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1.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107093, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Harmful drinkers represent an important Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) group in public health terms, accounting for significant health and social costs. However, harmful drinkers are characterized by low problem recognition; they tend to construct their drinking identity as positive and problem-free, actively setting themselves apart from the stigmatised 'alcoholic other'. As such, harmful drinkers rarely engage in treatment and represent an important opportunity for lower threshold interventions and self-change. The present study sought to explore AUD problem framing and stigma effects on problem recognition. METHODS: Harmful drinkers without perceived addiction experience recruited online (n = 244, 54% male, 46% female, 96% British) were randomised to one of six conditions comprising beliefs about alcohol problems (control, continuum, binary disease model) and stigma (stigma, non-stigma), and completed measures relating to problem recognition. RESULTS: As predicted, results found that harmful drinkers exposed to binary disease model beliefs and stigmatising language had significantly lower problem recognition than those in other conditions. However, no support was found for the prediction that continuum beliefs would be associated with higher problem recognition. Results suggest that the interaction of binary disease model beliefs and stigma prompted alcoholic label avoidance. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that problem framing has important consequences for harmful drinkers. Implications for behaviour change amongst harmful drinkers through mechanisms of problem framing and identity are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Comportamento Aditivo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estigma Social
2.
Addict Behav ; 124: 107096, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469784

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with internet-related problematic behaviors. However, studies have not explored the linkage between PTSD symptoms and internet gaming disorder (IGD) symptoms. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and IGD symptoms via network analysis. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 341 Chinese young adults directly exposed to a typhoon and examined the network structure of PTSS and IGD symptoms, along with bridge symptoms, to elucidate how they co-occur. Results indicated that 'avoiding external reminders' and 'anhedonia' were identified as the most central symptoms in the PTSD network, whereas 'preoccupation,' 'gaming despite harms', and 'loss of control' ranked highest on centrality in the IGD network. Two bridge symptoms emerged within the combined PTSD and IGD network model: 'concentration difficulties' and 'conflict due to gaming' from among the PTSS and IGD symptoms, respectively. These findings reveal novel associations between PTSS and IGD symptoms and provide an empirically-based hypothesis for how these two disorders may co-occur among individuals exposed to natural disasters.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769539

RESUMO

This study explores the level and frequency of anxiety about COVID-19 infection in some Middle Eastern countries, and differences in this anxiety by country, gender, workplace, and social status. Another aim was to identify the predictive power of anxiety about COVID-19 infection, daily smartphone use hours, and age in smartphone addiction. The participants were 651 males and females from Jordan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Egypt. The participants' ages ranged between 18 and 73 years (M 33.36, SD = 10.69). A questionnaire developed by the authors was used to examine anxiety about COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, the Italian Smartphone Addiction Inventory was used after being translated, adapted, and validated for the purposes of the present study. The results revealed that the percentages of participants with high, average, and low anxiety about COVID-19 infection were 10.3%, 37.3%, and 52.4%, respectively. The mean scores of anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the four countries were average: Egypt (M = 2.655), Saudi Arabia (M = 2.458), the United Arab Emirates (M = 2.413), and Jordan (M = 2.336). Significant differences in anxiety about COVID-19 infection were found between Egypt and Jordan, in favor of Egypt. Significant gender differences were found in favor of females in the Jordanian and Egyptian samples, and in favor of males in the Emirati sample. No significant differences were found regarding workplace and social status. The results also revealed a significant positive relationship between anxiety about COVID-19 infection, daily smartphone use hours, and age on the one hand, and smartphone addiction on the other. The strongest predictor of smartphone addiction was anxiety about COVID-19 infection, followed by daily use hours. Age did not significantly contribute to the prediction of smartphone addiction. The study findings shed light on the psychological health and cognitive aspects of anxiety about COVID-19 infection and its relation to smartphone addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769581

RESUMO

Although digital media usage is prevalent among middle school students, the safety of digital media-based learning activities for students at risk of digital media addiction is unknown. The goal of this study was to evaluate the differences in students' brain activity in relation to their risk of digital media addiction. The study was quasi-experimental, with a pre- to post-test control group design. The study participants included 83 middle school students who were engaged in digital learning. We measured their brainwaves to evaluate brain activity using a PolyG-I (LAXTHA Inc.). We found no statistically significant differences in the location of the attention index between the two groups before and after digital learning. However, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the P3, P4, and F4 locations of the relaxation index. These results indicate that students at risk of digital media addiction may experience learning difficulties. These results can be used to guide healthcare professionals in developing digital learning programs that are safe for students and to also verify the effects of these programs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Internet , Encéfalo , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769603

