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2.
J Opioid Manag ; 15(6): 487-494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize hedonic eating behaviors such as sugar cravings, food preferences, and appetitive responsiveness for sweet and hyper-palatable foods, and to determine the prevalence of addictive like eating behaviors and food addiction (FA) in individuals receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. SETTING: Outpatient MAT center. PARTICIPANTS: Nonpregnant adult patients undergoing MAT (n = 116) receiving either buprenorphine/naloxone or methadone for at least 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hedonic eating, FA, and food craving. RESULTS: Of the aggregate sample, 13.3 percent met criteria for FA. More than onethird of all subjects endorsed consuming larger amounts of highly palatable food than intended, unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down on eating such foods, and a great deal of time spent on consuming or recovering from consuming such foods. Both medication groups demonstrated greatest cravings for sweets and fast foods followed by carbohydrates and fats (p < 0.001). Similarly, subjects reported "giving in" most frequently to sweets and fast foods followed by carbohydrates then fats (p < 0.001). Greater appetitive responsiveness was noted in the presence of hyper-palatable foods. No group differences were found. Weight change was not associated with addictive like eating, food craving, or appetitive responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals receiving MAT exhibit preferences for sweet and fast foods that appear to be influenced by the proximity of such foods. FA was present. Collectively, such eating behaviors and food preferences may pose additional adverse health consequences and associated co-morbidities. This underlies the importance of comprehensive healthcare for patients with OUD, including nutrition education and evaluation of eating behaviors and food preferences.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Fissura , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1372, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gambling disorder is related to high overall gambling engagement; however specific activities and modalities are thought to have stronger relationships with gambling problems. This study aimed to isolate the relationship between specific gambling activities and modalities (Internet and venue/land-based) to gambling disorder and general psychological distress. Past-month Internet gamblers were the focus of this investigation because this modality may be associated with gambling disorders in a unique way that needs to be separated from overall gambling intensity. METHODS: Australians who had gambled online in the prior 30 days (N = 998, 57% male) were recruited through a market research company to complete an online survey measuring self-reported gambling participation, problem gambling severity, and psychological distress. RESULTS: When controlling for overall gambling frequency, problem gambling was significantly positively associated with the frequency of online and venue-based gambling using electronic gaming machines (EGMs) and venue-based sports betting. Psychological distress was uniquely associated with higher frequency of venue gambling using EGMs, sports betting, and casino card/table games. CONCLUSIONS: This study advances our understanding of how specific gambling activities are associated with disordered gambling and psychological distress in users of Internet gambling services. Our results suggest that among Internet gamblers, online and land-based EGMs are strongly associated with gambling disorder severity. High overall gambling engagement is an important predictor of gambling-related harms, nonetheless, venue-based EGMs, sports betting and casinos warrant specific attention to address gambling-related harms and psychological distress among gamblers.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Internet , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Orthopade ; 48(12): 1030-1035, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659423

RESUMO

Physical activity and exercise is widely connected with positive effects on human health. However, exercise may also pose as a risk factor for health under specific circumstances. Primarily, the risks connected with exercise are physical risks, but also psychological risks may appear, especially when exercise is conducted excessively. Psychological risks include eating disorders, illegal and legal substance use and exercise dependence. The aims of the present article are to focus on potential risks and side effects of exercise and physical activity and to put the risks in the context of the positive effects of exercise on health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/complicações , Exercício/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
6.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 151, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Besides research on psychiatric diseases related to problematic Internet use (PIU), a growing number of studies focus on the impact of Internet on subjective well-being (SWB). However, in previous studies on the relationship between PIU and SWB, there is little data for Japanese people specifically, and there is a lack of consideration for differences in perception of happiness due to cultural differences. Therefore, we aimed to clarify how happiness is interdependent on PIU measures, with a focus on how the concept of happiness is interpreted among Japanese people, and specifically among Japanese university students. METHODS: A paper-based survey was conducted with 1258 Japanese university students. Respondents were asked to fill out self-report scales regarding their happiness using the Interdependent Happiness Scale (IHS). The relationship between IHS and Internet use (Japanese version of the Internet addiction test, JIAT), use of social networking services, as well as social function and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI) were sought using multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Based on multiple regression analyses, the following factors related positively to IHS: female gender and the number of Twitter followers. Conversely, the following factors related negatively to IHS: poor sleep, high- PIU, and the number of times the subject skipped a whole day of school. CONCLUSIONS: It was shown that there was a significant negative correlation between Japanese youths' happiness and PIU. Since epidemiological research on happiness that reflects the cultural background is still scarce, we believe future studies shall accumulate similar evidence in this regard.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Felicidade , Internet , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 568-573, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotional intelligence (EI) is described as the capacity to be aware of, control, and express one's emotions, and to handle interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathetically. It is considered as one of the most important predictors of success, quality of relationships, and overall happiness. Dynamically changing environment of the youth and young adults in recent years may influence their EI development, affecting their lives significantly. The purpose of this study was to analyse the way how the Internet is used by high school students, to determine the amount of time they spend on the Internet, identify the level of EI and to explore if there is any correlation between those factors. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 1450 high school students from Katowice, at the age from 18 to 21 years took part in an anonymous survey consisting of three parts: The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire - Short Form (TEIQue-SF), Internet Addiction Test and authorial test giving information about the way of spending time online. The questionnaires were collected from May 2018 to January 2019. RESULTS: 1.03% of the respondents fulfilled the Internet addiction criteria. Students at risk for addiction (33.5%) turned out to be a larger group. A statistically significant correlation between TEIQue-SF and Internet Addiction Test score (P<0.0001, r=-0.3308) was observed. Another significant correlation was found between TEIQue-SF score and amount of time spend on the Internet (p<0.0001, r=-0.162). CONCLUSION: A significant part of high school students used Internet excessively. Such behaviours were positively correlated with lower EI test results.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Internet , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Emoções , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484435

