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1.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(3): 408-415, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522406

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of social media usage and Internet addiction among Oman Medical Specialty Board (OMSB) residents and to determine associations between Internet addiction, sociodemographic characteristics and symptoms of depression. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between January and March 2017. All 499 residents enrolled in OMSB training programmes during the 2016-2017 academic year were targeted. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to collect information concerning sociodemographic characteristics. In addition, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and Internet Addiction Test were used to screen for depression and Internet addiction, respectively. Results: A total of 399 residents participated in the study (response rate: 80%). Overall, 115 residents (28.8%) had varying degrees of depression and 149 (37.3%) were addicted to the Internet; moreover, among those addicted, 54 (36.2%) had depression. While no significant associations were observed between Internet addiction and sociodemographic characteristics, the association between Internet addiction and depression was statistically significant (P = 0.012). Conclusion: Internet addiction was clearly detected among many OMSB residents, with a significant association observed between Internet addiction and depression. Although a causal link between these two variables cannot be established as depression is multifactorial in origin, the disadvantages and harmful effects of excessive Internet and social media usage need to be addressed. Further research on the consequences of Internet addiction and its effect on quality of life and academic achievement is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1547, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic gaming is a popular free-time activity and its deleterious effects have been considered by the American Psychiatric Association and World Health Organization. More recently 'Gaming Disorder' (GD) has been added to the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, while 'Internet Gaming Disorder' (IGD) remains as a tentative disorder in the 5th revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of young gamers at risk for developing IGD. METHODS: To achieve this, a quantitative and nationally representative study was conducted in primary schools in Slovenia with eighth grade as the primary sampling unit (N = 1071, Meanage = 13.44 years, SDage = 0.59). Psychometric testing assessing IGD was conducted to identify participants' IGD risk levels and to compare 'high risk gamers', 'low risk gamers', and 'non-gamers' in relation to free-time activities, self-control, and parent-child relationship. A one-way ANOVA analysis was conducted with Games-Howell post-hoc test to compare the three groups of participants. Statistically significant IGD factors were then included in a multinomial logistic regression analysis to identify the most relevant predictors of IGD. RESULTS: About 4.7% (n = 48) [95% CI: 3.4-6.0%] of Slovenian adolescents were found to be 'high risk gamers' when considering risk of IGD. These were mostly males (n = 42, 87.5%), and their preferred leisure activities involved more screen time activities (e.g., watching TV, playing video games, using social media). Moreover, 'high risk gamers' showed significantly lower levels of self-control compared to 'low risk gamers', and poorer understanding with their parents. Perceived satisfaction with life and mental health did not differ significantly between the three groups. The multinomial logistic regression identified four key predictors of IGD: male gender, gaming as a frequent free-time activity, attending music school or a choir and self-control. CONCLUSION: Public health measures should target adolescents at increased risk of developing IGD in early age because they are particularly drawn to excessive gaming behaviors and present greater IGD vulnerability.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Masculino , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco
3.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107086, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gaming Disorder (GD) is characterized by a pattern of persistent and uncontrolled gaming behavior that causes a marked impairment in important areas of functioning. The evolution of the worldwide incidence of this disorder warrants further studies focused on examining the existence of different subtypes within clinical samples, in order to tailor treatment. This study explored the existence of different profiles of patients seeking treatment for GD through a data-driven approach. METHODS: The sample included n = 107 patients receiving treatment for GD (92% men and 8% women) ranging between 14 and 60 years old (mean age = 24.1, SD = 10). A two-step clustering analysis approach explored the existence of different underlying GD profiles based on a broad set of indicators, including sociodemographic features, clinical course of the condition (e.g., onset or evolution), psychopathological symptoms, and personality traits. RESULTS: Two GD profiles emerged. The first cluster grouped together patients who presented with a lower psychological impact (n = 72, 66.1%), whereas the second cluster comprised patients with a higher psychological impact (n = 35, 32.7%). Cluster comparisons revealed that those patients presenting the higher impact were older, with a later onset of pathological gaming patterns, and more pronounced psychopathological symptoms and dysfunctional personality profiles. CONCLUSIONS: GD severity is influenced by specific demographic, clinical, and psychopathological factors. The identification of two separate profiles provides empirical evidence that contributes to the conceptualization of this disorder, as well as to the development of reliable and valid screening tools and effective intervention plans focused on the precise characteristics of the treatment-seeking patients.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 218-225, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385071

