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1.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107496, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174423

RESUMO

There is some uncertainty on how to best conceptualise and measure problem gambling and debate as to whether it is helpful to differentiate the behavioral features of problematic gambling from the negative consequences of gambling. The current study explores this issue by examining the factor structure of a commonly-used problem gambling measure, the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), as administered to respondents in the 2018 Northern Territory Gambling Prevalence and Wellbeing Survey (n = 3,740 gamblers). Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a two-factor solution offered significant improvement in fit over the one-factor model. Further, the two factors explained unique variance in the number of gambling-related harms experienced by respondents. Although the two factors were highly correlated, the current findings indicate problem gambling behaviors are related to the negative consequences of gambling, but these are not necessarily synonymous. This suggests isolating behavioral and consequential elements of gambling may have utility in public health interventions for gambling that, while concerning, falls below a clinically-significant threshold. Similarly, clinically-oriented research may benefit by measuring the behavioral features, as these components are important targets for individual-level interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Análise Fatorial , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 108-113, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the association between smartphone overdependence and generalized anxiety disorder among South Korean adolescents. METHODS: Participants were selected from the Korean Youth Health Behavior Survey 2020. The primary dependent variable was the generalized anxiety disorder that was measured based on seven item instrument (GAD-7). The main exposure of interest was the smartphone overdependence using the integrated scale developed by the National Information Society Agency in Korea. Weighted chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the association between smartphone overdependence and generalized anxiety disorder. RESULTS: The final participants comprised of 54,948 middle and high school students. 13,775 students (25.1 %) were classified as the smartphone overdependence group. Of those who reported overly dependent on smartphones, 2803 students (20.3 %) had generalized anxiety disorder. The risk for generalized anxiety disorder were 2.15 folds (95 % CI 2.01-2.30) higher among the overdependence group in compared to their counterparts. Specifically, the risk for generalized anxiety disorder increased when smartphone has negatively affected relationships with friends and colleagues (OR: 2.35, 95 % CI 2.08-2.64). The sensitivity of smartphone overdependence scale was verified and the risk for generalized anxiety disorder increased in magnitude with the severity of smartphone overdependence. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study showed significant association between smartphone overdependence and generalized anxiety disorder among South Korean adolescents. The negative changes in social relationships due to excessive smartphone use and the severity of overdependence accounted for the risk for generalized anxiety disorder.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Smartphone , Humanos , Adolescente , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Amigos , Ansiedade
3.
Neuropharmacology ; 222: 109312, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334764

RESUMO

In this review, we focus on prenatal opioid exposure (POE) given the significant concern for the mental health outcomes of children with parents affected by opioid use disorder (OUD) in the view of the current opioid crisis. We highlight some of the less explored interactions between developmental age and sex on synaptic plasticity and associated behavioral outcomes in preclinical POE research. We begin with an overview of the rich literature on hippocampal related behaviors and plasticity across POE exposure paradigms. We then discuss recent work on reward circuit dysregulation following POE. Additional risk factors such as early life stress (ELS) could further influence synaptic and behavioral outcomes of POE. Therefore, we include an overview on the use of preclinical ELS models where ELS exposure during key critical developmental periods confers considerable vulnerability to addiction and stress psychopathology. Here, we hope to highlight the similarity between POE and ELS on development and maintenance of opioid-induced plasticity and altered opioid-related behaviors where similar enduring plasticity in reward circuits may occur. We conclude the review with some of the limitations that should be considered in future investigations. This article is part of the Special Issue on 'Opioid-induced addiction'.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Epidemia de Opioides
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209772

