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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(17): 4238-4245, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164409

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to predict the anti-microbial components in the aerial part of Bupleurum chinense fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum through analyzing the correlation between contents of bioactive components and their inhibitory action for pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the UPLC-MS-MS detection method was established for eight flavonoids(kaempferol-3-O-ß-D-rutinoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, rutin, iridin, quercetin-3-O-ß-L-arabinoside, kaempferol) and DL-3-phenyllactic acid, and the dynamic change of their contents at fermentation course were monitored. Meanwhile, the experiment employed five common no-naquatic pathogenic bacteria(Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacillus subtilis), and four common aquatic pathogenic bacteria(Aeruginosa hydrophila, Delayed Edwards, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio harveyi) to validate in vitro anti-microbial activity of the fermented aerial part of B. chinense at different fermentation time points. Finally, the Pearson correlation analysis was applied to predict the anti-microbial components of the fermented aerial part of B. chinense.The established UPLC-MS-MS method showed a good linearity and the widest linear range was from 0.19 µg·mL~(-1) to 50 µg·mL~(-1). The limit of quantitation and the limit of detection were 0.19-1.56 µg·mL~(-1) and 0.1-0.78 µg·mL~(-1) respectively. During the fermentation within 48 h, the contents of three flavonoids(rutin, quercetin-3-O-ß-L-arabinoside, isoquercitrin) and DL-3-phenyllactic acid from the fermented aerial part of B. chinense increased sharply. In the process of fermentation, the anti-microbial effect of the fermented aerial part of B. chinense on aquatic pathogens was significantly stronger than that on non-aquatic pathogens. Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis predicted that isoquercitrin, rutin, quercetin-3-O-ß-L-arabinoside and DL-3-phenyllactic acid showed significant correlation with the four aquatic pathogens. This study revealed that the fermented aerial part of B. chinense had a high sensitivity to aquatic pathogens, which may be caused by the increased contents of isoquercitrin, rutin, quercetin-3-O-ß-L-arabinoside and DL-3-phenyllactic acid. In conclusion, this study provides a theoretical basis and new idea for the further development of the large amount of wasteful aerial part of Bupleurum chinense.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Bupleurum , Cromatografia Líquida , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vibrio
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110964, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678754

RESUMO

Soil salinization is the most common abiotic stress limiting agricultural productivity worldwide. Recent research has suggested that the application of silicon (Si) has beneficial effects against salt stress in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by regulating the antioxidant system, mineral nutrients, and other important mechanisms. However, whether these effects can be achieved through foliar application of Si, or whether Si application affects Si-accumulating (e.g., sorghum), and intermediate-Si-accumulating (e.g., sunflower) plant species differently, remains unclear. This study investigated different methods of Si application in attenuating the detrimental effects of salt stress, based on the biological responses of two distinct species of Si accumulators, under greenhouse conditions. Two pot experiments were designed as a factorial (2 × 4), randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with control and salt-stress groups (0 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl), and four Si-treatment groups: control (no Si), foliar application (28.6 mmol.L-1), root application (2 mmol.L-1), and combined foliar and root applications. Our results showed that the harmful effects of salt stress were attenuated by Si treatments in both plant species, which decreased Na+ uptake and lipid peroxidation, and increased Si and K+ uptake, relative leaf water content, antioxidant enzyme activities, leaf area, and shoot dry matter. These results were more prominent when Si was applied via nutrient solution in the sorghum plants, and the combined foliar and root applications of Si in sunflower plants. In addition, foliar application of Si alone is an efficient alternative in attenuating the effects of salinity in both plant species when Si is not available in the growth medium. These results suggest that the Si application method plays an important role in Na+ detoxification by modifying the antioxidative defense mechanism, which could actively mediate some important physiological and biochemical processes and helps to increase the shoot dry matter production in sorghum and sunflower plants under salt stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Helianthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino , Silício/farmacologia , Sorghum/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/efeitos dos fármacos , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Helianthus/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Salinidade , Solo/química , Sorghum/metabolismo
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(7): 418, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506188