RESUMO

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and problematic internet use (PIU) are becoming increasingly detrimental to modern society, with serious consequences for daily functioning. IGD and PIU may be exacerbated by lifestyle changes imposed by the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study investigated changes in IGD and PIU during the pandemic and risk factors for them. This study is a part of a larger online study of problematic smartphone use in Japan, originally planned in 2019, and expanded in August 2020 to include the impact of COVID-19. 51,246 adults completed an online survey during the pandemic (August 2020), in Japan. Of these, 3,938 had also completed the survey before the onset of the pandemic (December 2019) and were used as the study population to determine how the pandemic has influenced IGD and PIU. IGD was assessed using the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS). PIU was measured using the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). The prevalence of probable IGD during COVID-19 was 4.1% overall [95%CI, 3.9%-4.2%] (N = 51,246), and 8.6% among younger people (age < 30), 1-2.5% higher than reported before the pandemic. Probable PIU was 7.8% overall [95%CI, 7.6%-8.1%], and 17.0% [95%CI, 15.9%-18.2%] among younger people, 3.2-3.7% higher than reported before the pandemic. Comparisons before and during the pandemic, revealed that probable IGD prevalence has increased 1.6 times, and probable PIU prevalence by 1.5 times (IGD: χ2= 619.9, p < .001, PIU: χ2= 594.2, p < .001). Youth (age < 30) and COVID-19 infection were strongly associated with IGD exacerbation (odds ratio, 2.10 [95%CI, 1.18 to 3.75] and 5.67 [95%CI, 1.33 to 24.16]). Internet gaming disorder and problematic internet use appear to be aggravated by the pandemic. In particular, younger persons and people infected with COVID-19 are at higher risk for Internet Gaming Disorder. Prevention and treatment of these problems are needed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Uso da Internet , Japão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol ; 70(2): 98-103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected substance use and other addictive behaviour, however detailed insight is lacking. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Online questionnaire survey on the sample of 3,000 respondents aged 15+ randomly selected from the Czech internet panel using socio-demographic quotas was performed shortly after the end of confinement measures in May 2020 (response rate 35.4%). Questions covered current prevalence and patterns of substance use (i.e. in the last 12 months) and other forms of addictive behaviours as well as changes in their behaviour during the confinement measures. Responses were provided on categorical scale; a factor of 0 to 2 was assigned to the categories to quantify the changes where 1 means no change. RESULTS: Respondents reporting the highest frequency of current use, especially the use of alcohol, cannabis and sedatives, further increased their intensity of use during the confinement measures by 5-10% on average, while less frequent users reduced it. The reduction of use during confinement measures increased with decreasing frequency of current use. Although the same correlation exists in tobacco smokers, decrease in intensity of use was observed also in daily smokers. On the population level, our results suggest a slight increase in total alcohol and sedatives consumption and a significant increase in the total consumption of gaming and social media. On the contrary, there was a significant reduction in the consumption of tobacco and online gambling (likely due to the ban on sports matches), and a slight reduction in the consumption of cannabis and other illicit drugs. CONCLUSION: People with intensive patterns of substance use increased their use during confinement measures. The same concerns gaming and social media. Without this insight the overall picture suggests rather overall reduction of consumption. Addiction treatment system should prepare for the increase of treatment demand following COVID-19 epidemic.