RESUMO

Compulsive overeating of palatable food is thought to underlie some forms of obesity. Similarities are often observed in the behavioural symptomology and the neuropathophysiology underlying substance use disorder and compulsive overeating. As such, preclinical animal models which assess addiction-like behaviour towards food may assist the understanding of the neurobiology underlying overeating behaviour. Further, the relationship between these behaviours and the propensity for diet-induced obesity warrants examination. In this study we investigated the relationship between the propensity for diet-induced obesity (DIO) and addiction-like behaviour towards highly palatable food in C57BL/6 J mice as measured by a 3-criteria model. We also examined the extent to which performance on this 3-criteria model predicted two key hallmark features of addiction - resistance to extinction and relapse propensity (as measured by reinstatement of lever pressing). C57BL/6 J mice were allowed free access to a palatable diet for 8 weeks then separated by weight gain into DIO-prone and DIO-resistant subgroups. Access to palatable food was then restricted to daily operant self-administration sessions whereby addiction-like behaviour towards a high-fat high-sugar food reward was assessed using a 3-criteria model similar to that used to assess addiction-like behaviour towards drugs of abuse. In contrast to findings in rats, no difference in addiction-like behaviour towards food was observed between obesity prone (OP) and obesity resistant (OR) mice. Similarly, principal components analysis found no distinct patterns in the relationship between addiction-like behaviours across treatment groups. This suggests that the strain and species of rodent may be critical for studying the mechanisms underlying pathological overconsumption. Further analysis revealed that the extent of performance on the 3-criteria model correlated with the propensity for C57BL/6 J mice to both extinguish food seeking behaviour and "relapse" after a period of withdrawal. This finding was evident across all groups, regardless of DIO. Collectively, these data validate the 3-criteria model as a robust model to comprehensively assess food addiction-like behaviour in mice, regardless of prior food intake history.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Açúcares , Ratos , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade , Hiperfagia , Comportamento Alimentar
5.
Behav Brain Res ; 437: 114134, 2023 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191688
6.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107541, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36370653

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate social media use metacognitions through the development of a new scale, the Metacognitions about Social Media Use Scale (MSMUS). In addition, the study included measures of problematic social media use (PSMU), gaming metacognitions, and gaming disorder (GD) to test concurrent validity. A total of 2390 Iranian adolescents (835 males and 1555 females) aged between 13 and 18 years (M = 16.01 years, SD = 1.38) participated in a cross-sectional online survey. The results of the exploratory factor analysis (n = 1195) and confirmatory factor analysis (n = 1195) suggested that the MSMUS (i) can optimally assess metacognitions concerning social media, and (ii) has a two-factor structure ("negative metacognitions about social media" and "positive metacognitions about social media"). The scale was found to be measurement invariant among males and females, and among individuals with and without risk for PSMU. Social media metacognitions presented significant and predominantly (i) moderate correlations with PSMU symptom severity, and (ii) weak correlations with GD symptom severity. Furthermore, positive and negative social media metacognitions had significant and positive predictive effects on the presence of risk for PSMU with and without a risk for GD - even over the effects of age, gender, and gaming metacognitions. This finding may indicate that metacognitions are possibly a transdiagnostic variable which might be helpful in developmentally assessing addictive behaviors, especially negative metacognitions which might be a risk factor for co-occurring addictive behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Metacognição , Mídias Sociais , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Psicometria , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Estudos Transversais , Irã (Geográfico) , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Internet
7.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107503, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228362

RESUMO

It has been claimed that smartphone usage constitutes a behavioral addiction, characterised by compulsive, excessive use of one's phone and psychological withdrawal or distress when the phone is absent. However, there is uncertainty about key phenomenological and conceptual details of smartphone addiction. One of the central problems has been understanding the processes that link smartphone usage, and addiction. The question this paper aims to answer is straightforward: based on measures utilised in the literature, what does 'behavior' mean in the context of smartphone addiction? A scoping review of the smartphone addiction literature was undertaken. This identified 1305 studies collecting smartphone addiction data. Just under half (49.89%) of all published smartphone addiction papers did not report the collection of any smartphone specific behaviors. Those that did tended to focus on a small cluster of self-reported behaviors capturing volume of overall use: hours spent using a smartphone per day, number of pickups, duration of smartphone ownership, and types of app used. Approximately 10% of papers used logged behavioral data on phones. Although the theoretical literature places increasing focus on context and patterns of use, measurements of behavior tend to focus on broad, volumetric measures. The number of studies reporting behavior has decreased over time, suggesting smartphone addiction is becoming increasingly trait-like. Both major phone operating systems have proprietary apps that collected behavioral data by default, and research in the field should take advantage of these capabilities when measuring smartphone usage.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Humanos , Smartphone , Autorrelato
8.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107520, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257248

