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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1192: 263-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705499

RESUMO

This article gives an overview of the concept and brain mechanisms of Internet game and smartphone addiction and the applicability of precision medicine and smart healthcare system. Internet game and smartphone addiction are categorized as behavioral addictions, which share similar phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings with substance addictions. Neuroimaging studies revealed the alteration in the functional activity and structure of individuals with Internet game and smartphone addiction, which also can be potent biomarkers. Precision medicine is defined as treatments targeted to the individual patients on the basis of genetic, biomarker, phenotypic or psychosocial characteristics. Recent advances in high-throughput technology and bioinformatics have enabled us to integrate these big data with behavioral data collected from smartphones or other wearable devices. Data collected via smart devices can be transferred to medical institute and integrated in order to diagnose current status precisely and to provide optimal intervention. The feedbacks of intervention are sent back to the medical provider via self-reports or objective measures to evaluate the appropriateness of the intervention. In conclusion, Internet game and smartphone addiction can be diagnosed precisely using high-throughput technology and optimally managed via smart healthcare system.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Internet , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Medicina de Precisão , Smartphone , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos , Neuroimagem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Jogos de Vídeo
3.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(7. Vyp. 2): 52-57, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence of computer game addiction in educational institutions and to develop additional diagnostics of computer game addiction using the vocabulary of colloquial speech of a computer gamer and the «portrait of a gamer student¼. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 7-10 grade students, aged 12-17 years (14.6±2.4 years), their parents and teachers from educational institutions. Sociological, clinical, psychometric and statistical methods were used. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The study has established that the more time a student spend playing computer games, the more words in the test he/she defines as «familiar¼; the difference in the means for analyzing quantitative data between groups with different degrees of involvement in computer games is significant. The results indicate that the proposed «language vocabulary¼ testing is suitable for additional diagnosis of the degree of computer game dependence.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Linguística , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Estudantes
4.
Trials ; 20(1): 468, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 300 mg of bupropion and 8 mg of buprenorphine per day on the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal cravings over a 2-week treatment interval. METHOD: Sixty-five methamphetamine-dependent men who met the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria for methamphetamine dependence and withdrawal were randomly divided into two groups. Subjects randomly received 300 mg of bupropion or 8 mg of buprenorphine per day in a psychiatric ward. Of the 65 subjects, 35 (53.8%) received buprenorphine and 30 (46.2%) received bupropion. The subjects were assessed by using methamphetamine craving score, interview, and negative urine drug test. FINDINGS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in regard to age, education, duration of methamphetamine dependency, marital status, employment, and income. The mean ages were 32.8 years (standard deviation (SD) = 7.26, range = 22 to 59) for the buprenorphine group and 32.21 years (SD = 8.45, range = 17 to 51) for the bupropion group. All 65 patients completed the 2-week study. Both medications were effective in the reduction of methamphetamine cravings. Reduction of craving in the buprenorphine group was significantly more than the bupropion group (P = 0.011). Overall, a significant main effect of day (P <0.001) and group (P = 0.011) and a non-significant group-by-day interaction (P >0.05) were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the safety and effectiveness of buprenorphine and bupropion in the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal craving. Administration of 8 mg of buprenorphine per day can be recommended for the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal cravings. We should note that it is to be expected that craving decreases over time without any medication. So the conclusion may not be that bupropion and buprenorphine both lower the craving. As the buprenorphine is superior to bupropion, only buprenorphine does so for sure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) registration number: IRCT2015010320540N1 . Date registered: April 10, 2015.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Aditivo/tratamento farmacológico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/psicologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382434