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relatively strong theoretical assumptions and previous studies concerning co-occurring addictive behaviors suggest a subpopulation representing general proclivity to behavioral addictions (BAs), and there are gender-specific subpopulations. This study aimed to compare latent profile analysis (LPA) and latent class analysis (LCA) as the methods of investigating different clusters of BAs in the general student population and among students positively screened for at least one BA. Participants and procedure: Analyses of six BAs (study, shopping, gaming, Facebook, pornography, and food) and their potential antecedents (personality) and consequences (well-being) were conducted on a full sample of Polish undergraduate students (N = 1182) and a subsample (n = 327) of students including individuals fulfilling cutoff for at least one BA. RESULTS: LPA on the subsample mostly replicated the previous four profiles found in the full sample. However, LCA on a full sample did not replicate previous findings using LPA and showed only two classes: those with relatively high probabilities on all BAs and low probabilities. LCA on the subsample conflated profiles identified with LPA and classes found with LCA in the full sample. CONCLUSIONS: LCA on dichotomized scores (screened positively vs. negatively) were less effective in identifying clear patterns of interrelationships between BAs based on relatively strong theoretical assumptions and found in previous research. BAs can be investigated on the whole spectrum of behavior, and person-centered analyses might be more useful when they are based on continuous scores. This paper provides more detailed analyses of the four basic clusters of BAs, prevalence, and co-occurrence of particular BAs within and between them, their gender and personality risk factors, relationships to well-being, and their interrelationships as emerging from the results of this and previous studies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Estudantes
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study was to test an associations of the preliminary genetic risk markers for Internet addiction (IA) with clinical, psychological and personality characteristics, taking into account the childhood traumatic experience, in 44 IA persons compared with 120 healthy individuals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 164 participants: 44 individuals with IZ (group IZ), male and female, aged 16 to 30 years in the absence of diagnoses of mental health problems. diseases from rubrics F00-09 and F20-29 (ICD-10) and 120 healthy (control group). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We have found an associations of the preliminary IA genetic risk markers with some personality traits and behavioral characteristics (TCI-125, TIPI) and with the childhood trauma experience (ACE IQ, CTQ), both for healthy individuals and to a greater extent for IA individuals, that may suggests the possible effects of the gene-environment interaction on a risk of developing IA. The data obtained on the structure of associations between IA genetic risk markers and individual psychological characteristics under the significant influence of the childhood trauma experience allow us to proceed with the construction of models for IA risk prediction taking into account the "gene - environment" interactions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Mentais , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Masculino , Personalidade/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(8): 2111, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To find out the frequency of internet addiction and to determine the risk factors associated with such addiction in medical students. METHODS: The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at the Rawalpindi Medical University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from July 2018 to August 2019, and comprised medical students from all academic years aged 18-25 years who had been using the internet for at least the preceding two years. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data was analysed using SPSS 25. RESULTS: Of the 380 subjects, 37(9.7%) had no addiction, while 343(90.3%) had some level of addiction; 222(58.4%) mild, 115(30.3%) moderate, and 6(1.6%) severe. Online friendships, online relationships, online chatting, online shopping, online games and online series/movies were significant risk factors (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of internet addiction was found to be high among medical students, but it was mostly of the mild type.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Estudantes de Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1652021 06 17.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346644