RESUMO

Biomass equations were developed for different components of oak trees (Quercus cerris L.), which have been managed in coppices at different development stages-small-diameter forest (SDF) and medium-diameter forest (MDF). In this context, four biomass regression models-two based on diameter at breast height (DBH) alone and two based on DBH and total tree height (H)-were developed for each of the crown, stem, and total aboveground biomass components. Akaike's information criterion (AIC), root mean square error percentage (RMSE (%)), mean absolute error percentage (MAE (%)), adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2), and bias values were used to evaluate and compare the suitability of a total of 12 regression models developed for biomass components. As a result, in the estimation of crown biomass, only DBH-based models provided higher estimation accuracy than DBH-H-based models. For the most suitable model, estimated values were Adj.R2 = 0.60, bias = - 0.009, RMSE = 66%, and MAE = 41%. In models developed to estimate stem biomass, the estimation accuracy of DBH-H-based models was higher. In the goodness-of-fit statistics calculated for the most suitable model, Adj.R2, bias, RMSE, and MAE were 0.89, 0.010, 38%, and 23%, respectively. The models developed to estimate the total aboveground biomass were all close in terms of estimation accuracy. The biomass components (crown and stem) in the total aboveground biomass were proportionally as follows: crown at 38% and stem at 62% in the SDF stage, and crown at 35% and stem at 65% in the MDF stage, indicating lower crown and higher stem partitioning as the development stage increased.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Teóricos , Componentes Aéreos da Planta , Quercus , Análise de Regressão , Turquia
4.
Food Chem ; 328: 126930, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485581

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to quantify the phenolic compounds and to evaluate and compare the biological activities of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanolic (MeOH) and aqueous extracts from the Micromeria nervosa aerial parts, based on their antioxidant activity and enzymatic inhibition. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were calculated and individual compo3unds were detected using LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was determined using six different assays while enzymatic activity was determined by α-amylase and tyrosinase enzyme inhibition. The main phenolic constituents detected in the extracts were rosmarinic acid. In the antioxidant assays the aqueous extract was shown to be more efficient than the others. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts presented higher inhibitory activity with respect to α-amylase and tyrosinase. Regardless of the solvent, the results suggest M. nervosa aerial extracts present a biological potential due to their antioxidant activity and enzymatic inhibition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Lamiaceae/química , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cinamatos/análise , Depsídeos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
5.
Nature ; 580(7805): 653-657, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350464

RESUMO

The aboveground parts of terrestrial plants, collectively called the phyllosphere, have a key role in the global balance of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen. The phyllosphere represents one of the most abundant habitats for microbiota colonization. Whether and how plants control phyllosphere microbiota to ensure plant health is not well understood. Here we show that the Arabidopsis quadruple mutant (min7 fls2 efr cerk1; hereafter, mfec)1, simultaneously defective in pattern-triggered immunity and the MIN7 vesicle-trafficking pathway, or a constitutively activated cell death1 (cad1) mutant, carrying a S205F mutation in a membrane-attack-complex/perforin (MACPF)-domain protein, harbour altered endophytic phyllosphere microbiota and display leaf-tissue damage associated with dysbiosis. The Shannon diversity index and the relative abundance of Firmicutes were markedly reduced, whereas Proteobacteria were enriched in the mfec and cad1S205F mutants, bearing cross-kingdom resemblance to some aspects of the dysbiosis that occurs in human inflammatory bowel disease. Bacterial community transplantation experiments demonstrated a causal role of a properly assembled leaf bacterial community in phyllosphere health. Pattern-triggered immune signalling, MIN7 and CAD1 are found in major land plant lineages and are probably key components of a genetic network through which terrestrial plants control the level and nurture the diversity of endophytic phyllosphere microbiota for survival and health in a microorganism-rich environment.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/genética , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Meio Ambiente , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mutação , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação
6.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(3-4): 121-128, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267249

RESUMO

Plants of the Plantago genus are widely used in Turkish folk medicine especially for the treatment of wound, abscess, and inflammation. The aqueous extract and five phenylethanoid glycosides acteoside (1), arenarioside (2), echinacoside (3), isoacteoside (4), and leucosceptoside A (5) isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Plantago holosteum Scop. (Plantaginaceae) were tested for their possible inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase, elastase, and collagenase, related to wound pathogenesis. Even though the aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts (36.26%) and roots (47.01%) and the isolated compounds acteoside (29.13%), echinacoside (28.73%), and isoacteoside (31.69%) exerted a notable inhibition, arenarioside and leucosceptoside A were found inactive in the hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition test. Similar results were obtained from the collagenase enzyme inhibition test. The aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts (31.09%) and roots (35.17%), echinacoside (25.13%), and isoacteoside (23.85%) exerted a notable inhibition in this test. However, none of the extracts and isolated compounds displayed elastase enzyme inhibitory activity. The experimental data demonstrated that P. holosteum displayed a remarkable enzyme inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase and collagenase. This paper is the first report regarding the in vitro enzyme inhibitory activity of P. holosteum.