RESUMO

Addictive disorders are characterized by severe consequences, including suicidal events, but most studies investigating the association between addiction and suicidal risk have focused on substance use disorders and gambling disorder at the expense of the rest of behavioral addictions. This study examined the prevalence and the associated clinical correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a sample of patients with a diagnosis of behavioral addiction. The total sample consisted of 4404 individuals: 4103 of these patients with gambling disorder, 99 with gaming disorder, 44 with sex addiction, and 158 with buying-shopping disorder. All of them were assessed consecutively at a specialized hospital unit for the treatment of behavioral addictions. Participants attended two clinical interviews and completed self-reported questionnaires to explore clinical features of behavioral addictions, personality traits, psychopathological symptomatology, suicidal behavior, and sociodemographic variables. The highest prevalence of suicidal ideation was found in patients with gambling disorder (22.9%), followed by buying-shopping disorder (18.4%), sex addiction (18.2%), and gaming disorder (6.1%). The highest prevalence of suicide attempts was registered for sex addiction (9.1%), followed by buying-shopping disorder (7.6%), gambling disorder (6.7%), and gaming disorder (3.0%). Female gender and unemployment constituted two relevant sociodemographic factors associated with suicidal risk in gambling disorder, gaming disorder, and buying-shopping disorder. Lack of family support appeared as a relevant risk factor, except for gaming disorder. These results pointed out that suicide is a prevalent behavior in behavioral addictions, and clinicians and researchers need to pay particular attention to the specificities of each behavioral addiction when assessing suicidal risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769664

RESUMO

Despite the benefits of the internet and other digital technology, the online world has been associated with a negative impact on university student wellbeing. Many university students report symptoms of pathological internet use. Internationally, further research is needed to understand what student users of technology perceive to be problematic internet and/or digital use. The current study explores the range of perceptions that university students hold about 'digital addiction'. We recruited 33 participants from a UK university into a Q-methodology study. Participants sorted, ranked, and commented on fifty-two statements representing the concourse of 'things written or said about digital addiction'. The statements were identified from a comprehensive search of a wide variety of sources (e.g., newspapers, academic articles, blogs, and YouTube). Principal Component Analysis was used to identify four distinct viewpoints of 'digital addiction': (I) digital addiction is differentiated by the negative consequences experienced by addicted individuals; (II) digital addiction comes from our fascination with the online world; (III) digital addiction is an attempt to escape real world problems and impacts on mental health and relationships; (IV) digital addiction is defined by the amount of time we spend online. All four viewpoints share the perception that people do not realize they are digitally addicted because using and having digital devices on you at all times has become the social norm. There was also overall agreement that that those with 'addictive personalities' were more likely to be 'digitally addicted'. Despite these similarities, complexity and contradictions within the viewpoints surrounding what digital addiction is and how it might be defined are apparent. The information found in this study provides important suggestions of how we might frame prevention and early intervention messages to engage students and ensure they develop the skills necessary to successfully manage their digital lives.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Humanos , Internet , Percepção , Estudantes , Reino Unido , Universidades
7.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 181, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest preventable cause of diseases and deaths; reducing tobacco intake is, therefore, an urgent public health goal. In recent years, e-cigarettes have been marketed as a 'healthier' alternative to tobacco smoking, whilst product features have evolved tremendously in the meantime. A lively scientific debate has developed regarding the potential benefits and risks of e-cigarettes although, surprisingly, there are few studies investigating the addictive potential of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes. The present work comprises three work packages investigating the addictive potential of e-cigarettes from different perspectives: (1) the neurobiological addictive potential of e-cigarettes; (2) the experience and perception of dependence symptoms among users of e-cigarettes in a social context; and (3) the epidemiological perspective regarding factors influencing the potential for dependence. METHODS: Work package I: the neurobiological study will investigate the key elements of addiction in e-cigarettes compared to tobacco cigarettes using neurobiological and neuropsychological correlates associated with craving, incentive motivation, cue reactivity and attentional bias. Work package II: the sociological study part examines self-reports on the experience and perception of dependence symptoms in a social context, using focus group interviews and the analysis of posts in online discussion forums on e-cigarettes. Work package III: the epidemiological study part focuses on tolerance development and the role of psychosocial and product factors by analyzing longitudinal data from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC). DISCUSSION: The present study offers a chosen mix of three methodological approaches, thereby comprehensively examining core symptoms of positive and negative reinforcement in addiction. Whether e-cigarettes are as reinforcing and addictive as combustible tobacco cigarettes is an important public health issue with implications for prevention and treatment programs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Work package I: Registered at clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04772014. Work package II: Registered at OSF Registries: https://osf.io/dxgya (2021, January 14).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabagismo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nicotina
8.
Nursing ; 51(12): 34-38, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807860