RESUMO

Internet addiction (IA) has become a major public health problem among college students. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between self-identity confusion and IA and the mediating effects of psychological inflexibility and experiential avoidance (PI/EA) indicators in college students. A total of 500 college students (262 women and 238 men) were recruited. Their levels of self-identity were evaluated using the Self-Concept and Identity Measure. Their levels of PI/EA were examined using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II. The severity of IA was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. The relationships among self- identity, PI/EA, and IA were examined using structural equation modeling. The severity of self-identity confusion was positively associated with both the severity of PI/EA and the severity of IA. In addition, the severity of PI/EA indicators was positively associated with the severity of IA. These results demonstrated that the severity of self-identity confusion was related to the severity of IA, either directly or indirectly. The indirect relationship was mediated by the severity of PI/EA. Self-identity confusion and PI/EA should be taken into consideration by the community of professionals working on IA. Early detection and intervention of self-identity confusion and PI/EA should be the objectives for programs aiming to lower the risk of IA.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4515-4522, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410697

RESUMO

Internet addiction (IA) has been reported as prevalent in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the course of IA in this population has not been elucidated. The authors performed a 2-year follow-up study including 89 out of 132 adolescents with ASD and/or ADHD in a psychiatric clinical setting who participated in the original cross-sectional study assessing IA prevalence. Within this sample of participants from both the original and the follow-up study, results showed a 2-year IA remission and incidence rate of 60% and 5%, respectively. Our findings imply that the course of IA in psychiatric populations with ASD and/or ADHD might be similar to reports from previous studies with general adolescent populations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Internet , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Indução de Remissão , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416256

RESUMO

This study examined to what extent e-cigarette users noticed the European Union's new legislation regarding e-cigarettes, and whether this may have influenced perceptions regarding addictiveness and toxicity. Data were obtained from yearly surveys (2015-2017) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations were applied. About a third of the e-cigarette users noticed the text warning (28%) and the leaflet (32%). When compared to tobacco-only smokers, e-cigarette users showed greater increases in perceptions regarding addictiveness (ß = 0.457, p = 0.045 vs. ß = 0.135, p < 0.001) and toxicity (ß = 0.246, p = 0.055 vs. ß = 0.071, p = 0.010). In conclusion, the new legislation's noticeability should be increased.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Trials ; 20(1): 468, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of 300 mg of bupropion and 8 mg of buprenorphine per day on the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal cravings over a 2-week treatment interval. METHOD: Sixty-five methamphetamine-dependent men who met the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria for methamphetamine dependence and withdrawal were randomly divided into two groups. Subjects randomly received 300 mg of bupropion or 8 mg of buprenorphine per day in a psychiatric ward. Of the 65 subjects, 35 (53.8%) received buprenorphine and 30 (46.2%) received bupropion. The subjects were assessed by using methamphetamine craving score, interview, and negative urine drug test. FINDINGS: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in regard to age, education, duration of methamphetamine dependency, marital status, employment, and income. The mean ages were 32.8 years (standard deviation (SD) = 7.26, range = 22 to 59) for the buprenorphine group and 32.21 years (SD = 8.45, range = 17 to 51) for the bupropion group. All 65 patients completed the 2-week study. Both medications were effective in the reduction of methamphetamine cravings. Reduction of craving in the buprenorphine group was significantly more than the bupropion group (P = 0.011). Overall, a significant main effect of day (P <0.001) and group (P = 0.011) and a non-significant group-by-day interaction (P >0.05) were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the safety and effectiveness of buprenorphine and bupropion in the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal craving. Administration of 8 mg of buprenorphine per day can be recommended for the treatment of methamphetamine withdrawal cravings. We should note that it is to be expected that craving decreases over time without any medication. So the conclusion may not be that bupropion and buprenorphine both lower the craving. As the buprenorphine is superior to bupropion, only buprenorphine does so for sure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) registration number: IRCT2015010320540N1 . Date registered: April 10, 2015.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Aditivo/tratamento farmacológico , Buprenorfina/uso terapêutico , Bupropiona/uso terapêutico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/psicologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nurse Educ Today ; 81: 78-82, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352247