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use frequently co-occurs with gambling, and evidence indicates that both acute and chronic cannabis use may influence gambling behavior. The primary aim of the present study was to further contribute to the literature on this relationship by examining data collected from a Canadian national study of gambling. METHODS: Respondents consisted of 10,054 Canadian gamblers recruited from Leger Opinion's (LEO) online panel. In this study, gamblers who used cannabis were compared with non-users across a number of gambling as well as demographic and mental health variables. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 25.4 % reported past 12-month cannabis use. Among the 2,553 cannabis-users, 21.3 % reported daily use, and 69.9 % reported using once a month or more. A total of 56.2 % indicated they had used cannabis while gambling in the past 12 months. Bivariate analysis found significant differences between cannabis use and non-use on numerous demographic, mental health, and gambling-related variables. Individuals with greater problem gambling severity scores, more hours gambling, and a larger range of gambling activities were more likely to endorse using cannabis. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that tobacco use, and having experienced significant child abuse were predictors of cannabis use. Non-use of cannabis was associated with older age, less engagement in online gambling, and being less likely to consume alcohol. CONCLUSION: The present findings both corroborate previous studies and expand upon the relationship between cannabis and gambling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Cannabis , Jogo de Azar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Criança , Humanos , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Comorbidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia
9.
Addict Behav ; 137: 107525, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274342

RESUMO

Research reports positive associations between gaming disorder (GD) in adolescents and loot box purchasing but has not examined this relationship for other types of simulated gambling. This study examined whether greater engagement and expenditure in three types of simulated gambling were associated with meeting the criteria for GD in adolescents. A sample of Australians aged 12-17 years (N = 826) was recruited through an online panel aggregator. It included 646 gamers (57.7% male) with 89 being classified as having past-year GD, as defined and measured by the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale. Independent variables comprised past-month engagement in three simulated gambling activities (games with 'mini' gambling components, social casino games, and loot boxes), loot box purchasing, other microtransactions, impulsiveness, and demographics. Logistic regressions first examined whether engagement in each of the three simulated gambling activities was individually associated with GD, then with all three in the same model, and then controlling for demographic variables and impulsivity. Logistic regressions also examined whether microtransactions and purchasing loot boxes were individually associated with GD, then with both in the same model, and then controlling for demographic variables and impulsivity. Adolescents who had engaged in each simulated gambling activity in the past month were more likely to report meeting the criteria for GD. These relationships remained significant when controlling for common demographics and impulsiveness. Past-month engagement in social casino games increased the odds of GD 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.54; 4.02), 2.4 times for games with 'mini' gambling components (95% CI: 1.42; 3.90) and 2.0 times for engaging in loot boxes (95% CI: 1.22; 3.21), but only social casino games remained significant when controlling for engagement in all three activities. The likelihood of meeting the criteria for GD increased 3.8 times with expenditure on microtransactions (95% CI: 2.32; 6.27) and 4.6 times for buying loot boxes, and each remained significant when both were included in the model. Compared to digital games without simulated gambling elements, simulated gambling appears to attract adolescents who report GD. Implications of the results are discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor
10.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107473, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099715

RESUMO

Gaming disorder (i.e., gaming addiction) is a relatively common mental health disorder with a worldwide prevalence rate of 3.05%. In the present research, we examined whether emotion dysregulation mediates the relation between adverse childhood experiences and problematic gaming in two samples of current video game players. The first sample consisted of 1,262 students recruited from five universities across Canada. The second sample comprised 417 community adults residing in Canada. Both samples of participants completed an online survey which included measures of adverse childhood experiences, problematic gaming, and emotion dysregulation. A total of 45.64% (n = 576) in the university sample and 49.76% (n = 205) in the community sample met the threshold for problematic gaming. In the student sample, adverse childhood experiences were positively associated with problematic gaming. In contrast, there was no significant association between adverse childhood experiences and problematic gaming in the community sample. In both samples, adverse childhood experiences were positively associated with emotion dysregulation, and emotion dysregulation was positively associated with problematic gaming. Importantly for the present research, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and problematic gaming in both the university and community sample. Although adverse childhood experiences are distal and static risk factors for problematic gaming, emotion dysregulation is a more proximal and modifiable risk factor. The results suggest that increasing adaptive emotion regulation skills may decrease the risk of problematic gaming among individuals who have experienced an adverse childhood experience.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Emoções , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276174, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327218

