imprecision and indirectness.Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D alone probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, low birthweight and may reduce the risk of severe postpartum haemorrhage. It may make little or no difference in the risk of having a preterm birth < 37 weeks' gestation. Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D and calcium probably reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia but may increase the risk of preterm births < 37 weeks (these findings warrant further research). Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D and other nutrients may make little or no difference in the risk of preterm birth < 37 weeks' gestation or low birthweight (less than 2500 g). Additional rigorous high quality and larger randomised trials are required to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, particularly in relation to the risk of maternal adverse events.


Assuntos
Resultado da Gravidez , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
17.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(2): 245-262, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317956

RESUMO

Treatment of depressive disorders in women of childbearing age requires special attention due to the possibility of planned or unplanned pregnancy and the specificity of mood disorders associated with the perinatal period. A doctor who treats depression in a woman of childbearing age should openly discuss with the patient her sexuality and the possibility of becoming pregnant. A psychiatrist may encounter various problems, such as: a therapeutic decision regarding a woman suffering from recurrent depression who receives preventive or maintenance antidepressant medication and becomes pregnant or plans to conceive; proceedings in the case of a depressive episode in a woman who is already pregnant; proceedings in the case of postpartum depression; antidepressant treatment in the context of breastfeeding. The recommendations were prepared by the working group of the Polish Psychiatric Association based on the latest worldwide standards as well as opinions and consensus of experts. The recommendations provide general principles of therapeutic approach and include data on the safety of antidepressants.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão Pós-Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas
18.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(2): 263-276, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317957

RESUMO

In the article, the recommendations of the Polish Psychiatric Association regarding pharmacological treatment of women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period were presented. The issue pertains to every twentieth woman wanting to get pregnant. Before planned pregnancy, it is advisable to obtain a several-month stabilization of psychiatric state, to establish treatment with one mood-stabilizing drug (except for valproate and carbamazepine) or gradual discontinuation of drugs in case of mild course of illness and lack of recurrences in recent two years. In the first trimester of pregnancy, the dose of the mood-stabilizing drug should be reduced (lithium carbonate to 500 mg/day). Depression during pregnancy can be treated with quetiapine or lamotrigine or with antidepressant drug added to a mood-stabilizing drug. Atypical antipsychotics drugs with mood-stabilizing properties can be used in case of (hypo) manic or mixed states. Following the delivery, it is advisable to introduce a moodstabilizing drug as soon as possible to prevent postpartum psychiatric disturbances. In the treatment of postpartum depression, quetiapine can be used or an antidepressant drug added to a mood-stabilizer. Considering breastfeeding, it should be remembered that the infant/maternal ratio of serum drug concentration is low for valproate, olanzapine, quetiapine, sertraline and paroxetine, and high for lithium and lamotrigine. In the case of postpartum psychosis, a hospitalization and antipsychotic treatment are needed.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Sociedades Médicas
19.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(2): 277-292, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317958

RESUMO

This article presents recommendations of the Polish Psychiatric Association regarding approach to pregnancy loss and unsuccessful in vitro treatment of infertility. From the psychological perspective pregnancy loss and perinatal death are amongst the most stressful events in human life - carrying increased risk of developing affective, anxiety or post-traumatic stress disorders. Psychologists, physicians and the rest of the medical staff should provide integrated and individualized care which should be based on respect, empathy and expertise. The necessary phases of support for women experiencing pregnancy loss are: (1) physician providing exhaustive informational support regarding state of health, potential causes of fetal death, further approach and phases of induced labor of the fetus/pregnancy termination/procedure, (2) facilitating psychological consultation at any time and (3) providing exhaustive information on current legal standing (health insurance and labor law). Experiencing recurrent in vitro fertilization failures may result in the emotional consequences similar to those observed in miscarriages. The prolonged frustration may favor developing depressive symptoms and escalate pathological anxiety. We present basic recommendations for psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in pregnancy loss and unsuccessful in vitro infertility treatment.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Natimorto/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Aborto Espontâneo , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Sociedades Médicas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/prevenção & controle
20.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 107, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, the information on Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness is insufficiently provided to pregnant women and their families. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal and infant outcomes of a family-oriented antenatal group education program that promotes Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Pregnant women and families were enrolled in a program about nutrition and exercise, danger signs, and birth preparedness. The cross sectional survey was conducted one year later to evaluate if the participants of the program (intervention group) were different from those who did not participate (control group) with respect to birth-preparedness and maternal and infant outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 194 participants (intervention group, 50; control group, 144) were analyzed. For Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness, the intervention group participants knew a health facility in case of emergency (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.39-6.97); arranged accompaniment to go to a health facility for birth (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.17-5.60); decided the birthplace with or by the pregnant women (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.44-6.70); and attended antenatal clinic more than four times (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.20-4.78). For birth outcomes, the intervention group had less bleeding or seizure during labour and birth (OR: 0.28, 95%CI: 0.13-0.58); fewer Caesarean sections (OR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.07-0.36); and less neonatal complications (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.13-0.60). CONCLUSIONS: The four variables were significantly better in the intervention group, i.e., identifying a health facility for emergencies, family accompaniment for facility birth, antenatal visits, and involvement of women in decision-making, which may be key factors for improving birth outcome variables. Having identified these key factors, male involvement and healthy pregnant lives should be emphasized in antenatal education to reduce pregnancy and childbirth complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION: No.2013-273-NA-2013-101 . Registered 12 August 2013.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Educação Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia
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