RESUMO

This one-year longitudinal study examined trait emotional intelligence as a predictor of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). To date, only cross-sectional research has been conducted to test the protective effects of emotional intelligence against IGD tendency. Based on the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, this study aimed to address the research gap by examining not only the direct effects of trait emotional intelligence, but also its indirect effects (via depressive symptoms and coping flexibility) on IGD, with both a cross-sectional and longitudinal design. The participants were 282 Chinese university students (mean age = 20.47; 39.4% males) who voluntarily completed an anonymous questionnaire at both baseline (W1) and one-year follow-up (W2). Path analysis results revealed that trait emotional intelligence had a protective but indirect effect on IGD tendency in both our cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Depression was found to have a significant, full mediating effect on the relationship between: (i) trait emotional intelligence and IGD tendency (W2) and (ii) coping flexibility and IGD tendency (W2), after adjusting for IGD tendency at the baseline (W1). Gender invariance of the path coefficient was also observed in the prospective model. This study provided longitudinal evidence to support the I-PACE model. Interventions should address both IGD and depressive symptoms, and school-based workshops to increase emotional intelligence and coping flexibility are also recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Inteligência Emocional , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2451-2471, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we reviewed translational studies concerned with environmental influences on the rewarding effects of heroin versus cocaine in rats and humans with substance use disorder. These studies show that both experienced utility ('liking') and decision utility ('wanting') of heroin and cocaine shift in opposite directions as a function of the setting in which these drugs were used. Briefly, rats and humans prefer using heroin at home but cocaine outside the home. These findings appear to challenge prevailing theories of drug reward, which focus on the notion of shared substrate of action for drug of abuse, and in particular on their shared ability to facilitate dopaminergic transmission. AIMS: Thus, in the second part of the paper, we verified whether our findings could be accounted for by available computational models of reward. To account for our findings, a model must include a component that could mediate the substance-specific influence of setting on drug reward RESULTS: It appears of the extant models that none is fully compatible with the results of our studies. CONCLUSIONS: We hope that this paper will serve as stimulus to design computational models more attuned to the complex mechanisms responsible for the rewarding effects of drugs in real-world contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Heroína/administração & dosagem , Modelos Psicológicos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Neurociências , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa
7.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 234-241, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Addicted individuals often demonstrate relatively automatic action tendencies in response to addiction-related stimuli, whereby they approach rather than avoid addictive stimuli. This study assessed whether an approach bias for erotic stimuli exists among heterosexual college-aged males who report using pornography. METHODS: We tested 72 male undergraduate students using an approach-avoidance task employing erotic stimuli, during which participants were instructed to push or pull a joystick in response to image orientation. To simulate approach and avoidance movements, pulling the joystick enlarged the image and pushing shrunk the image. Frequency and severity of pornography use was assessed using a Brief Pornography Screener and the Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS). RESULTS: Participants demonstrated a significant approach bias for erotic stimuli as compared to neutral stimuli, and this approach bias significantly correlated with pornography-use measures. Moreover, individuals with problematic pornography use (as classified by the PPUS) showed more than double the approach bias than did non-problematic users. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The observation of cognitive biases for erotic stimuli in individuals with problematic pornography use indicate similarities between behavioral and substance addictions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Viés , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167457

RESUMO

Since the inclusion of gaming disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a condition for further study, there has been an increasing consensus that problematic gaming can be detrimental to mental health, yet efforts in preventing such problems from emerging have been limited. To address this gap, we developed the Game Over Intervention (GOI), a parent-based program designed based on the frameworks of ecological systems theory and self-determination theory. This study aimed to test the efficacy of the new program using the method of a randomized controlled trial, with the control condition being a program for effective learning. Participants were the parents of upper primary school students, with 163 (77% women; Mage = 42.70) and 199 (83% women; Mage = 41.82) partaking in the intervention and the control conditions, respectively. Participants rated their children's gaming time, exposure to violent video games, and symptoms of gaming disorder at three time points: baseline, one week after intervention, and three months after intervention. The results indicate a general reduction in these three criteria across the three-month period. Our study provides tentative evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of the GOI in mitigating some gaming-related problems.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Pais , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 343-349, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study examines exercise addiction (EA) in amateur runners from a multidimensional approach, including demographics (age, sex, educational attainment, and financial situation), training factors (duration of running activity, weekly time spent running, mean workout distance per session, other sports activities, and childhood physical activity), psychological features (perceived health, life satisfaction, loneliness, stress, anxiety, depression, body shape, and eating disorders), and anthropometrics (body mass index) that might predict EA. METHODS: The well-validated Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS) was applied to evaluate the prevalence of EA in amateur runners. A multinomial logistic regression was performed to find explanatory variables of risk of EA using the SPSS 24.0 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 257 runners (48.9% females, Mage = 40.49, SD = 8.99 years) with at least 2 years running activity participated in an anonymous questionnaire survey. About 53.6% of respondents were characterized as non-dependent symptomatic and 37.8% as non-dependent asymptomatic. About 8.6% had prevalence of being at risk of EA. The logistic regression model displayed five variables that significantly predicted the risk of EA: (a) anxiety, (b) loneliness, (c) weekly time spent running, (d) childhood physical activity, and (e) education level. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that loneliness and anxiety may lead to withdrawal and uncontrolled behavior that in turn leads to increased amount of exercise in amateur runners. Lower level of education attainment is also a likely risk of EA development, and childhood sports activity is a predictor.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Corrida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Corrida/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(11): 3363-3370, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209507

