Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.161
Filtrar
1.
Presse Med ; 48(12): 1551-1568, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767247

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Gambling and gaming disorders have been introduced as addictions in the DSM-5 and have been announced for the next edition of the ICD. Links between gambling and gaming and psychiatric comorbidities have been thoroughly investigated, but so far the impact of gambling and gaming on physical health has been overlooked. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the impact of gaming and gambling disorders on the physical health of gamers and gamblers. SOURCES: We conducted a systematic review of the literature, using PubMed/Medline to retrieve studies with the following: keywords: "gambling" ; "pathological gambling" ; "gambling health" ; "gaming" ; "pathological gaming" and "gaming health". PAPERS SELECTION: Selected studies all reported on the physical health of gamers and gamblers with addiction. We obtained 133 articles from the Medline database. After screening abstracts and introductions and full reading of papers we retrieved 25 articles for this review. Seventeen articles reporting 56,179 subjects with gambling disorder and 8 articles reporting 63,887 subjects with gaming disorder. RESULTS: All papers described the physical health of individuals with gaming and gambling disorders. For gambling, data showed the existence of digestive disorder (20 to 40%), sleeping disorders (35 to 68%), headaches (20 to 30%) and cardiovascular disorders: tachycardia (9%) and coronary artery disease (2 to 23%). Results were mostly significant when compared to the general population. For gaming, available studies reported qualitative data. Most frequently reported symptoms were sleeping complaints, joint pain, headaches and visual problems. These symptoms were more frequently described for teenagers. Sleeping complaints were the most frequently reported symptom. LIMITS: Although we found that the physical health of gamers and gamblers with addiction was impaired, no study investigated the causal role of addiction, gaming, and gambling. Further studies are needed to better understand how behavioral addictions impact physical heath. CONCLUSION: Data reported in this review documented that individuals with gaming or gambling disorders have an impaired physical health. Knowledge of the symptoms reported could help primary care physicians to better screen for gambling and gaming disorders among their patients.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Nível de Saúde , Jogos de Vídeo/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Aditivo/complicações , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/diagnóstico , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/epidemiologia , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/etiologia , Jogo de Azar/complicações , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4169, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519873

RESUMO

Coordinated activity-induced transcriptional changes across multiple neuron subtypes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) play a pivotal role in encoding and regulating major cognitive behaviors. Yet, the specific transcriptional programs in each neuron subtype remain unknown. Using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), here we comprehensively classify all unique cell subtypes in the PFC. We analyze transcriptional dynamics of each cell subtype under a naturally adaptive and an induced condition. Adaptive changes during adolescence (between P21 and P60), a highly dynamic phase of postnatal neuroplasticity, profoundly impacted transcription in each neuron subtype, including cell type-specific regulation of genes implicated in major neuropsychiatric disorders. On the other hand, an induced plasticity evoked by chronic cocaine addiction resulted in progressive transcriptional changes in multiple neuron subtypes and became most pronounced upon prolonged drug withdrawal. Our findings lay a foundation for understanding cell type-specific postnatal transcriptional dynamics under normal PFC function and in neuropsychiatric disease states.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurociências , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(16)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395802