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been recognized as a potential behavioral addiction that warrants further research. This article discusses the signs, symptoms, and risk factors of this behavioral addiction as well as nursing interventions to support children and adolescents with IGD and their families.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Fatores de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770047

RESUMO

Alcohol and other substance use disorders share comorbidity with other RDS disorders, i.e., a reduction in dopamine signaling within the reward pathway. RDS is a term that connects addictive, obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behavioral disorders. An estimated 2 million individuals in the United States have opioid use disorder related to prescription opioids. It is estimated that the overall cost of the illegal and legally prescribed opioid crisis exceeds one trillion dollars. Opioid Replacement Therapy is the most common treatment for addictions and other RDS disorders. Even after repeated relapses, patients are repeatedly prescribed the same opioid replacement treatments. A recent JAMA report indicates that non-opioid treatments fare better than chronic opioid treatments. Research demonstrates that over 50 percent of all suicides are related to alcohol or other drug use. In addition to effective fellowship programs and spirituality acceptance, nutrigenomic therapies (e.g., KB220Z) optimize gene expression, rebalance neurotransmitters, and restore neurotransmitter functional connectivity. KB220Z was shown to increase functional connectivity across specific brain regions involved in dopaminergic function. KB220/Z significantly reduces RDS behavioral disorders and relapse in human DUI offenders. Taking a Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) test combined with a the KB220Z semi-customized nutrigenomic supplement effectively restores dopamine homeostasis (WC 199).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Suicídio , Dopamina , Humanos , Recompensa
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770150

RESUMO

Video game playing behavior has serious consequences for adolescents on a personal, family, social, and academic level. This research aimed to examine risk and protective factors involving incidence, persistence, and remission of gaming disorders symptoms (IGDs) in Spanish adolescents after nine months of follow-up. Data were drawn from self-administered questionnaires completed on two occasions: at the beginning (T1) and end of the academic year (T2). A total of 950 adolescents aged from 11 to 20 years (M = 14, SD = 1.52, 48.5% female) completed the questionnaire at T1, while 550 adolescents aged from 11 to 18 years (M = 13.43, SD = 1.23, 48.9% female) took part in the follow-up study (T2). The incidence, persistence, and remission rates were 6%, 2.7%, and 4.2%, respectively. Significant relationships with IGDs were found between the male gender and studying at a private school in T1 and T2. The findings show that the time spent playing video games during T1 was positively associated with IGDs in T1 and T2. The incidence of IGDs was associated with emotional problems and low family affection. The persistence of IGDs was linked to higher motor impulsivity, agreeableness, and lower family resolve. Remission was related to a decrease in anxiety and hostility as well as an increase in the emotional stability of adolescents. These findings imply that emotional well-being and family adjustment could be relevant for the effective management of gaming behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Masculino
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770182