RESUMO

Tobacco use disorder is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yet, in contrast to other substance use disorders, tobacco use disorder is often considered as an unhealthy lifestyle. In this article we argue that tobacco use disorder should be considered similar to other addictive disorders, and summarize supporting arguments from genetics, neuroscience, as well as treatment perspective. Considering Tobacco Use Disorder as an addictive disorder will facilitate awareness among health professionals that patients with this condition should receive proper treatment that should be reimbursed by health insurance. This will reduce the health burden of tobacco use disorder, improve quality of life of individual patients and reduce societal health care costs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Tabagismo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Morbidade , Qualidade de Vida , Tabagismo/complicações , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444595

RESUMO

We conducted an analysis of the prevalence of substance and behavioral addictions across different transgender and gender diverse (TGD) subgroups. We performed a scoping review using MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases and examined 12 addictions, including alcohol, nicotine, cannabis, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We presented prevalence rates for each addiction as a function of an individual's gender identity (stratified into transgender females, transgender males, and gender nonconforming), and used cisgender women and men as reference groups. We included 55 studies in our final analysis, the majority of which investigated substance use disorders among TGD subgroups. Overall findings indicated that substantial differences in substance use exist among US TGD subgroups. There were far fewer publications that examined the prevalence of behavioral addictions across TGD subgroups. However, despite limited research in this area, findings still suggest that notable differences in behavioral addictions may exist between individual TGD subgroups. The conclusions of our review may provide clinicians with a better ability to screen for and treat at-risk individuals within the TGD community.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Pessoas Transgênero , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
11.
Addict Behav ; 123: 107045, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332272

RESUMO

Pathological Internet use (but only with respect to gaming) is classified as mental disorder in the ICD-11. However, there is a large group of adolescents showing excessive Internet use, which may rather be considered adolescent risk-behavior. The aim was to test whether pathological and excessive Internet use should be considered as "psychopathology" or "risk-behavior". A representative, cross-sectional sample of 11.110 students from 10 European Union countries was analyzed. Structural equation models, including the factors "risk-behavior" and "psychopathology" and the variables excessive and pathological Internet use, were tested against each other. "Risk-behavior" was operationalized by several risk-behaviors (e.g. drug abuse, truancy, etc). "Psychopathology" included measures of several mental disorders (e.g. depression, hyperactivity, etc). Excessive Internet use was assessed as the duration and frequency of Internet use. Pathological Internet use was assessed with the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (i.e., presence of addiction criteria). Excessive Internet use loaded on "risk-behavior" (λ = 0.484, p < .001) and on "psychopathology" (λ = 0.071, p < .007). Pathological Internet use loaded on "risk-behavior" (λ = 0.333, p < .001) and on "psychopathology" (λ = 0.852, p < .001). Chi-square tests determined that the loadings of excessive Internet use (χ2 (1) = 81.98, p < .001) were significantly stronger on "risk-behavior" than "psychopathology". Vice versa, pathological Internet use loaded significantly stronger on "psychopathology" (χ2 (1) = 107.10, p < .001). The results indicate that pathological Internet use should rather be considered as psychopathology. Excessive Internet use on the other hand, should be classified as adolescent risk-behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Uso da Internet , Psicopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299725

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the heightened risk of school closures and mental disorders has made adolescents particularly vulnerable to developing internet gaming disorder (IGD). There have been reports of increased time spent playing games on the internet among adolescents during the pandemic, and the risk of developing IGD may be higher for adolescents in South Korea as the majority of them play games on the internet. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the impact of the pandemic on adolescents' internet gaming behavior in South Korea. This study aimed to explore the different profiles of addictive internet gaming behavior among adolescents before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and examine how the pandemic influenced addictive internet gaming usage and time spent playing games on the internet. Nationally representative survey data from the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family with 3040 and 2906 responses from 2018 and 2020, respectively, were analyzed. Using seven factors of a maladaptive gaming usage scale (tolerance, withdrawal, excessive usage, control impairment, compulsive usage, neglecting daily activity, and gaming despite negative consequence), a four-profile model was selected in both 2018 and 2020 for latent profile analysis: 'casual' gamer, 'moderate' gamer, 'potential-risk' gamer and 'addictive' gamer. The results from the two-way ANCOVA showed significant interaction between the cohorts (2018 cohort vs. 2020 cohort) and the four profiles on addictive internet gaming usage (F = 119.747, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.05), including time spent playing internet games on a PC (F = 22.893, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.013), and time spent playing games on a mobile phone (F = 3.245, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.02). The results indicated that the increase of addictive internet gaming usage and gameplay time differed by profile. The results imply that the increase in gameplay time was higher for profiles with higher scores in addictive internet gaming usage for internet games played on a PC while the relationship was not obvious for games played on a mobile phone. Despite the statistical significance, there was only 1.2% to 4.9% of mean difference in addictive internet gaming usage between the 2018 and 2020 cohorts, which implies little clinical significance. While adolescents of the four profiles showed no significant signs of increased addictive internet gaming usage, the addictive gamer profile demonstrated a significant increase in game time after COVID-19.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , Pandemias , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208862