Assuntos
Colagenases/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase Pancreática/antagonistas & inibidores , Plantago/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Turquia
7.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(1): 29-35, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208576

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Contamination of soil by mercury poses several risks to human health through consumption of fruits and vegetables. In Slovakia, a high concentration of mercury is found in the soil of the Central Spis region. The objective of the study is to measure the mercury concentrations in the parts of selected plant species and trees growing within 100 meters of a former ore processing facility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 24 samples of plants, 20 samples of parts of needle-leaved trees and 9 samples of parts of broad-leaved trees were collected from soils with a high concentration of mercury. The concentration was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in different parts of the plants: leaves - 18 species, roots - 15 species, stems - 11 species, flowers - 7 species), and different parts of trees (crust - 8 species, branches - 8 species, needles - 5 species, cones - 5 species, leaves - 3 species). RESULTS: The concentrations of mercury in the soils taken at a depth of 0.25 m exceeded the maximum allowed levels more than 50-times. Potatoes, parsley and carrots from these soils exceeded the maximum allowed mercury levels 6-times, 5-times and twice, respectively. The average concentrations of mercury in the roots of 2-year onions exceeded the limit more than 50-times. The flowers of cornflower contain 18.20 mg*kg -1 , leaves of dandelion 10.61 mg*kg -1 and roots of plantain 6.80 mg*kg -1 of mercury. Regarding trees, the highest concentrations were found in the branches of juniper and leaves of aspen - more than 1 mg*kg -1. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic monitoring of mercury is still very important, since it was found that the end of ore processing does not solve the issue of contamination in the Central Spis region. Therefore, the consumption of fruits and vegetables from the areas of former ore processing facilities is not recommended.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metalurgia , Eslováquia , Árvores/química , Verduras/química
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210452

RESUMO

Houttuynia cordata Thunb. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments in Asian countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, and Thailand. In Thailand, H. cordata fermentation products (HCFPs) are commercially produced and popularly consumed throughout the country without experimental validation. Anti-inflammatory activity of H. cordata fresh leaves or aerial parts has previously been reported, however, the anti-inflammatory activity of the commercially available HCFPs produced by the industrialized process has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory potential of the selected industrialized HCFP. LPS-induced RAW264.7 and carrageenan-induced paw edema models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of HCFP. The phenolic acid components of HCFP aqueous and methanolic extracts were investigated using HPLC analysis. In RAW264.7 cells, the HCFP aqueous and methanolic extracts reduced NO production and suppressed LPS-stimulated expression of PGE2, iNOS, IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in a concentration-dependent manner, however, less effect on COX-2 level was observed. In Wistar rats, 3.08 and 6.16 mL/kg HCFP reduced paw edema after 2 h carrageenan stimulation, suggesting the second phase anti-edematous effect similar to diclofenac (150 mg/kg). Whereas, 6.16 mL/kg HCFP also reduced paw edema after 1 h carrageenan stimulation, suggesting the first phase anti-edematous effect. Quantitative HPLC revealed the active phenolic compounds including syringic, vanillic, p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids, which possess anti-inflammatory activity. Our results demonstrated for the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of the industrialized HCFP both in vitro and in vivo, thus validating its promising anti-inflammation potential.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Houttuynia/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Houttuynia/química , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 79, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of searching for potent, safe, natural antimicrobial agents to combate the global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenomenon, the current study evaluates for the first time ever, the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity of essential oil (EO) and extracts from the rare wild plant Centaurea pumilio L.. It has tremendous ethnomedicinal values; its dried root is used as a fattening agent, a treatment for bad breath and diabetes, and screened for schistosomicidal activity. METHODS: C. pumilio EO was extracted by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus. Chemical constituents of aerial part were extracted using a sequential solvent/solvent procedure employing four solvents with increasing polarities in the following order: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The chemical constituents were identified by GC-MS. Fifty-two microbial strains were used; twenty-six multidrug resistant (MDR), sixteen clinical, and ten reference strains. The identification of the microbial strains was performed by MALDI-TOF-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the EO and the aerial part and the root extracts was assessed through disc diffusion assay. A minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the EO and extracts was determined using the broth micro-dilution method. RESULTS: The growth of reference and clinical strains was inhibited by EO, methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate aerial part extracts and chloroform root extract. The MDR strains growth, however, was inhibited only by EO and chloroform aerial part extract. GC-MS identified for the first time eighteen constituents from aerial part EO and chloroform extract each. EO showed antimicrobial activity against the reference, clinical, and MDR strains with MIC values of 31.25-125, 31.25-125, and 62.50-250 µg/mL, respectively. Methanol aerial part extract exhibited high antimicrobial activities with MIC values of 62.50-250 µg/mL against reference and clinical strains. Chloroform root extract displayed strong antimicrobial activity against reference and clinical strains recording MIC values of 62.50-250 µg/mL and 62.50-125 µg/mL, respectively. The chloroform aerial part extract demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against the reference, clinical, and MDR strains with 31.25, 31.25, and 15.62 µg/mL MIC values, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Present data unravel the C. pumilio pharmacological magnitude to discover eco-friendly potent antimicrobial agents to fight AMR phenomenon.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Centaurea/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(14): 4227-4236, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191454