RESUMO

RATIONALE: One risk factor for alcohol and substance misuse is hypomanic experiences, or periods of mood elevation. Young people who report hypomanic states are more likely to develop bipolar disorder (BP), and BP and other mood disorders increase the risk of addiction. We recently reported that young adults with a history of mood elevation experience less subjective effects from a low dose of alcohol, which may be predictive of future alcohol use. The finding with alcohol raised the question of whether this dampened response to a drug also applies to other drugs, such as amphetamine. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed responses of d-amphetamine in healthy young adults with varying experiences of mood elevation, as measured by the Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ). METHODS: Healthy 18-19-year-olds (N = 30) with a range of MDQ scores participated in three 4-h laboratory sessions in which they received placebo, 10 mg, or 20 mg d-amphetamine. They completed mood questionnaires and cardiovascular measures. RESULTS: Individuals with higher MDQ scores reported less stimulation and euphoria after 10 mg, but not 20 mg, d-amphetamine, than individuals with lower scores. MDQ scores were not related to cardiovascular responses to the drug. CONCLUSIONS: A history of mood elevation experiences or hypomania states is related to dampened response to a low dose of a psychostimulant drug, extending previous findings with dampened response to alcohol. This phenotype for mood disorders of dampened responses to drugs may contribute to risk for subsequent drug use or misuse.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Dextroanfetamina/administração & dosagem , Euforia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto/fisiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/induzido quimicamente , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Dextroanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Euforia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 11(3): e12357, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to examine smartphone use in young patients with schizophrenia and to explore factors that may affect the severity of problematic smartphone use. METHODS: A total of 148 schizophrenia patients aged 18 to 35 years completed self-administered questionnaires exploring sociodemographic characteristics; Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS), the Big Five Inventory-10 (BFI-10), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). All were also assessed using the Clinician-Rated Dimensions of Psychosis Symptom Severity (CRDPSS) Scale and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) Scale. RESULTS: The mean subject age was 27.5 ± 4.5 years. No significant differences in the SAS scores occurred between gender, jobs, and level of education. The Pearson r-correlation test showed that the SAS scores were significantly positively correlated with HADS anxiety, PSS, and BFI-10 neuroticism scores; it was negatively correlated with RSES, BFI-10 agreeableness, and conscientiousness scores. In the stepwise linear regression analysis, the severity of PSU was significantly associated with both high anxiety and low agreeableness. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that specific groups of patients with schizophrenia may require special care to prevent problematic smartphone use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(1): 4-10, 2019.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074418