RESUMO

Internet gaming disorder in adolescents and young adults has become an increasing public concern because of its high prevalence rate and potential risk of alteration of brain functions and organizations. Cue exposure therapy is designed for reducing or maintaining craving, a core factor of relapse of addiction, and is extensively employed in addiction treatment. In a previous study, we proposed a machine-learning-based method to detect craving for gaming using multimodal physiological signals including photoplethysmogram, galvanic skin response, and electrooculogram. Our previous study demonstrated that a craving for gaming could be detected with a fairly high accuracy; however, as the feature vectors for the machine-learning-based detection of the craving of a user were selected based on the physiological data of the user that were recorded on the same day, the effectiveness of the reuse of the machine learning model constructed during the previous experiments, without any further calibration sessions, was still questionable. This "high test-retest reliability" characteristic is of importance for the practical use of the craving detection system because the system needs to be repeatedly applied to the treatment processes as a tool to monitor the efficacy of the treatment. We presented short video clips of three addictive games to nine participants, during which various physiological signals were recorded. This experiment was repeated with different video clips on three different days. Initially, we investigated the test-retest reliability of 14 features used in a craving detection system by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient. Then, we classified whether each participant experienced a craving for gaming in the third experiment using various classifiers-the support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors (kNN), centroid displacement-based kNN, linear discriminant analysis, and random forest-trained with the physiological signals recorded during the first or second experiment. Consequently, the craving/non-craving states in the third experiment were classified with an accuracy that was comparable to that achieved using the data of the same day; thus, demonstrating a high test-retest reliability and the practicality of our craving detection method. In addition, the classification performance was further enhanced by using both datasets of the first and second experiments to train the classifiers, suggesting that an individually customized game craving detection system with high accuracy can be implemented by accumulating datasets recorded on different days under different experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Eletroculografia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 277-287, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cue-induced brain reactivity has been suggested to be a fundamental and important mechanism explaining the development, maintenance, and relapse of addiction, including Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Altered activity in addiction-related brain regions has been found during cue-reactivity in IGD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), but less is known regarding the alterations of coordinated whole brain activity patterns in IGD. METHODS: To investigate the activity of temporally coherent, large-scale functional brain networks (FNs) during cue-reactivity in IGD, independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data from 29 male subjects with IGD and 23 matched healthy controls (HC) performing a cue-reactivity task involving Internet gaming stimuli (i.e., game cues) and general Internet surfing-related stimuli (i.e., control cues). RESULTS: Four FNs were identified that were related to the response to game cues relative to control cues and that showed altered engagement/disengagement in IGD compared with HC. These FNs included temporo-occipital and temporo-insula networks associated with sensory processing, a frontoparietal network involved in memory and executive functioning, and a dorsal-limbic network implicated in reward and motivation processing. Within IGD, game versus control engagement of the temporo-occipital and frontoparietal networks were positively correlated with IGD severity. Similarly, disengagement of temporo-insula network was negatively correlated with higher game-craving. DISCUSSION: These findings are consistent with altered cue-reactivity brain regions reported in substance-related addictions, providing evidence that IGD may represent a type of addiction. The identification of the networks might shed light on the mechanisms of the cue-induced craving and addictive Internet gaming behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(5): 495-502, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219264

RESUMO

A cue that signals reward can capture attention and elicit approach behaviors in people and animals. The current study examined whether attentional capture by reward-related cues is associated with severity of addiction-related and obsessive-compulsive behaviors. Participants were recruited via Mechanical Turk and included 143 adults (Mage = 34 years, SD = 8.5; 43% female) who had endorsed at least 1 addiction-related or obsessive-compulsive behavior in the past month. All assessment components were delivered via the Internet and included questionnaires to assess severity of compulsivity-related problems across addiction-related and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, as well as a visual search task to measure reward-related attentional capture. Reward-related attentional capture was associated with severity of compulsivity, transdiagnostically. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms that underlie compulsive behaviors and suggest that reward-related attentional capture is a promising transdiagnostic cognitive risk marker for compulsivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214946, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973902

RESUMO

Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death. The effect of tobacco is even more contundent in people with mental illness and, in general, cigarette smoking addiction is influenced by genetic factors. The opioid system is involved in the mesolimbic reward system, which is of great importance in addictive behaviors, such as smoking and is influenced by genes such as the OPRM1. The aim of this study was to evaluate if selecting a comparison group that include light smokers versus people that never smoked impacts the results of genetic association studies. In addition, to evaluate the genetic association in different groups of smokers by analyzing independent covariates such as mental illness and clinical dental data. All subjects were participants of the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project. Genotyping was carried out using TaqMan chemistry for two markers in OPRM1 (rs553202 and rs7755635). Logistic regression analyses were performed as implemented in PLINK. The established value for alpha was 5%, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was evaluated by the chi-square test with one degree of freedom for each marker. 1,897 patients were included, which were allocated to eight distinct groups, according to the frequency and quantity of cigarettes smoked and mental illness status. There was no significant association between the two markers in OPRM1 and smoking. When mental illness and dental clinical data (tooth loss, dental caries, and periodontitis) were used as covariates, there were associations between heavy smoking and OPRM1, when non-smokers were used as comparison. We did not have diet or microbiome data to consider for these dental analyses and suggest that these kinds of data should be always incorporated in the future. Significant results were found only when the covariables mental illness and oral clinical data were added to the analysis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Fumar Cigarros , Cárie Dentária , Periodontite , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Perda de Dente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Cárie Dentária/genética , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Cárie Dentária/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/genética , Periodontite/patologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Perda de Dente/genética , Perda de Dente/patologia , Perda de Dente/fisiopatologia
7.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 87-93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994781