RESUMO

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a social problem that cannot be ignored. Considerable research has shown that IGD can impede the healthy physical and mental development of adolescents. Based on positive youth development theory and stage-environment fit theory, the current study explored the mediating effect of depression and the moderating effect of gender to determine the association between positive youth development (PYD) and IGD. A sample of 1970 Chinese adolescents aged 11-18 years (1021 boys, 940 girls, and 10 unidentifiable individuals) completed questionnaires related to PYD, depression, IGD, and their background information. The results revealed that PYD negatively predicted IGD. After controlling for gender and age, this study found that depression mediated the relationship between PYD and IGD. Furthermore, gender moderated the relationship between depression and IGD. Boys with depressive symptoms were more likely to indulge in IGD than girls. This research contributes to a more thorough understanding of how PYD decreases the risk of IGD. These findings suggest that cultivating PYD attributes is a promising approach to prevent or reduce depression and IGD among adolescents in mainland China.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Asiáticos , China/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina D , Internet , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1014548, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339154

RESUMO

Background: Behavioral inhibition/activation systems (BIS/BAS) and impulsivity are associated with problematic smartphone use (PSU). However, no studies to date have explored how the subdomains of BIS/BAS and the dimensions of impulsivity relate to the components of PSU in a joint framework. This study aimed to examine the relationships between the three constructs at a fine-grained level and identify the central nodes and bridge nodes of their relationships using network analysis. Methods: A regularized partial correlation network of PSU, BIS/BAS, and impulsivity communities was estimated to investigate the connections between variables and determine the expected influence and bridge expected influence for each variable based on data from 325 Chinese adults. PSU, BIS/BAS, and impulsivity were assessed using the Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale (SABAS), BIS/BAS scales, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-Version 11 (BIS-11), respectively. Results: In addition to connections within each community, network analysis revealed that there were connections between different communities, especially connections to PSU. I2 "motor impulsivity" was strongly associated with PSU2 "conflict" and PSU6 "relapse"; BASR "BAS-reward responsiveness" was strongly associated with PSU5 "withdrawal." Nodes BASR "BAS-reward responsiveness" and PSU6 "relapse" were the most central variables, while nodes BASR "BAS-reward responsiveness" and I2 "motor impulsivity" were the strongest bridge variables. Conclusion: The connections between the subdomains of BIS/BAS and the components of PSU and between the dimensions of impulsivity and the components of PSU may be particularly important in the development and maintenance of PSU. The central variables identified here, along with the bridge variables, could be promising and effective targets for the prevention and intervention of PSU.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Smartphone , Comportamento Impulsivo , Inibição Psicológica , Recompensa
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20213, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418381

RESUMO

The framing-effect is a bias that affects decision-making depending on whether the available options are presented with positive or negative connotations. Even when the outcome of two choices is equivalent, people have a strong tendency to avoid the negatively framed option. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is crucial for rational decision-making, and dysfunctions in this region have been linked to cognitive biases, impulsive behavior and gambling addiction. Using a financial decision-making task in combination with magnetoencephalographic neuroimaging, we show that excitatory compared to inhibitory non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the vmPFC reduces framing-effects while improving the assessment of loss-probabilities, ultimately leading to increased overall gains. Behavioral and neural data consistently suggest that this improvement in rational decision-making is predominately due to an attenuation of biases towards negative affect (loss-aversion and risk-aversion). These findings recommend further research towards clinical applications of vmPFC-tDCS as in addictive disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Impulsivo , Afeto
14.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 3096-3106, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Augmented reality (AR) is a rapidly developing technology that has substantial potential as a novel approach for addiction treatment, including tobacco use. AR can facilitate the delivery of cue exposure therapy (CET) such that individuals can experience the treatment in their natural environments as viewed via a smartphone screen, addressing the limited generalizbility of extinction learning. Previously, our team developed a basic AR app for smoking cessation and demonstrated the necessary mechanisms for CET. Specifically, we showed that the AR smoking cues, compared to neutral cues, elicited substantial cue reactivity (i.e. increased urge) and that repeated exposure to the AR smoking cues reduced urge (i.e. extinction) in a laboratory setting. Here we report the next step in the systematic development of the AR app, in which we assessed the usability and acceptability of the app among daily smokers in their natural environments. METHOD: Daily smokers (N = 23, 78.3% female, Mean Age = 43.4, Mean Cigarettes/Day = 14.9), not actively quitting, were instructed to use the AR app in locations and situations where they smoke (e.g. home, bar) at least 5 times per day over one week. The study is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04101422). RESULTS: Results indicated high usability and acceptability. Most of the participants (73.9%) used the AR app on at least 5 days. Participants found the AR cues realistic and well-integrated in their natural environments. The AR app was perceived as easy to use (Mean = 4.1/5) and learn (mean of 2 days to learn). Overall satisfaction with the app was also high. Secondary analyses found that 56.5% reported reduced smoking, with an average 26% reduction in cigarettes per day at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These findings set the stage for a randomized controlled trial testing the AR app as an adjuvant therapy for treating tobacco dependence, with potential applicability to other substances. KEY MESSAGEThis study found that the augmented reality (AR) smartphone application that utlized cue exposure treatment for smoking cessation was perceived as easy to use and learn in the natural, day-to-day environment of daily smokers. Findings set the stage for a larger clinical trial testing the AR app as an adjuvant therapy for treating tobacco dependence, with potential applicability to other addictive behaviors.