RESUMO

Problematic smartphone use became noteworthy, since these devices, besides their undeniable utility, also carry the risk of excessive usage, proving an adverse effect on health, performance and social relationships. The study aims to analyze and validate the psychometric indicators of the Brief Addiction to Smartphone Scale (BASS) and Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI) among the 442 adult participants. The factorial structure of the two scales was assessed through explorative factor analysis. Both scales showed a one-factor structure; the BASS accounted for 35% of the variance, and the nine items of HSDI accounted for 59% of the variance. The degree of smartphone usage and the occurrence of the symptoms of withdrawal showed a significant correlation with age, but gender differences were not detectable. The two scales proved to be reliable tools in the screening of problematic smartphone use among adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Smartphone , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hungria , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 223-233, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Unregulated Internet pornography (IP) use is discussed as a clinically significant disorder. Because of its primarily rewarding nature, IP is a predestinated target for addictive behaviors. However, not every user develops an unregulated usage pattern. In fact, most users tend to use IP recreationally. Impulsivity-related constructs have been identified as promoters of addictive behaviors. It is unclear whether these impulsivity-related constructs are specific for unregulated IP use or also play a role in recreational but frequent behaviors. In this study, we investigated impulsive tendencies (trait impulsivity, delay discounting, and cognitive style), craving toward IP, attitude regarding IP, and coping styles in individuals with recreational-occasional, recreational-frequent, and unregulated IP use. METHODS: A total of 1,498 heterosexual males participated in an online survey. Groups of individuals with recreational-occasional use (n = 333), recreational-frequent use (n = 394), and unregulated use (n = 225) of IP were identified by screening instruments. RESULTS: Craving and attitude regarding IP as well as delay discounting and cognitive and coping styles differed between groups. Individuals with unregulated use showed the highest scores for craving, attentional impulsivity, delay discounting, and dysfunctional coping, and lowest scores for functional coping and need for cognition. Recreational-frequent users had the most positive attitude toward IP. Motor and non-planning impulsivity did not differ between groups. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that some facets of impulsivity and related factors such as craving and a more negative attitude are specific for unregulated IP users. The results are also consistent with models on specific Internet use disorders and addictive behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Internet , Recreação/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fissura , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 288-294, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The diagnosis "Internet Gaming Disorder" (IGD) has been included in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, the nine criteria have not been sufficiently reviewed for their diagnostic value. This study focuses on a broader approach of Internet addiction (IA) including other Internet activities. It is not yet clear what the construct of IA is in terms of dimensionality and homogeneity and how the individual criteria contribute to explained variance. METHODS: Three separate exploratory factor analyses and multinomial logistic regression analyses were carried out based on information collected from a general population-based sample (n = 196), a sample of people recruited at job centers (n = 138), and a student sample (n = 188). RESULTS: Both of the adult samples show a distinct single-factor solution. The analysis of the student sample suggests a two-factor solution. Only one item (criterion 8: escape from a negative mood) can be assigned to the second factor. Altogether, high endorsement rates of the eighth criterion in all three samples indicate low discriminatory power. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the analysis shows that the construct of IA is represented one dimensionally by the diagnostic criteria of the IGD. However, the student sample indicates evidence of age-specific performance of the criteria. The criterion "Escape from a negative mood" might be insufficient in discriminating between problematic and non-problematic Internet use. The findings deserve further examination, in particular with respect to the performance of the criteria in different age groups as well as in non-preselected samples.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 295-305, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was proposed in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of American Psychiatric Association as an area warranting more research attention. High prevalence of excessive Internet game use and related addictions has been reported in China, especially among youth; however, there is a lack of psychometrically and theoretically sound instruments for assessing IGD in the Chinese language. METHODS: This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGD-20 Test) among Chinese middle school (n = 569; Mage = 13.34; 46.2% females) and university students (n = 523; Mage = 20.12; 48.4% females) samples in Beijing, China. All participants voluntarily completed an anonymous questionnaire. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that the Chinese version of the IGD-20 Test had five factors (i.e., salience-tolerance, mood modification, withdrawal, conflict, and relapse). Measurement invariance was confirmed across the two samples. The test score was positively associated with the modified Young's Internet Addiction Test for gaming addiction. Concurrent validation was further demonstrated by the IGD-20 Test's positive correlation with weekly gameplay and depression symptoms. The latent profile analysis showed four different gamer classes (i.e., regular gamers, low-risk engaged gamers, high-risk engaged gamers, and probable disordered gamers), with the estimated prevalence of 2.1% of the last group. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The IGD-20 Test was applicable to Chinese youth and its Chinese version generally demonstrated good psychometric properties.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/psicologia , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(5): 700-710, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105291

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To adapt the English version of Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version into Urdu language. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2017 to January 2018 at the International Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan. In the first stage, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version was translated by 8 experts. In stage 2, the translated version was pilot-tested on 30 university students aged 18-19. Finally, the version was tested on the actual subjects who were students aged 11-30 years at schools, colleges and universities within Rawalpindi and Islamabad. SPSS 22 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Of the 348 subjects, 216(62%) were males. Overall, 194(55.7%) students were above the addiction cutoff value. Inter-item reliability of the translated version was good (α = 0.81); the construct validity was adequate (P<0.001); Comparative Fit Index = 0.95; Tucker Lewis Index= 0.93; Normative Fit Index= 0.92; and Root Mean Squared Error Approximation = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version can be used as a screening tool for assessment and identification of smartphone addiction in Pakistan..