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emotional intelligence (EI) has been defined as the ability to perceive, understand, use and manage emotions. Studying EI could potentially be useful in understanding addictive behaviors as well as for designing and planning interventions. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a critical review on EI impairment in addiction disorders. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane, LILACS, and SciELO databases were searched. Articles that used the standardized Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) instrument to assess EI in people with addictions and healthy controls were selected for the review. RESULTS: We selected seven articles assessing EI and its associations with addiction disorders, mainly alcohol abuse and cocaine dependence. Most studies reported that individuals with addiction disorders had worse EI scores when compared to controls. CONCLUSION: Overall, the studies reviewed demonstrated that addictions are associated with EI deficits, compared to controls. However, aspects such as the small number of addictive disorders analyzed, methodological issues related to instruments for assessment of IE and the lack of follow-up remain significant limitations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Humanos
8.
Neuroimage ; 196: 188-194, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974242

RESUMO

Individuals with impulsive and addictive disorders, including drug addiction, binge eating/obesity, and problem gambling, exhibit both impaired control over behavior and heightened sensitivity to reward. However, it is not known whether such deviation in inhibitory and reward circuitry among clinical populations is a cause or consequence of the disorders. Recent evidence suggests that these constructs may be related at the neural level, and together, increase risk for engaging in maladaptive behaviors. The current study examined the degree to which brain function during inhibition relates to brain function during receipt of reward in healthy young adults who have not yet developed problem behaviors. Participants completed the stop signal task to assess inhibitory control and the doors task to assess reactivity to monetary reward (win vs loss) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Brain activation during response inhibition was negatively correlated with brain activation during reward. Specifically, less brain activation in right prefrontal regions during inhibition, including the right inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, was associated with greater brain activation in left ventral striatum during receipt of monetary reward. Moreover, these associations were stronger in binge drinkers compared to non-binge drinkers. These findings suggest that the systems are related even before the onset of impulsive or addictive disorders. As such, it is possible that the association between inhibitory and reward circuitry may be a prospective marker of risk.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Bebedeira/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 54(4): 345-352, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888414

RESUMO

AIMS: Compulsive ethanol intake, characterized by persistent consumption despite negative consequences, is an addictive behavior identified by the DSM-5 as a central criterion in diagnosing alcohol use disorders (AUD). Epidemiological data suggest that females transition from recreational alcohol use to AUD more rapidly than males. Because of this potential sex difference in the etiology of AUD, it is critical to assess addictive behaviors such as compulsive intake in both males and females in preclinical studies. METHODS: We used the model of aversion-resistant ethanol consumption to assess compulsive-like ethanol intake. In these experiments, C57BL6/J mice were first provided with continuous access two-bottle choice between water and ethanol to establish baseline intake. Ethanol solution was then adulterated with increasing concentrations of the bitter tastant quinine hydrochloride. Animals that consume ethanol solution despite its pairing with this negative stimulus are thought to be exhibiting compulsive-like behavior. RESULTS: We found that higher concentrations of quinine were required to suppress ethanol consumption in female mice relative to males. We found no effect of estrous cycle phase on baseline ethanol intake or on quinine-adulterated ethanol intake in females. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data suggest that females exhibit a higher degree of aversion-resistance than male mice. Because we observed no effect of estrous cycle phase, it is likely that the presence of threshold levels of estradiol or progesterone, as opposed to their natural fluctuation across the estrous cycle, mediates increased aversion-resistance in females. Alternatively, or in combination, developmental effects of sex hormones could contribute to aversion-resistant ethanol intake.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Caracteres Sexuais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1238, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886240