RESUMO

Ten new cassane diterpenoids, caesalpulcherrins A-J (1-10), together with 11 known analogues (11-21) were isolated from the aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by spectrometric and spectroscopic methods, including one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-4 represent the first examples of 2,5-dimethoxyfuranocassane diterpenoids. Results of the antifeedant activity indicated that isovouacapenol C (12) and pulcherrin N (14) exhibited remarkable antifeedant activity against Mythimna separate with EC50 values of 3.43 and 4.20 µg/cm2, respectively. Meanwhile, pulcherrimin C (13) and 12-demethyl neocaesalpin F (18) exerted significant antifeedant activity against Plutella xylostella with an EC50 data of 4.00 and 3.05 µg/cm2, respectively. Some of the compounds showed obvious toxic activity against the plant-feeding generalist insect herbivores, M. separate and P. xylostella, at 0.8 mg/mL (800 ppm). Furthermore, the structure-activity relationships of antifeedant and insecticidal activities are also discussed in the article.


Assuntos
Caesalpinia/química , Diterpenos/química , Inseticidas/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/química , Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/farmacologia , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Mariposas , Piperidinas/química , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(7): 774-782, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061153

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the protective effects of the Bauhinia championii (BC) against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury in an isolated heart model. Langendorff-perfused C57BL/6JNarl mice hearts were performed with 30 minutes ischemia and 60 minutes reperfusion by left anterior descending artery ligation. Before reperfusion, boiling water extracts of BC (10 mg/L) was pretreated for 15 minutes. During reperfusion, BC significantly decreased the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias by lead II electrocardiogram (ECG). Electrophysiological effect of BC was further determined in isolated ventricular myocytes by whole-cell patch clamp technique. The underlying mechanism may result from its Na+ channel blocking activity characterized with reduced rise slope of action potential and Na+ current density. Moreover, BC dramatically reduced I/R-caused infarct size, which was accessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) assay. Since BC decreased I/R-induced myoglobin release and oxidation of Ca2+ -calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, inhibition of myocardial necroptosis may account for the protective effects of BC on myocytes lose. This study indicated that BC may prevent I/R induced ventricular arrhythmias and myocyte death by blocking Na+ channels and decreasing necroptosis, respectively. Since most of the available antiarrhythmic remedies have unwanted adverse actions, BC could be a novel candidate for the treatment of myocardial infarction and ventricular arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Bauhinia/química , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Eletrocardiografia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Sódio/isolamento & purificação , Canais de Sódio/metabolismo
13.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(3-4): 57-64, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074078

RESUMO

Achillea moschata Wulfen, which grows in the Alps, is extensively used by local people for its medicinal properties. Two studied samples were collected, at the flowering stage, in Val Mustair (Switzerland) and Valchiavenna (Italy), respectively. The aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether (PET) and successively extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH). High-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the methanolic extracts evidenced that flavonoids were the predominant compounds compared to phenolic acids in both samples (89.5 vs. 33.0 µg/mg DW in A. moschata Valchiavenna and 82.5 vs. 40.0 µg/mg DW in A. moschata Val Mustair). Among flavonoid derivatives, luteolin and apigenin were the predominant aglycones, free and glycosilated. The A. moschata Valchiavenna extract was characterized by apigenin as the main compound (60.4 µg/mg DW), while A. moschata Val Mustair was characterized by its derivative apigenin 7-O-glucoside (44.7 µg/mg DW). The antioxidant activity of all the obtained extracts was tested by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-picryl hydrazyl) and ABTS (2,21-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) methods, which showed their increasing scavenger capacity in relation to extract polarity (PET extract < DCM extract < MeOH extract). The extracts were also investigated against three Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disc diffusion assay. DMC and PET were the most active extracts (inhibition diameter: ≥12 mm).