RESUMO

This study's objective was to depict sugar-sweetened food (SSF) consumption in medical college students stratified by sex from Shanghai, China, and to explore the association between the Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) and SSF intake. The data were obtained from 1121 medical college students from the Fudan University, Shanghai, China, who took an online questionnaire investigation in December 2020. Data included demographics, the MPAI, the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Questionnaire (NLAQ), total and food expenditure per month, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a food frequency questionnaire (carbonated beverages (CB), other sugar-based beverages (OSBB), sugar/chocolate). We evaluated the association between the MPAI and three types of SSF intake according to multivariate logistic regression analysis stratified by sex. The mean CB, OSBB, and sugar/chocolate intakes were, respectively, 65.66 mL/d, 74.20 mL/d, and 4.96 g/d in men and 30.42 mL/d, 71.48 mL/d, and 4.99 g/d in women. The MPAI was positively associated with SSF intake, regardless of sex. In men, the CB and OSBB odds ratios (ORs) were, respectively, 1.023 (95% CI: 1.004-1.042), 1.019 (95% CI: 1.001-1.038); and in women, the CB, OSBB, and sugar/chocolate ORs were, respectively, 1.026 (95% CI: 1.013-1.039), 1.020 (95% CI: 1.007-1.033), and 1.019 (95% CI: 1.006-1.032). Age, NLAQ, total expenditure, food expenditure, and total physical activity also were related to SSF intake. Age and the application capacity of the NLAQ were negatively associated with SSF intake, whereas comprehension capacity of the NLAQ, total and food expenditure, and total physical activity were positively associated with SSF intake. This study confirmed that SSF intake is widespread among medical college students from Shanghai, China, even if they have relatively high nutrition health literacy. From a public health perspective, it is necessary to reduce SSF intake in medical college students by decreasing the MPAI, controlling the total and food expenditure per month in high-consumption areas, and improving the application ability of the NLAQ. Further studies are needed to explore the MPAI and other potential factors that may influence SSF intake of college students by expanding the sample size of college students throughout China, and the causal association between them.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Telefone Celular , Comportamento Alimentar , Caracteres Sexuais , Estudantes de Medicina , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Adulto Jovem
14.
Res Dev Disabil ; 117: 104033, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to DSM-5 criteria, Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficiencies in social communication and interaction along with the presence of restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior. Few studies have explored the prevalence of behavioral addiction in individuals with ASD. Since addiction and ASD share common characteristics, individuals with ASD may be more vulnerable to addictive behaviors. Some typical behavioral addictions include internet, gaming, and gambling addiction. While most previous studies on ASD and addiction have looked at chemical addiction, behavioral addiction has not been thoroughly studied to date. AIMS: The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of behavioral addiction among individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A systematic literature search of five databases was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Search results were reviewed for the predetermined inclusion criteria independently by two authors. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The search yielded 539 publications after the removal of duplicates. 61 met the inclusion criteria for title and abstract review. Full texts were reviewed resulting in an additional 31 being removed. The remaining 30 included 4 case reports and 26 original studies. Results included 27 studies that found a positive correlation (15 of significance, 12 of unknown significance) between a behavioral addiction and either ASD or Autistic traits, 1 found a significant negative correlation, 3 did not find a correlation. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This review is inconclusive about links between ASD and behavioral addictions. While a vast majority of studies show a positive correlation, many do not provide the statistical analysis to show if the correlations are significant. In addition, a positive correlation between ASD and behavioral addiction is observed in the presence of comorbid mental health conditions in many of the studies. Further research with proper controls and statistical analysis is needed to determine whether the development of behavioral addiction is directly influenced by ASD or if the presence of a comorbid mental health condition is the true cause.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Comportamento Aditivo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Prevalência
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300071