RESUMO

This study aims to identify the factors associated with smartphone addiction tendency in Korean adolescents. A convenience sample of 502 students from four middle schools participated in the survey for the assessment of demographic, personal factors (resilience and academic stress), environmental factors (parental support, teacher support, friend support, and bullying victimization), as well as smartphone addiction tendency. Smartphone addiction tendency was determined based on the Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth (SAPS) criteria developed by Kim et al. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and hierarchical logistic regression. Among the adolescents, 17.9% were in the smartphone addiction tendency group. The factors associated with smartphone addiction tendency were subjective economic level, academic stress, parental support, and bullying victimization. Based on the findings of this study, it is considered necessary to approach smartphone addiction management considering personal factors as well as environmental factors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Bullying , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Smartphone
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e26810, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaming disorder, including internet gaming disorder (IGD), was recently defined by the World Health Organization as a mental disease in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Thus, reducing IGD is warranted. Maladaptive cognitions related to internet gaming (MCIG) have been associated with IGD, while impulsivity, self-control, parental influences, and peer influences are key risk factors of IGD. Previous literature suggests that MCIG is associated with the aforementioned 4 risk factors and IGD, and may thus mediate between these risk factors and IGD. These potential mediations, if significant, imply that modification of MCIG may possibly alleviate these risk factors' harmful impacts on increasing IGD. These mediation hypotheses were tested in this study for the first time. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the mediation effects of MCIG between intrapersonal factors (impulsivity and self-control) and IGD, and between interpersonal factors (parental influences and peer influences) and IGD among adolescents in China. METHODS: An anonymous, cross-sectional, and self-administered survey was conducted among secondary school students in classroom settings in Guangzhou and Chengdu, China. All grade 7 to 9 students (7 to 9 years of formal education) of 7 secondary schools were invited to join the study, and 3087 completed the survey. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) checklist was used to assess IGD. MCIG was assessed by using the Chinese version of the Revised Internet Gaming Cognition Scale. Impulsivity, self-control, and parental or peer influences were measured by using the motor subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Brief Self-Control Scale, and the modified interpersonal influence scale, respectively. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine the mediation effects of MCIG between these risk factors and IGD. RESULTS: The prevalence of IGD was 13.57% (418/3081) and 17.67% (366/2071) among all participants and adolescent internet gamers, respectively. The 3 types of MCIG (perceived rewards of internet gaming, perceived urges for playing internet games, and perceived unwillingness to stop playing without completion of gaming tasks) were positively associated with IGD. Impulsivity, self-control, parental influences, and peer influences were all significantly associated with the 3 types of MCIG and IGD. The 3 types of MCIG partially mediated the associations between the studied factors and IGD (effect size of 30.0% to 37.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Impulsivity, self-control, and interpersonal influences had both direct and indirect effects via MCIG on IGD. Modifications of the 3 types of MCIG can potentially reduce the harmful impacts of impulsivity and interpersonal influences on IGD and enhance the protective effect of self-control against IGD. Future longitudinal studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Autocontrole , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet
14.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710108

RESUMO

Excessive use of social network sites (SNSs) can often lead to negative consequences of frequent upward social comparisons despite having the social network platform to present users in a favorable light. However, the existing literature gives little evidence to social comparison related antecedents and consequents of uncontrollable use of SNSs. The present study aimed to investigate the contributions of social comparison to SNS addiction. In Study 1, using a convenient sample in Austria (n = 103), we showed that the tendency to engage in social comparisons of ability (but not of opinion) predicted self-reported SNS addiction over and above the feelings of relative deprivation on social support and status. SNS addiction mediated the relations between social comparison of ability and stress, but not self-esteem. In Study 2, using a broad sample of participants in Austria (n = 500), we replicated the findings observed in Study 1 and showed that contrastive upward social comparison emotions (i.e., envy, depression) mediated the relation between SNS addiction and lower self-esteem whereas the contrastive downward social comparison emotion (i.e., contentment) mediated the relation between SNS addiction and higher self-esteem. Our findings suggest that SNS addiction closely relates to psychological constructs relevant to social comparison, mediates the link between social comparison of ability and detrimental consequences (i.e., stress, well-being) and demonstrate how social comparison emotions relate to both positive and negative associations between SNS addiction and self-esteem.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Depressão/patologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/patologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distância Psicológica , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Comparação Social , Estresse Psicológico/patologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(5): 895-901, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702436

RESUMO

Objectives: The overuse of smartphones affects physical, social, and psychological well-being. However, research on smartphone addiction and anxiety disorders is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between anxiety and smartphone addiction risk in Korean adolescents. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional survey method. We used the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale to assess anxiety symptoms and we used the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale index to evaluate the degree of high-risk or at-risk for smartphone addiction. Results: Analyses were performed for 1733 adolescents, including 771 boys and 962 girls. The high-risk or at-risk group for smartphone addiction accounted for 20.1% (p < .0001). Total anxiety scale score, as well as physiological anxiety, oversensitivity, and social concern categories were statistically different among levels of smartphone addiction risk (all ps < .0001). Multivariate analysis showed that poor self-reported health level, higher risk of smartphone addiction, having fewer close friends, caffeine drink consumption, female sex, and alcohol use were associated with greater anxiety. Conclusions: Management of smartphone addiction seems to be essential for proper psychological health. There is an urgent need to develop a way to prevent smartphone addiction on a social level.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 29(5): 427-428, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636584