Assuntos
Achillea/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Itália , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Suíça
14.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(11): 1059-1069, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The folkloric profile of Delonix regia demonstrates that it can be used in the management of diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to evaluate the safety profile of the aerial part extracts of Delonix regia and their antidiabetic potential along with improvement in oxidative stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, and flavonoid contents along with in-vitro antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities were determined. HPLC analysis, acute toxicity, glucose tolerance, in-vivo antidiabetic effect along with the influence on biochemical, oxidative stress parameters, and comet assay of the active extract were performed and assessed. RESULTS: Total phenolic (831.6±0.002 mg/g GAE) and flavonoid (361.4±0.002 mg/g QE) contents were found to be higher in the methanolic extract. Inhibitory concentration IC50 indicated better results for the methanolic extract in DPPH (47.6µg/mL) and alpha-amylase inhibitory (14.61µg/mL) assays. HPLC analysis of the methanolic extract confirmed the presence of quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Acute oral toxicity exhibited no mortality and morbidity during the 24h period. The methanolic extract showed better tolerance to glucose. Streptozotocin- nicotinamide (55-110 mg/kg) induced hyperglycemia declined along with improvement in hematological, biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers (SOD, CAT, H202) in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum effect was recorded at 500mg/kg dose. Comet assay was performed for genotoxic studies and it was observed that the methanolic extract of Delonix regia showed the maximum genoprotective effect at 100µg/mL. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the methanolic aerial part extract of Delonix regia exhibited hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic activities. The antidiabetic effect was comparable to glibenclamide suggesting its therapeutic use as a natural anti-diabetic remedy.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fabaceae/química , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/toxicidade , Medicina Tradicional , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Wistar
15.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013151

RESUMO

To clarify whether flavonoids and phenols in Allium mongolicum Regel have the effect of improving gastrointestinal function and analyze its quality, this study was designed to isolate and identify them from the aerial parts of A. mongolicum by using various chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, a bioassay on motility of mouse isolated intestine tissue, as well as qualitative analysis using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. As a result, 31 flavonoids and phenolic acids were obtained and identified, including six new flavonoid glycosides, mongoflavonosides A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), A4 (4), B1 (5), B2 (6), and four new phenolic acid glycosides, mongophenosides A1 (7), A2 (8), A3 (9), B (10). Among them, eleven flavonoids and three phenolic acids showed significant increase in the height of mouse small intestinal muscle. It was a first systematic bioactive constituents' study for A. mongolicum on gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, according to the retention time (tR) and the exact mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), thirty-one compounds were unambiguously identified by comparing to the standard references by using LC-MS. Then, on the basis of generalized rules of MS/MS fragmentation pattern, chromatographic behaviors, as well as biosynthetic laws of the 31 isolates, five flavonoid glycosides and one phenolic acid glycoside were tentatively speculated. On the basis of the study, a fast analysis method for flavonoids and phenolic acids in A. mongolicum was established.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Flavonoides/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Análise Espectral
16.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112230, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923722

RESUMO

Bioactivity guided the isolation of extracts from the aerial parts Scutellaria barbata D. Don to discover neo-clerodane diterpenoids with potent phytotoxic activity. Of the 34 isolates, 13 neo-clerodane diterpenoids were described for the first time. The structures of these undescribed compounds were elucidated by extensive analysis of NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations of scutebarbolides A and L and scutebata W were determined by X-ray diffraction. The phytotoxic activity of all compounds against the growth of the roots and shoots of L. perenne and L. sativa seedlings were first reported, and some compounds showed considerable inhibitory effects, especially scutebarbolide K, whose inhibition rates were higher than those of the positive control at concentrations ranging from 25 to 200 µg/mL. When L. perenne and L. sativa seedlings were treated at a concentration of 200 µg/mL, scutebarbolide K caused wilting symptoms on and finally death of these two tested plant seedlings. In addition, the structure-activity relationships of these neo-clerodane diterpenoids were also discussed.