Assuntos
Realidade Aumentada , Comportamento Aditivo , Aplicativos Móveis , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Tabagismo , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia
15.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115462, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327634

RESUMO

Increased lethality and availability of addictive substances has strained US addiction treatment services, further exacerbating workforce shortages in these settings. The emotional and physical health toll of providing treatment may contribute to shortages. This community-initiated qualitative study aimed to identify conditions that affect provider health and turnover in residential addiction treatment from a Total Worker Health® perspective. Providers (direct service, supervisors, leaders) working in nonprofit residential treatment facilities in Massachusetts were recruited by role and geography to participate in interviews and focus groups. NVivo12 facilitated coding and analysis. 25% of transcripts were double coded to assess interrater reliability and coding consistency (mean Kappa = 0.82). Providers (N = 49) participated in 33 interviews and 4 focus groups. Many participants reported personal addiction histories. Analysis revealed how socio-contextual factors originating outside of residential facilities were dominant influences on "downstream" working conditions, worker health, staff turnover, and by extension, client care. Four primary socio-contextual themes surfaced:1) Changes in type and potency of substances and client need not reliably accompanied by shifts in treatment practices; 2) challenges balancing state requirements and state-provided resources; 3) influence of structural discrimination and addiction stigma on pay and professional advancement; and 4) geographic location of facilities shape work and quality of life. Results were used to develop a conceptual model for residential addiction treatment to illustrate pathways by which ecological factors interact to affect provider health and turnover. Findings indicate that protecting health and wellbeing of providers-many of whom are in addiction recovery themselves- is integral to improving addiction treatment. From this workforce's perspective, recent changes in socio-contextual factors have intensified already challenging working conditions (job demands, pay, advancement), negatively impacting worker health, turnover, and client care. Any interventions to improve treatment outcomes or working conditions in nonprofit addiction facilities must consider larger socio-contextual factors influencing these organizations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Tratamento Domiciliar , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Meio Social
16.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276449, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36355802

RESUMO

Functional technological applications have become an integral part of our lives changing our patterns of reasoning and behavior. The current study examines whether, how and why use of WAZE app, a popular GPS-based navigation application, demonstrate behaviors and patterns which resemble those of technological dependency. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 50 WAZE users. The questions took inspiration from the model of IT addiction, which identifies six behavioral parameters: withdrawal, conflict, mood modification, relapse, tolerance, and saliency. The novelty of the study lies in the evidence of patterns and behaviors which resemble technological dependency on the WAZE app. The findings indicate that WAZE app satisfies users' needs driven by functionality. Four behavioral characteristics associated with IT addiction are applicable to WAZE users: mood modification, conflict, relapse, and withdrawal. The study concludes that functional technological applications may trigger behavioral indicators of technological addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Humanos , Recidiva
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e068211, 2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332944

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental health and/or addiction (MHA) concerns affect approximately 1.2 million children and youth in Canada, yet less than 20% receive appropriate treatment for these concerns. Youth who do not receive appropriate support may disengage from care and may experience lasting MHA issues. Families of these youth also support them in finding and accessing care. Thus, system supports are needed to help youth and their families find and equitably access appropriate care. Navigation is an innovation in MHA care, providing patient-centred support and care planning that helps individuals and families overcome barriers to care. Despite the increasing availability of navigation services for youth with MHA concerns, practices and models vary, and no single source has synthesised evidence regarding approaches and outcomes for this population into comprehensive standards. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The proposed research will bring together evidence in youth MHA navigation, to establish this important system support as a factor that can enhance the integration and continuity of care for these youth. Our team, which includes researchers, administrators, clinical leads, an MHA navigator and youth and caregivers with lived experience, will be involved in all project stages. Realist Review and Synthesis methodology will be used, the stages of which include: defining scope, searching for evidence, appraising studies and extracting data, synthesising evidence and developing conclusions, and disseminating findings. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required, as the study involves review of existing data. Dissemination plans include scientific publications and conferences and online products for stakeholders and the general public.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Cuidadores , Canadá
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361229