RESUMO

The activation of a neuronal ensemble in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) during alcohol withdrawal has been hypothesized to induce high levels of alcohol drinking in dependent rats. In the present study we describe that the CeA neuronal ensemble that is activated by withdrawal from chronic alcohol exposure contains ~80% corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons and that the optogenetic inactivation of these CeA CRF+ neurons prevents recruitment of the neuronal ensemble, decreases the escalation of alcohol drinking, and decreases the intensity of somatic signs of withdrawal. Optogenetic dissection of the downstream neuronal pathways demonstrates that the reversal of addiction-like behaviors is observed after the inhibition of CeA CRF projections to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and that inhibition of the CRFCeA-BNST pathway is mediated by inhibition of the CRF-CRF1 system and inhibition of BNST cell firing. These results suggest that the CRFCeA-BNST pathway could be targeted for the treatment of excessive drinking in alcohol use disorder.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/fisiopatologia , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/fisiopatologia , Alcoolismo/patologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/citologia , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/metabolismo , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/patologia , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Optogenética , Ratos , Núcleos Septais/citologia , Núcleos Septais/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/patologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/patologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia
11.
J Med Syst ; 43(4): 94, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30834987

RESUMO

Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) frequently play online games to achieve satisfaction. Numerous signal processing questions regarding the negative consequences and characteristic respiration in a long-term sitting posture remain unanswered. This study recruited 50 individuals with high-risk and low-risk IGD (HIGD and LIGD); these participants were taught to perform a specific respiration during game-film stimuli. The instantaneous frequencies on abdominal movement (fDF) were calculated with ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). The difference value (ΔfDF) between rest and stimulus statuses was calculated and found that HIGD showed ΔfDF values of 0.060 during positive stimuli and 0.055 during negative stimuli before the exercise but 0.020 and 0.016, respectively, after the exercise. However, the ΔfDF value for those with LIGD during negative stimuli before the exercise was 0.013, and it increased to 0.025 after the exercise. This is the first approach to IGD discrimination toward abdominal response with EEMD.


Assuntos
Abdome/fisiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Internet , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Respiração , Descanso/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212415, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840643

RESUMO

There is an ongoing debate about whether buying-shopping disorder (BSD) should be acknowledged as a behavioral addiction. The current study investigated if mechanisms that play a prominent role in disorders due to substance use or addictive behaviors are relevant in BSD, particularly cue reactivity, craving, cognitive bias and reduced inhibitory control regarding addiction-relevant cues. The study included 39 treatment-seeking patients with BSD and 39 healthy control (HC) participants (29 women and 10 men in each group). Subjective responses toward buying/shopping-relevant visual cues were compared in patients vs. control participants. Experimental paradigms with neutral and semi-individualized buying/shopping-related pictures were administered to assess attentional bias, implicit associations and response inhibition with respect to different visual cues: Dot-probe paradigm (DPP), Implicit Association Task (IAT), Go/nogo-task (GNG). The severity of BSD, craving for buying/shopping, and symptoms of comorbid mental disorders (anxiety, depressive and hoarding disorders) were measured using standardized questionnaires. The BSD-group showed more general craving for buying/shopping, stronger subjective craving reactions towards buying/shopping-related visual cues, and more symptoms of anxiety, depression and hoarding disorder than control participants. Task performance in the DPP, IAT and GNG paradigm did not differ between the two groups. The present findings confirm previous research concerning the crucial role of craving in BSD. The assumption that attentional bias, implicit associations and deficient inhibitory control with respect to buying/shopping-related cues are relevant in BSD could not be proven. Future research should address methodological shortcomings and investigate the impact of acute psychosocial stress and present mood on craving responses, cognitive processing, and response inhibition in patients with BSD.