RESUMO

(1) Background: To examine the prevalence, and associated factors of, problematic Internet use in a sample of Spanish university students. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of a convenience sample of 698 university students. Self-esteem, alcohol consumption, perceived social support, depression, anxiety, stress and problematic Internet use were evaluated using the Rosenberg, CAGE, DUKE-UNC-11, DASS-21 and Young's Internet Addiction Test, respectively. (3) Results: Problematic internet use was reported by 21% of respondents. Risk of problematic Internet use was independently associated with the preferred use of the smartphone, time of exposure to the Internet, less perceived social support, problematic alcohol consumption and symptoms of stress and anxiety. We found significant association between problematic internet use and time of exposure to the Internet, residential status, alcohol consumption, self-esteem, perceived social support and psychological distress, after bivariate analysis. (4) Conclusions: A considerable prevalence of problematic Internet use was found; in our sample problematic Internet use was associated with stress, alcohol consumption, anxiety and perceived social support. Strategies aimed at the early identification of problematic Internet use may lead to an improvement in the psychosocial health of the university student population.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Universidades , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Uso da Internet , Prevalência , Estudantes
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The extensive availability of the internet has led to the recognition of problematic internet use (so-called internet addiction-IA) mostly concerning adolescents. AIM: Here, we present a study focusing on the prevalence and risk factors of internet addiction in Hungarian high school students, using a questionnaire-based survey. RESULTS: Overall, 3000 paper-based questionnaires were successfully delivered and 2540 responses were received (response rate of 84.6%). A total of 1309 males (mean age 17.6 ± 1.43 years) (51.5%) and 1231 females (mean age 17.5 ± 1.4 years) (48.5%) took part in our study. Internet addiction was detected in 486 (19.1%) students (232 males, mean age 17.6 ± 1.35 years, and 254 females, mean age 17.34 ± 1.37 years) based on the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire. In a multivariate analysis, age (age of 17, OR = 3.688, p < 0.001), family status (living without parents) (OR = 2.091, p = 0.034), the size of the household (more than five people per household) (OR = 2.546, p = 0.026), spending more than 6 h online (OR = 5.457, p < 0.001), and daily time interval (OR = 84.316, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with internet addiction. Alcohol use (OR = 10.341, p = 0.001), drug intake (OR = 6.689, p = 0.001) and musculoskeletal disorders (OR = 3.966, p = 0.047) were also strongly associated with IA. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of our students suffered from IA, which is associated with substance intake (possible abuse) and musculoskeletal pain in the multivariate analysis. Our study also draws attention to the preventable risk factors of IA, such as working hours or nighttime internet use, number of hours spent online and family surroundings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Internet , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209522

RESUMO

Not many studies assessing the impact of internet addiction (IA) and job satisfaction (JS) on mental health symptoms (MHS) among active workers exist. Therefore, the purpose of this study was as follows: (a) to assess the presence of criteria for IA among a sample of active workers; (b) to analyze differences in IA, JS and MHS, by gender; (c) to analyze association levels among IA, JS, and MHS; and (d) to determine the predictive effect of IA and JS on MHS. In total, 1064 participants (Mage = 40.66; SD = 12.02) completed a survey containing four categories of measures: demographic information, internet addiction, job satisfaction, and mental health symptoms (anxiety and depression). Results showed a presence of 13.3% for IA among the sample. Male participants showed higher scores of IA and JS but lower scores of overall MSH than female participants did. Significant positive correlations were found between overall IA and MHS, and significant negative correlations were found between IA and JS, and MHS and JS. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that strong predictors of MHS were age (being older), gender (being female), not having enough economic funds, being unsatisfied with the leadership in the job, being unsatisfied with the nature of the job, and having higher scores in salience and excessive use regarding IA. In conclusion, addiction to internet technology is a risk factor with implications for occupational satisfaction and mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia
18.
Addict Behav ; 122: 107039, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256306