RESUMO

In the current digital environment, satisfying sexual needs via Internet pornography use has the potential to develop into a problem that affects one's psychological health and daily functioning. The aim of this study was to examine potential cognitive and affective factors that could help explain the maintenance and exacerbation of self-defined problematic internet pornography use. METHODS: 280 Pakistani men and women (mean age = 25.40; SD = 5.271, range 18-50) who were current pornography users were recruited through social networking sites (Facebook, Instagram, LinkedIn, WhatsApp groups) to participate in an online study about pathways to problematic pornography use (PPU). Structural equation modeling was used to estimate path analysis coefficients extending from predisposing variables (depression, anxiety, self-esteem, and loneliness) to PPU via the mediating variables of craving, dysfunctional sexual coping, and stimulus-specific inhibitory control. RESULTS: Craving mediated the relationship between three predisposing variables (depression, anxiety, and self-esteem) and PPU, though not the fourth, namely loneliness. Indirect effects of depression, anxiety, and self-esteem were significantly linked to PPU through two serial mediation pathways: (a) craving and stimulus-specific inhibitory control, and (b) craving and dysfunctional sexual coping. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that craving, stimulus-specific inhibitory control, and dysfunctional coping serve as important mediators in maintaining and exacerbating the cycle between negative predisposing variables and PPU. These results are interpreted within the general framework of therapeutic interventions that can help develop positive coping skills in individuals seeking to alter self-perceived bothersome or unwanted habits related to pornography use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Literatura Erótica , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Fissura , Autoimagem , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior research has investigated how the excessive use of social media has an impact on one's functioning. Youths are among the most vulnerable subjects to the impacts of social media overuse, especially in Vietnam (a developing country). However, very little evidence has been provided on social media addiction. This work aims to determine the prevalence of social media addiction amongst Vietnamese individuals and the factors associated with social media addiction. METHOD: An online cross-sectional study was conducted from June to July 2020 in Vietnam. Participants completed the structured questionnaire, which comprised four main components: (1) social characteristics; (2) The Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale; (3) stress associated with neglect and negative reactions by online peers and fear of missing out (FOMO); and (4) status of social media platform usage. RESULTS: Some demographic factors, such as gender, the locality of accommodation, and relationship status affected the overall scores. The results also indicated Facebook, Zalo, and Youtube to be the most popular social media platforms among Vietnamese youths. Individuals who used social media for gaming also had higher BSMAS scores. FOMO and stress associated with neglect by online peers had a high correlation with social media addiction. CONCLUSIONS: This study is one of the first studies to examine social media addiction and its associated factors in Vietnam. Interventions for social media addiction need to be developed in different fields: clinical research, policy, and education.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Adolescente , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Vietnã/epidemiologia
20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 92(11): 836-844, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328706

RESUMO

In 2014, we proposed that orexin signaling transformed motivationally relevant states into adaptive behavior directed toward exploiting an opportunity or managing a threat, a process we referred to as motivational activation. Advancements in animal models since then have permitted higher-resolution measurements of motivational states; in particular, the behavioral economics approach for studying drug demand characterizes conditions that lead to the enhanced motivation that underlies addiction. This motivational plasticity is paralleled by persistently increased orexin expression in a topographically specific manner-a finding confirmed across species, including in humans. Normalization of orexin levels also reduces drug motivation in addiction models. These new advancements lead us to update our proposed framework for the orexin function. We now propose that the capacity of orexin neurons to exhibit dynamic shifts in peptide production contributes to their role in adaptive motivational regulation and that this is achieved via a pool of reserve orexin neurons. This reserve is normally bidirectionally recruited to permit motivational plasticity that promotes flexible, adaptive behavior. In pathological states such as addiction, however, we propose that the orexin system loses capacity to adaptively adjust peptide production, resulting in focused hypermotivation for drug, driven by aberrantly and persistently high expression in the orexin reserve pool. This mechanistic framework has implications for the understanding and treatment of several psychiatric disorders beyond addiction, particularly those characterized by motivational dysfunction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Humanos , Orexinas , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Motivação , Receptores de Orexina
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