Assuntos
Diterpenos Clerodânicos/farmacologia , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Scutellaria/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/química , Diterpenos Clerodânicos/isolamento & purificação , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Food Chem ; 313: 126092, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923866

RESUMO

Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) is used as a leafy vegetable and spice in China and North African countries. However, the biochemical components of its aerial parts were rarely explored. In this study, the bioactivities of the various extract fractions from the aerial parts of this edible plant were assessed, the ethyl acetate extract fraction exhibited strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Through bioassay-guided isolation, one new pterocarpan (1), as well as twelve known pterocarpans (2-13) were obtained, nine of them (5-13) were first reported in the fenugreek, four pterocarpans (9, 11-13) had strong antioxidant activity, eleven pterocarpans (1-3, 5-12) possessed obvious anti-inflammatory activity. This study indicates that pterocarpans are main bioactive components of this edible plant. Apart from its nutritional value as food, the aerial parts of this plant can also be further explored as functional foods or antioxidants in food industry.


Assuntos
Pterocarpanos/química , Trigonella/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Conformação Molecular , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Pterocarpanos/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910241

RESUMO

Schizonepetae Spica (SS), the dried spike of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq., is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. According to the color of persistent calyx, SS is categorized into two classes: the yellowish-green-type and the brownish-type. Based on the chemometrics analysis of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a novel model of identifying and evaluating the quality of SS in different colors was constructed for the first time in this work. 20 batches SS samples of different colors were collected and used to extract essential oils. The average essential oils yield of SS in yellowish-green color was significantly higher than that of SS in brownish color from the same origin (p<0.05). The GC-MS fingerprints of 20 batches SS samples whose correlation coefficients were over 0.964 demonstrated SS samples were consistent to some extent in spite of slightly different chemical indexes. A total of 39 common volatiles compounds were identified. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) were developed to distinguish SS samples characterized by different colors. Consistent results were obtained to show that SS samples could be successfully grouped according to their color. Finally, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3,6-dimethyl-benzofuran and pulegone were detected as the key variables for discriminating SS samples of different colors and for quality control. The obtained results proved that SS of good quality were often yellowish-green and those of poor quality were often brownish.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Lamiaceae/química , Controle de Qualidade , Cor , Análise Discriminante , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal
19.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 96-99, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902905

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Andrographis paniculata resulted in isolation of nine compounds, including a new ent-labdane diterpenoid, andrographic acid methyl ester (1), a new chalcone glucoside, pashanone glucoside (5), and seven known metabolites, andrograpanin (2), andrographolide (3), andropanolide (4), andrographidine A (6), andrographidine F (7), 6-epi-8-O-acetyl-harpagide (8), and curvifloruside F (9). Their chemical structures were elucidated based on comprehensive analyses of the spectroscopic data, including NMR and MS. Among the isolated compounds, andropanolide exerted cytotoxicity toward LNCaP, HepG2, KB, MCF7, and SK-Mel2 carcinoma cells, with IC50 values ranging from 31.8 to 45.9 µM. In addition, andropanolide significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages, with an IC50 value of 13.4 µM.


Assuntos
Andrographis/química , Diterpenos/química , Flavonoides/química , Andrographis/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(6): 1735-1753, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981438

RESUMO

AIMS: This research aimed to identify factors influencing endophyte community structure in apple shoots and the bioactivity of cultured representatives against the fungal pathogen Neonectria ditissima. METHODS AND RESULTS: The endophyte community in leaves and stems of the apple cultivars 'Royal Gala' and 'Braeburn' were analysed by a cultivation-independent method (PCR-DGGE) which showed that tissue type, cultivar and site were determinant factors, with the endophyte taxa in 'Royal Gala' more variable than that in 'Braeburn', with leaf endophyte communities typically differing from stems in both cultivars. Seasonal (spring vs autumn) and regional (Nelson vs Hawke's Bay) variations were not obvious in woody stems. A collection of 783 bacterial and 87 fungal endophytes were recovered from leaves and stems of 'Royal Gala', 'Braeburn', 'Scilate' and/or 'Scifresh' from Nelson (nine sites) and Hawke's Bay (five sites) in spring and from Nelson (three sites) in autumn. A dual culture plating assay was used to test their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of N. ditissima. Thirteen bacterial (mean of percent inhibition ≥20%) and 17 fungal isolates were antagonistic towards N. ditissima. These isolates belonged to the bacterial genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas, and fungal genera Chaetomium, Epicoccum, Biscogniauxia, Penicillium, Diaporthe, Phlyctema and two unidentified fungal isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Endophyte communities in apple shoots were determined by tissue type, cultivar and site. Endophytic bacterial and fungal isolates inhibiting N. ditissima growth in vitro were found. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: These results provided new evidence of factors influencing apple endophyte community in New Zealand. Endophytes with potential to reduce N. ditissima infection were identified, with the potential to be developed into a biocontrol strategy for European canker.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Malus/microbiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antibiose , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Nova Zelândia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
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