RESUMO

Internet addiction (IA), which can have different development patterns, is considered a serious problem among adolescents. Due to the increasing number of adolescent internet users in Mainland China, professionals are obligated to investigate the prevalence and predictors of IA persistence and incidence. This study investigated the prevalence of IA persistence and incidence among 1301 students in Mainland China across two years using a two-wave longitudinal design. Of the 187 students with IA in 7th grade, 40.64% had a persisting addiction by grade 9. Of the 1114 students without an IA in 7th grade, 10.32% had developed an IA by grade 9. Multilevel logistic regression analyses indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 1.04; p = .04) and maternal education (odds ratio = 2.23; p = .01) could increase the likelihood of IA persistence. Significant predictors of IA incidence were being male (odds ratio = 0.59; p = .03), being an only child (odds ratio = 1.91; p = .01), having a low family income (odds ratio = 1.21; p < .001), and experiencing school maladjustment (odds ratio = 1.01; p < .01).


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Internet , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Addict Behav ; 122: 107023, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198053

RESUMO

The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) (Young, 1998) is one of the most utilized diagnostic instruments to evaluate internet addiction. Despite the wide use of IAT in research and clinical settings, there is lack of an empirical validation of this scale among a largescale adult population. The present study aimed to: (1) investigate the psychometric properties of a Hebrew version of the IAT among large-scale Israeli adult sample. (2) Assess the socio-demographic characteristics of individuals who suffer from IA. (3) Assess the co-morbidity of IA in relation to substance and behavioral addictions. A cross sectional study was conducted, by constructing a representative sample (N = 4035) of the Jewish adult (18-70 y/o, M = 40.5, SD = 14.5) population in Israel. Participants responded an online survey, that measured IAT, socio-demographic characteristics, substance and behavioral addictions. Results showed that two-factor model (Emotional and Cognitive Preoccupation with the Internet and Loss of Control and Interference with Daily Life) has good psychometric properties and fits the data well. Young age, not being married (Risk Ratio [RR] = 1.98, 95% CI [1.51-2.63]), and having a low socio-economic status (RR = 1.41, 95% CI [1.05-1.90]) were found to be associated with IA. Drug (RR = 4.50, 95% CI [2.89-7.01]) and alcohol (RR = 3.54, 95% CI [1.50-5.42]) use disorders were associated with IA. High co-morbidity between behavioral addictions and IA was also found (RR = 15.24, 95% CI [11.17-20.78]). Overall, results show that the Hebrew version of the IAT is a valid and reliable instrument, and provide a comprehensive picture of IA prevalence and profile in adult Israeli sample.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Internet , Prevalência , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College students are among the heaviest users of smartphones and the Internet, and there is growing concern regarding problematic Internet (PIU) and smartphone use (PSU). A subset of adverse childhood experiences, household dysfunction [(HHD) e.g.; parental substance use, mental illness, incarceration, suicide, intimate partner violence, separation/divorce, homelessness], are robust predictors of behavioral disorders; however, few studies have investigated the link between HHD and PIU and PSU and potential protective factors, such as social support, among students. METHODS: Data are from a diverse California student sample (N = 1027). The Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version and Internet Addiction Test assessed dimensions of addiction. Regression models tested associations between students' level of HHD (No HHD, 1-3 HHD, ≥4 HHD) and PSU and PIU, and the role of extrafamilial social support in these relationships, adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, SES, employment loss due to COVID-19, and depression. RESULTS: Compared to students reporting no HHD, students with ≥4 HHD had twice the odds (AOR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.21-3.40) of meeting criteria for PSU, while students with 1-3 HHD and ≥4 HHD had three and six times the odds of moderate to severe PIU (AORs: 2.03-2.46, CI:1.21-3.96) after adjusting for covariates. Extrafamilial social support was inversely associated with PIU and moderated the HHD-PSU association for students with 1-3 HHD. CONCLUSION: Students exposed to HHD may be especially vulnerable to developing behavioral addictions such as PSU and PIU. Extrafamilial social support offset the negative effects of HHD for PSU among the moderate risk group; implications for prevention efforts are discussed.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Internet , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
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