RESUMO

These articles provide a window into the breadth of issues at the intersection of MHDS with psychopharmacology and substance use. Integrating the fields of psychopharmacology and basic behavioral addictions science with research on MHDS is not only of public health importance, but can help further elucidate our understanding of human behavior in all of its complexity. As demonstrated here, a better understanding of the synergy between societal context(s) and individual-level processes can lead to interventions tailored to specific risk and resilience factors; interventions that are personalized and contextualized have the potential to improve the health of our society. We are very grateful to the authors for their contributions to this special issue. We hope that professionals from various disciplines who read this special issue become inspired to bridge psychopharmacological and social determinants perspectives in their own work, and, in turn, accelerate scientific progress within each field. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Psicofarmacologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Saúde das Minorias , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the survey was to assess the level of depression correlated with physical activity and internet addiction among physiotherapy students of Polish universities during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey was carried out via the internet among Polish physiotherapy students (141 respondents). The level of depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in Polish and the level of internet addiction by the Kimberly Young Questionnaire. RESULTS: It was found that 31% of those surveyed stated that they suffered from moderate or severe depression. The overwhelming majority of the respondents (92%) considered the level of their internet addiction as low. More physical activity had a positive effect on mental health. The overuse of the internet exacerbated depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression observed in students is mainly related to distant learning systems. Therefore, regular physical activity is recommended as it is associated with a lower level of depression. It is also advisable to provide students with necessary psychological care. Excessive use of social media is not recommended to elevate mood as it makes depression symptoms worse.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Pandemias , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Polônia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
19.
J Behav Addict ; 10(3): 788-798, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613932

RESUMO

Background and aims: In the current study we have sought to clarify the contribution of metacognitions concerning smartphone use relative to smartphone use expectancies in the relationship between well-established predisposing psychological factors and problematic smartphone use (PSU). We tested a model where psychological distress, impulsivity, and proneness to boredom predict metacognitions about smartphone use and smartphone use expectancies, which in turn predict PSU. Methods: A sample of 535 participants (F = 71.2%; mean age = 27.38 ± 9.05 years) was recruited. Results: The model accounted for 64% of the PSU variance and showed good fit indices (χ 2 = 16.01, df = 13, P = 0.24; RMSEA [90%CI] = 0.02 [0-0.05], CFI = 0.99; SRMR = 0.03). We found that: (i) when it comes to psychological distress and boredom proneness, negative metacognitions, and both positive and negative expectancies play a mediating role in the association with PSU, with negative metacognitions showing a dominant role; (ii) there is no overlap between positive expectancies and positive metacognitions, especially when it comes to smartphone use as a means for socializing; (iii) impulsivity did not show a significant effect on PSU Direct effects of the predictors on PSU were not found. Discussion and conclusions: The current study found additional support for applying metacognitive theory to the understanding of PSU and highlight the dominant role of negative metacognitions about smartphone in predicting PSU.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Metacognição , Modelos Psicológicos , Smartphone , Adulto , Tédio , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Angústia Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639567

RESUMO

The aims of this cross-sectional study were: (i) to establish the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) and eating disorders (EDs) among Polish students; (ii) to investigate potential correlations between the two phenomena; and (iii) to identify predictors of eating disorders among socio-demographic and Internet use characteristics in this population. To this end, a total of 1008 Polish students aged 18-40, completed the Problematic Internet Use Test (TPIU22), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and a self-designed Socio-demographic and Internet Use Survey. Men received more PIU scores (p < 0.001), while women received more EAT-26 scores (p < 0.05) with a significant correlation observed between those variables (rho = 0.212; p < 0.001). The strongest predictors of EDs were as follows: preoccupation with the Internet, neglect of sleep in favor of Internet use, alleviation of negative feelings while online, higher mean number of hours spent online on weekends for academic and work-related purposes, extracurricular activity, lower height and higher BMI. An association has been demonstrated between problematic internet use and eating disorders. Somewhat surprisingly, our results suggest that people at risk of EDs use the Internet primarily to fulfill their routine duties. Nevertheless, further research is needed to establish the causality of EDs and PIU.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Uso da Internet , Masculino , Estudantes
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