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) among undergraduate students, and its impact on psychological distress and coping strategies. METHODS: Data were collected using a convenience sample of 163 student nurses. FINDINGS: The results showed that there was high prevalence rate of IA among students. In addition, the use of avoidance and problem-solving coping mechanism was statistically significant among the IA group compared with the non-IA group (p < 0.05). This was associated with a more negative impact on psychological distress and self-efficacy (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: IA is an increasing problem in the general population and among university students. It can affect many aspects of a student's life and performance. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The results will raise awareness of the deleterious effects of IA on a wide range of student life.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur Addict Res ; 25(5): 229-237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet-related disorders (IRDs) as a growing mental health issue will probably be included in the upcoming ICD-11. While research on psychological aspects has progressed, less data are available regarding the physical health status of patients. Thus, we provide new data on physical health complaints, prediagnosed illness, level of functioning, and work ability in a clinical sample. METHODS: From consecutive treatment seekers, we included n = 286 patients with IRD, n = 95 subjects with excessive yet not disordered Internet use, and n = 106 patients with gambling disorder (GD). All 3 groups were compared regarding lifestyle habits, medical history, somatic complaints, sleep disturbances, level of functioning and work ability using standardized self-reports, and clinical ratings. RESULTS: Patients with IRD differed from nonclinical controls by higher somatic complaints, a lower level of functioning, and a higher degree of impairment in social and occupational contexts. Only few differences were found between patients with IRD and GD. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to individuals with excessive, not addictive online behaviors, patients diagnosed with IRD displayed higher somatic symptoms, and more sleep problems. This implies that psychotherapeutic interventions should also consider physical and psychosomatic problems when treating patients. Among patients with IRD, significant social and occupational deficits were comparable to patients with GD. This emphasizes that IRD are causing severe impairment in relevant aspects of the patients' lives.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Internet , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2451-2471, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In this paper, we reviewed translational studies concerned with environmental influences on the rewarding effects of heroin versus cocaine in rats and humans with substance use disorder. These studies show that both experienced utility ('liking') and decision utility ('wanting') of heroin and cocaine shift in opposite directions as a function of the setting in which these drugs were used. Briefly, rats and humans prefer using heroin at home but cocaine outside the home. These findings appear to challenge prevailing theories of drug reward, which focus on the notion of shared substrate of action for drug of abuse, and in particular on their shared ability to facilitate dopaminergic transmission. AIMS: Thus, in the second part of the paper, we verified whether our findings could be accounted for by available computational models of reward. To account for our findings, a model must include a component that could mediate the substance-specific influence of setting on drug reward RESULTS: It appears of the extant models that none is fully compatible with the results of our studies. CONCLUSIONS: We hope that this paper will serve as stimulus to design computational models more attuned to the complex mechanisms responsible for the rewarding effects of drugs in real-world contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Heroína/administração & dosagem , Modelos Psicológicos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Neurociências , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recompensa
16.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 234-241, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Addicted individuals often demonstrate relatively automatic action tendencies in response to addiction-related stimuli, whereby they approach rather than avoid addictive stimuli. This study assessed whether an approach bias for erotic stimuli exists among heterosexual college-aged males who report using pornography. METHODS: We tested 72 male undergraduate students using an approach-avoidance task employing erotic stimuli, during which participants were instructed to push or pull a joystick in response to image orientation. To simulate approach and avoidance movements, pulling the joystick enlarged the image and pushing shrunk the image. Frequency and severity of pornography use was assessed using a Brief Pornography Screener and the Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS). RESULTS: Participants demonstrated a significant approach bias for erotic stimuli as compared to neutral stimuli, and this approach bias significantly correlated with pornography-use measures. Moreover, individuals with problematic pornography use (as classified by the PPUS) showed more than double the approach bias than did non-problematic users. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The observation of cognitive biases for erotic stimuli in individuals with problematic pornography use indicate similarities between behavioral and substance addictions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Heterossexualidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Viés , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 335-342, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to examine the occurrence of the problematic use of smartphones in a university sample and associated physical and mental health correlates, including potential relationships with risky sexual practices. METHODS: A 156-item anonymous online survey was distributed via e-mail to a sample of 9,449 university students. In addition to problematic smartphone usage, current use of alcohol and drugs, psychological and physical status, and academic performance were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 31,425 participants were included in the analysis, of whom 20.1% reported problematic smartphone use. Problematic use of smartphones was associated with lower grade point averages and with alcohol use disorder symptoms. It was also significantly associated with impulsivity (Barratt scale and ADHD) and elevated occurrence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Finally, those with current problems with smartphone use were significantly more sexually active. CONCLUSIONS: Problematic use of smartphones is common and has public health importance due to these demonstrable associations with alcohol use, certain mental health diagnoses (especially ADHD, anxiety, depression, and PTSD), and worse scholastic performance. Clinicians should enquire about excessive smartphone use as it may be associated with a range of mental health issues. Research is needed to address longitudinal associations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 22(2): 61-70, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence of the adverse effects of internet gaming, it has emerged as a popular leisure activity in South Korea and Asia. This is the first study that examines the causal effect of internet gaming on alcohol consumption. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of internet gaming on alcohol consumption while controlling for unobserved individual attributes that are omitted in the alcohol consumption regression but are correlated with internet game usage. METHODS: We use data from a survey of 5,003 men and women who lived in Seoul and the surrounding metropolitan area of South Korea during the year 2014. We use the instrumental variable regressions and partially linear regressions. RESULTS: We first find that the age at which an individual starts internet gaming and being a member of an internet gaming club are significantly associated with the average hours spent internet gaming in adulthood. Using these two instrumental variables, we show that longer hours of internet gaming is associated with less consumption of alcohol among men, but more consumption of alcohol among women. The opposite effects of internet gaming on alcohol consumption for male and female users are robust to alternative specifications and estimation methods. DISCUSSION: We investigate potential channels through which men and women are differently affected by internet gaming on alcohol consumption. We find large disparities in types of gaming devices and playing partners between men and women and that these factors account for part of the different gaming effects by gender. Other gaming preferences contributing to the heterogeneous game effects are not examined due to lack of data, which is the limitation of this study. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: The empirical findings suggest that female users of internet games, in particular those who are vulnerable to social isolation, can reap the most benefit toward reducing the risk of developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) from health interventions that aim to monitor unhealthy use of internet games. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE PROVISION AND USE: Understanding the impact of internet gaming on other substance use such as alcohol will be useful for the design of effective clinical treatments and preventative health care provision. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Based on the finding that men are likely to sit for longer periods of time indulging in games, further research may examine how the prolonged sedentary leisure activity of internet gaming affect obesity and other physical health problems.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Internet , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ásia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Bull World Health Organ ; 97(6): 382-383, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210674

RESUMO

The definition of gaming disorder is an important first step in developing a public health response to a new problem. Gary Humphreys reports.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252671

RESUMO

E-cigarettes are often considered less addictive than traditional cigarettes. This study aimed to assess patterns of e-cigarette use and to compare nicotine dependence among cigarette and e-cigarette users in a group of highly educated young adults. From 3002 healthy adults, a representative group of 30 cigarette smokers, 30 exclusive e-cigarette users, and 30 dual users were recruited. A 25-item questionnaire was used to collect information related to the patterns and attitudes towards the use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and its adapted version for e-cigarettes were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. The nicotine dependence levels measured with FTND were over two times higher among e-cigarette users (mean 3.5) compared to traditional tobacco smokers (mean 1.6; p<0.001). Similarly, among dual users, nicotine dependence levels were higher when using an e-cigarette (mean 4.7) compared to using traditional cigarettes (mean 3.2; p=0.03). Habits and behaviors associated with the use of e-cigarettes did not differ significantly (p>0.05) between exclusive e-cigarette users and dual users. The findings suggest that e-cigarettes may have a higher addictive potential than smoked cigarettes among young adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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