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 19(1): 113, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about factors associated with alcohol consumption and use of drugs with addiction potential in older adults. The aim of this study was to explore the association between socio-demographic variables, physical and mental health and the later (11 years) use of frequent drinking, prescribed drugs with addiction potential and the possible combination of frequent drinking and being prescribed drugs with addiction potential in older adults (≥ 65 years). METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we used data from two surveys of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 1995-1997 and HUNT3 2006-2008), a population based study in Norway. We totally included 10,656 individuals (5683 women) aged 54 years and older when they participated in HUNT2. Frequent drinking was defined as drinking alcohol 4 days or more per week. Data on prescribed drugs with addiction potential were drawn from the Norwegian Prescription Database. Drugs with addiction potential were defined as at least one prescription of benzodiazepines, z-hypnotics or opioids during one year for a minimum of two consecutive years between 2005 and 2009. RESULTS: The typical frequent drinker in HUNT3 was younger, more educated, lived in urban areas, and reported smoking and drinking frequently in HUNT2 compared to the non-frequent drinker in HUNT3. The typical user of prescribed drugs with addiction potential in HUNT3 was an older woman who smoked and was in poor health, suffered from anxiety, had been hospitalized in the last 5 years and used anxiety or sleep medication every week or more often in HUNT2. The typical individual in HUNT3 with the possible combination of frequent drinking and being prescribed drugs with addiction potential had more education, smoked, drank frequently and used anxiety or sleep medication in HUNT2. CONCLUSION: Individuals who were identified as frequent drinkers in HUNT2 were more likely to be frequent drinkers in HUNT3, and to have the possible combination of frequent drinking and being prescribed drugs with addiction potential in HUNT3. Health care professionals need to be aware of use of alcohol among older adults using drugs with addiction potential.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Vigilância da População , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959905

RESUMO

Internet usage has increased dramatically in recent decades. With this growing usage trend, the negative impacts of Internet usage have also increased significantly. One recurring concern involves users with Internet addiction, whose Internet usage has become excessive and disrupted their lives. In order to detect users with Internet addiction and disabuse their inappropriate behavior early, a secure Web service-based EMBAR (ensemble classifier with case-based reasoning) system is proposed in this study. The EMBAR system monitors users in the background and can be used for Internet usage monitoring in the future. Empirical results demonstrate that our proposed ensemble classifier with case-based reasoning (CBR) in the proposed EMBAR system for identifying users with potential Internet addiction offers better performance than other classifiers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Internet , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Resolução de Problemas
20.
Eur Addict Res ; 25(4): 161-172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Problematic khat use, not khat use per se, is a public health and social concern for the public, researchers, and policy makers. However, the construct problematic khat use is not well-established and not fully recognized in the modern definition of substance use disorders including Diagnostic Statistic Manual (DSM-5) and international classification of diseases (ICD-10), although DSM-5 included it in the "stimulant use disorder" category. Existing scoping reviews have focused on khat use, which could not allow the differentiation of khat use from problematic khat use. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to define and validate the construct problematic khat use. METHODS: This systematic review was reported following the PRISMA guidelines. We searched all English language studies without publication date restriction from 5 databases; PubMed, EMBASE, psychINFO, SocINDEX, and Google scholar. All studies that defined, explored, evaluated, or measured the construct problematic khat use were included. Adapted data extraction tool and criteria for quality evaluation were employed. We presented the results in tables and thematic synthesis of the major findings. RESULT: Overall, 30 qualitative and cross-sectional design studies were included. Associated harms with khat use, an increased amount used, increased frequency of use, and withdrawal experiences were indicators of problematic khat use. Using khat on an average of 3 or more times per week and using other psychoactive substances during and after khat use were frequently used to define problematic khat use. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were depressed mood, irritability, fatigue, lack of motivation, increased sleep, and appetite. The existing measures (severity of dependence scale and DSM-5) of problematic khat use had psychometrically acceptable properties in terms of construct, criterion, and convergent validity, but they are poor in terms of other domains of validity including content, conceptual, and semantic validity. CONCLUSION: Problematic khat use constitutes, but is not limited to, harms, increased use over time, and frequent engagement in other psychoactive substances misuse. Khat use is different from problematic khat use since it is occasional and used for prayer, social, and functional reasons. Strong empirical studies that could establish thresholds for patterns of problematic khat use and a culturally suitable problematic khat use measures that follows a bottom-up approach of scale development are warranted.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Catha/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
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