Assuntos
Afeto , Viés de Atenção , Comportamento Aditivo , Cognição , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
13.
J Behav Addict ; 8(1): 25-34, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A positive relationship between problematic gaming and escapism motivation to play video games has been well established, suggesting that problematic gaming may result from attempts to deal with negative emotions. However, to date, no study has examined how emotion dysregulation affects both escapism motives and problematic gaming patterns. METHODS: Difficulties in emotion regulation, escapism, and problematic involvement with video games were assessed in a sample of 390 World of Warcraft players. A structural equation modeling framework was used to test the hypothesis that escapism mediates the relationship between emotion dysregulation and problematic gaming. RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed that difficulties in emotion regulation predicted both escapism motives and problematic gaming, and that escapism partially mediated this relationship. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the view that problematic players are likely to escape in online games as a maladaptive coping strategy for dealing with adverse emotional experiences.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Internet , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Behav Addict ; 8(1): 174-180, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vulnerability to stress appears to be a potential predisposing factor for developing specific internet-use disorders, such as Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Studies investigating the protective effect of psychological resilience against the impact of perceived stress on IGD and weekly gameplay have yet to be reported in the existing literature. The aim of this study was to examine the potential moderating relationships between perceived stress and online gaming (more specifically operationalized as IGD and weekly gameplay) with psychological resilience. METHODS: An online survey was administered to 605 participants (males = 82%, Mage = 24.01 years, SDage = 6.11). A multivariate multiple regression model was applied to test for the possible contribution of perceived stress and psychological resilience to weekly gameplay and IGD. RESULTS: Perceived stress was associated with higher scores of IGD, whereas psychological resilience was related to lower scores of IGD. In addition, the combination of having higher perceived stress and lower level of psychological resilience was associated with a particularly high hours of gameplay per week. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These findings further support the importance of personal traits (perceived stress and psychological resilience) in online gaming (IGD severity and weekly gameplay), and also emphasize the unique moderating relationship between perceived stress and weekly gameplay with lack of resilience. Enhancing psychological resilience to decrease the likelihood of online gamers who experience higher level of stress from spending more hours per week gaming is recommended.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Behav Addict ; 8(1): 35-47, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Internet addiction is a non-substance-related addiction disorder with progressively growing prevalence. Internet addiction, like substance-related addictions, has been linked with high impulsivity, low inhibitory control, and poor decision-making abilities. Cortical thickness measurements and trait impulsivity have been shown to have a distinct relationship in addicts compared to healthy controls. Thus, we test whether the cortical correlates of trait impulsivity are different in Internet addicts and healthy controls, using an impulsive control group (smokers). METHODS: Thirty Internet addicts (15 females) and 60 age- and gender-matched controls (30 smokers, all young adults aged 19-28 years) were scanned using a 3T MRI scanner and completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. RESULTS: Internet addicts had a thinner left superior temporal cortex than controls. Impulsivity had a significant main effect on the left pars orbitalis and bilateral insula, regardless of group membership. We identified divergent relationships between trait impulsivity and thicknesses of the bilateral middle temporal, right superior temporal, left inferior temporal, and left transverse temporal cortices between Internet addicts and healthy controls. Further analysis with smokers revealed that the left middle temporal and left transverse temporal cortical thickness change might be exclusive to Internet addiction. DISCUSSION: The effects of impulsivity, combined with a long-term exposure to some specific substance or stimuli, might result in different natures of relationships between impulsivity and brain structure when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: These results may indicate that Internet addiction is similar to substance-related addictions, such that inefficient self-control could result in maladaptive behavior and inability to resist Internet use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Internet , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Tabagismo/patologia , Tabagismo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tabagismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Brain Behav ; 9(3): e01218, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Internet addiction (IA) has been associated with widespread brain alterations. Functional connectivity (FC) and network analysis results related to IA are inconsistent between studies, and how network hubs change is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional and topological networks using an unbiased minimum spanning tree (MST) analysis on electroencephalography (EEG) data in IA and healthy control (HC) college students. METHODS: In this study, Young's internet addiction test was used as an IA severity measure. EEG recordings were obtained in IA (n = 30) and HC participants (n = 30), matched for age and sex, during rest. The phase lag index (PLI) and MST were applied to analyze FC and network topology. We expected to obtain evidence of underlying alterations in functional and topological networks related to IA. RESULTS: IA participants showed higher delta FC between left-side frontal and parieto-occipital areas compared to the HC group (p < 0.001), global MST measures revealed a more star-like network in IA participants in the upper alpha and beta bands, and the occipital brain region was relatively less important in the IA relative to the HC group in the lower band. The correlation results were consistent with the MST results: higher IA severity correlated with higher Max degree and kappa, and lower eccentricity and diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Functional networks of the IA group were characterized by increased FC, a more random organization, and a decrease of relative functional importance of the visual processing area. Taken together, these alterations can help us understand the influence of IA to brain mechanism.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Internet , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212695, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794642

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND METHOD: Accurately identifying motives to gamble is crucial in the functional analysis of gambling behavior. In this study, a data-driven approach was followed to clarify the factor structure underlying a pool of motives for gambling, selected from the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Financial (GMQ-F), and the Reasons for Gambling Questionnaire (RGQ), in a sample of regular problem and non-problem gamblers. Additionally, the role of gambling motives in the relationship between root behavioral activation/inhibition systems (BIS/BAS) and gambling severity, frequency, and preferences was explored using structural equation modelling (SEM). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified Social, Financial, and Fun/thrill-related gambling motives factors, but also a fourth factor in which some positive and negative reinforcement-based motives were grouped into a single and broader Affect regulation factor. This Affect regulation factor shared variance both with BIS and BAS-related measures, and was the only direct predictor of disordered gambling symptoms. The Fun/thrill factor was directly related to frequency of participation in high-arousal, skill-based games, and all factors were related to participation in lower-arousal, chance games (with Social motives negatively predicting both participation in the latter and total severity). In the SEM model, measures of BIS/BAS sensitivity were connected to gambling behavior only through gambling motives. Based on measures of items' specificity, a shortened Spanish scale (the brief Gambling Motives Inventory, bGMI) is proposed to assess gambling motives in accordance with the observed 4-factor structure.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogo de Azar , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/fisiopatologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(2)2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720738

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Smartphones are playing a pivotal role in everyday life, due to the opportunity they grant in terms of simplifying communication, entertainment, education and many other daily activities. Against such positive characteristics, smartphone interaction can result, in particular cases, in dangerous smartphone addiction patterns, possibly leading to several long-term detrimental psychophysiological conditions. Therefore, this pilot aims at assessing the feasibility of using an innovative approach, based on unobtrusive wearable sensors, used for the first time in this specific topic, and psychological questionnaires, to investigate the links between stress and emotions in a group of young, nonaddicted individuals performing smartphone interaction. Materials and methods: 17 volunteers were enrolled for the present study. The study protocol was divided into three phases, with an initial resting state (baseline) of three minutes, a smartphone interaction session (task) of the same length, and a final resting state (recovery), lasting three minutes. In the overall procedure, electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) measurements, both monitored by wearable sensors, were acquired in order to assess the functioning of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Results: A significant decrease was seen in pNN50 during the smartphone interaction with respect to the baseline (Z = -2.675, p = 0.007), whereas the Low-to-High Frequency (LF/HF) ratio at task was somewhat correlated with phubbing behaviors (r = 0.655, p = 0.029), assessed through dedicated questionnaires. Conclusions: Taken together with the slight changes in GSR data, such results suggest the feasibility of this approach to characterize the ANS activation during smartphone interaction among young individuals. Further studies should enlarge the study population and involve smartphone-addicted subjects in order to increase the scientific and clinical relevance of such findings.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Monitorização Neurofisiológica/instrumentação , Smartphone , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele/fisiologia , Determinação da Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Behav Addict ; 8(1): 169-173, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Online social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook provide users with myriad social rewards. These social rewards bring users back to SNSs repeatedly, with some users displaying maladaptive, excessive SNS use. Symptoms of this excessive SNS use are similar to symptoms of substance use and behavioral addictive disorders. Importantly, individuals with substance use and behavioral addictive disorders have difficulty making value-based decisions, as demonstrated with paradigms like the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT); however, it is currently unknown if excessive SNS users display the same decision-making deficits. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between excessive SNS use and IGT performance. METHODS: We administered the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) to 71 participants to assess their maladaptive use of the Facebook SNS. We next had them perform 100 trials of the IGT to assess their value-based decision making. RESULTS: We found a negative correlation between BFAS score and performance in the IGT across participants, specifically over the last block of 20 trials. There were no correlations between BFAS score and IGT performance in earlier blocks of trials. DISCUSSION: Our results demonstrate that more severe, excessive SNS use is associated with more deficient value-based decision making. In particular, our results indicate that excessive SNS users may make more risky decisions during the IGT task. CONCLUSION: This result further supports a parallel between individuals with problematic, excessive SNS use, and individuals with substance use and behavioral addictive disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Mídias Sociais , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 62(1): 112-117, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664586

RESUMO

Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Like many other chronic diseases, addiction often involves cycles of relapse and remission. It is key that clinicians understand it as such and treat it appropriately with evidence-based interventions including medication-assisted treatment.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/etiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA