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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 308, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With smartphone use widespread worldwide, smartphone addiction is an emerging epidemic. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of smartphone addiction among freshmen medical students and to explore its association with personal factors, mental health, and professional identity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 10th to November 10th, 2020 and included 2,182 first-year college students at Wannan Medical College, China. The smartphone addiction test, professional identity, and a 12-item general health questionnaire were used for this cross-sectional survey. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was employed to examine the correlations between smartphone addiction and mental health and professional identity. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the factors influencing smartphone addiction. Of the 2,182 students, 866 (39.7%) were identified as having smartphone addiction. The logistic regression analysis shows that four factors (professional identity scale, poor mental health, smartphone use before sleep, and perceived study pressure) were significantly associated with smartphone addiction. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study suggests that smartphone addiction is common among Chinese freshmen medical students. Smartphone addiction was common among the freshmen medical students surveyed. The findings imply that promotional programs, aimed at enhancing mental health and professional identity among freshmen medical students, help to reduce smartphone addiction in this population.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Estudantes de Medicina , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 539-546, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383777

RESUMO

Adolescents' scholastic and social life has become increasingly reliant on the internet and mobile technology in recent years. Problematic Internet Use (PIU) is a growing problem in Indian adolescents. However, in many cases, this use has become obsessive, causing them to neglect other elements of their lives. Adolescents account for over 35% of internet users in India. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychosomatic problems related to internet overuse among school going adolescent students. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 348 students in selected schools of Aspur block in Dungarpur-district, Rajasthan, India in the month of February 2016. Problematic internet use (PIU) was assessed by Young's twenty question internet addiction test. The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-42) and self structured questionnaire check list was used to measure psychosomatic problems among adolescents. Approximately 5.17% adolescents showed Problematic internet use (PIU). Adolescents with PIU were associated with age between 14-16 year, males,10th class of study, using internet since more than 3 years, being at home, mobile as a source of internet use, purpose of internet use with online gaming. Compared with normal internet users, there were significant correlation between Problematic Internet Use and Somatic Complaints r=0.3660, p<0.05, Depression r=0.3982, p<0.05. Anxiety r=0.2512, p<0.05 and Stress r=0.2886, p<0.05. Problematic internet use (PIU) is an increasing problem among teenagers and it has been linked to psychosomatic issues. Timely Effective measures are needed to prevent the spread of this problem.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Uso da Internet , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
3.
Behav Brain Res ; 427: 113876, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378110

RESUMO

The Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment (ANA) was proposed as a neuroscience-informed clinical framework to understand heterogeneity in addiction encompassing dysfunction in three domains: incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive functions. The ANA has been validated in the alcohol field but has not been extended to other substances. Thus, the objective of the current study was to replicate and extend the ANA framework to methamphetamine use disorder. Non-treatment seeking individuals (N = 185) who reported regular methamphetamine use completed a deep phenotyping battery comprising self-report and behavioral measures that assessed methamphetamine craving and emotional withdrawal symptoms, mood and anxiety symptomatology, risk-taking behaviors, working memory, attention, and impulsivity. Factor analytic techniques were used in an iterative manner to derive latent factors that explained biobehavioral variation in the sample. The relationship between factor scores and demographic and clinical indicators of methamphetamine use were examined to assess the construct validity of the latent factors. Deep phenotyping combined with factor analytic techniques implicated three intercorrelated neurofunctional domains that map on to the proposed ANA domains: incentive salience, negative emotionality, and executive function. Each of the domains were associated with demographic and clinical indicators of methamphetamine use providing initial support for their construct validity. The ANA framework holds promise for explaining heterogeneity in addiction by identifying neuroscience-informed phenotypes. Knowledge from the ANA framework may be applied to advance precision medicine and inform medications development for a host of substance use disorders, particularly those with no approved pharmacotherapy such as methamphetamine.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Comportamento Aditivo , Metanfetamina , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Motivação
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 819324, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35480576

RESUMO

In the digital era, playing internet games enriches the entertainment forms for young generations. At the same time, it also raises some social issues, and internet gaming disorder (IGD) is one of them. Abundant studies demonstrate that IGD is harmful to individual physiological and psychological health. Therefore, it is necessary to figure out the reasons and mechanisms behind this phenomenon. Based on the ecological systems theory, the present study investigated the cumulative effect of family risks on adolescent IGD and the serial mediating effects of personal growth initiative (PGI) and gratitude in a chain mediation model. Using random cluster sampling, a sample of 600 Chinese adolescents was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Results of regression analysis suggested that cumulative family risks could positively predict IGD among adolescents. Moreover, PGI and gratitude mediated the relationship between cumulative family risk and IGD, separately, and sequentially. These findings may provide some guidance for the prevention and intervention to prevent or reduce IGD in adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina D , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
5.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 111(6): 317-321, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473333

RESUMO

The term "exercise addiction" has been used in the scientific literature since the late 1970s. It is used to refer to persistent excessive exercise despite negative physical, psychological and social consequences, with unsuccessful attempts to reduce or stop the behavior. In this article, the evidence for exercise addiction as a behavioral addiction is presented. Symptoms and psychiatric comorbidities are explained, and recommendations for identification and treatment of exercise addiction are presented.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270395

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, increased stress factors affected people's motivations to engage in potentially addictive behaviors. Sexuality, understood as one of the psychological aspects to be investigated to explore the level of psychological well-being of a person, has suffered considerable repercussions due to the pandemic. A growing body of evidence suggests an unprecedented increase in Internet use and online pornography consumption during the pandemic. Since March 2020, during the lockdown period, Pornhub has seen a worldwide increase in pornography use of 11.6% compared to the previous average days. This research was conducted with the aim of exploring the possible increasing use of pornographic material during the lockdown period, in order to assess whether dysfunctional behaviors, such as compulsive behaviors, and thoughts of sex-related obsessives can lead to hypersexual behavior or a more severe Sexual Addiction. The individuals who participated in our research were 18 years of age or older (mean 23.1, s.d. 5.8), and 48% male and 52% females and were recruited online to complete a self-report questionnaire in the period between April 2020 and April 2021. The questionnaires were delivered via main social networks. The tool used for our survey was the SAST (Sexual Addiction Screening Test), a questionnaire including socio-demographic data and data relating to sexual practices, such as sexual orientation and time spent on the Internet for sexual activities. The results revealed significant differences concerning the various factors investigated such as loss of control, addictive symptoms and hide score.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Behav Addict ; 11(1): 128-139, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312631

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Previous studies have shown that nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has addictive features, and an addiction model of NSSI has been considered. Addictive features have been associated with severity of NSSI and adverse psychological experiences. Yet, there is debate over the extent to which NSSI and substance use disorders (SUDs) are similar experientially. Methods: To evaluate the extent that people who self-injure experience NSSI like an addiction, we coded the posts of users of the subreddit r/selfharm (n = 500) for each of 11 DSM-5 SUD criteria adapted to NSSI. Results: A majority (76.8%) of users endorsed at least two adapted SUD criteria in their posts, indicative of mild, moderate, or severe addiction. The most frequently endorsed criteria were urges or cravings (67.6%), escalating severity or tolerance (46.7%), and NSSI that is particularly hazardous. User-level addictive features positively predicted number of methods used for NSSI, number of psychiatric disorders, and particularly hazardous NSSI, but not suicidality. We also observed frequent use of language and concepts common in SUD recovery circles like Alcoholics Anonymous. Discussion & Conclusion: Our findings support previous work describing the addiction potential of NSSI and associating addictive features with clinical severity. These results suggest that NSSI and SUD may share experiential similarities, which has implications for the treatment of NSSI. We also contribute to a growing body of work that uses social media as a window into the subjective experiences of stigmatized populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Ideação Suicida
8.
J Behav Addict ; 11(1): 49-62, 2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316208

RESUMO

Background and aims: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) leads to serious impairments in cognitive functions, and lacks of effective treatments. Cue-induced craving is a hallmark feature of this disease and is associated with addictive memory elements. Memory retrieval-extinction manipulations could interfere with addictive memories and attenuate addictive syndromes, which might be a promising intervention for IGD. The aims of this study were to explore the effect of a memory retrieval-extinction manipulation on gaming cue-induced craving and reward processing in individuals with IGD. Methods: A total of 49 individuals (mean age: 20.52 ± 1.58) with IGD underwent a memory retrieval-extinction training (RET) with a 10-min interval (R-10min-E, n = 24) or a RET with a 6-h interval (R-6h-E, n = 25) for two consecutive days. We assessed cue-induced craving pre- and post-RET, and at the 1- and 3-month follow-ups. The neural activities during reward processing were also assessed pre- and post-RET. Results: Compared with the R-6h-E group, gaming cravings in individuals with IGD were significantly reduced after R-10min-E training at the 3-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Moreover, neural activities in the individuals with IGD were also altered after R-10min-E training, which was corroborated by enhanced reward processing, such as faster responses (P < 0.05) and stronger frontoparietal functional connectivity to monetary reward cues, while the R-6h-E training had no effects. Discussion and Conclusions: The two-day R-10min-E training reduced addicts' craving for Internet games, restored monetary reward processing in IGD individuals, and maintained long-term efficacy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Condicionamento Clássico , Extinção Psicológica , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/psicologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/terapia , Recompensa , Resultado do Tratamento , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Public Health ; 205: 72-78, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35247862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Online platforms enable real-time trading activities that are similar to those of gambling. This study aimed to investigate the associations of traditional investing, real-time stock trading, and cryptocurrency trading with excessive behavior and mental health problems. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional population-based survey. METHODS: The participants were Finnish people aged 18-75 years (N = 1530, 50.33% male). Survey asked about monthly regular investing, real-time stock-trading platform use, and cryptocurrency trading. The study had measures for excessive behavior: gambling (Problem Gambling Severity Index), gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale), and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Psychological distress (Mental Health Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), COVID-19 anxiety, and perceived loneliness were also measured. Background factors included sociodemographic variables, instant loan taking, and involvement in social media identity bubbles (Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale). Multivariate analyses were conducted with regression analysis. RESULTS: Within the sample, 22.29% were categorized into monthly regular investors only, 3.01% were investors using real-time stock-trading platforms, and 3.59% were cryptomarket traders. Real-time stock-trading platform use and cryptocurrency trading were associated with younger age and male gender. Cryptomarket traders were more likely to have an immigrant background and have taken instant loans. Both real-time stock-trading platform use and cryptomarket trading were associated with higher excessive behavior. Cryptomarket traders especially reported higher excessive gambling, gaming, and internet use than others. Cryptomarket traders reported also higher psychological distress, perceived stress, and loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Regular investing is not a risk factor for excessive behavior. However, rapid online trading platforms and applications were significantly more commonly used by participants reporting excessive behavior and mental health problems. The strong association between cryptomarket trading and excessive behavior in particular underlines the need to acknowledge the potential risks related to real-time trading platforms.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Comportamento Aditivo , COVID-19 , Jogo de Azar , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino
10.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 822-826, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349380

RESUMO

Background: A central facet of the popular understanding of mindfulness practice is the non-judgmental observation of all thoughts and feelings. Savoring is a cognitive practice developed out of economics and positive psychology, which involves the conscious mental engagement with positively-valenced interoceptive and exteroceptive stimuli, which in turn amplifies the derived pleasure experience. Results: When incorporated into mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), savoring holds promise in improving outcomes related to reward processing, such as positive affect and well-being. The growing body of mindfulness literature also suggests that the inclusion of savoring in MBIs may be key in treating disorders of reward dysregulation, such as addiction. If savoring does indeed reduce craving, this phenomenon offers a point of union for divergent neurobiological theories of addiction. Conclusion: In this commentary, we explore the existing literature on savoring and mindfulness practices as it relates to addictive disorders, posit underlying neurocognitive mechanisms, and present future areas of research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Atenção Plena , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Fissura , Emoções , Humanos , Recompensa
11.
Chaos ; 32(2): 021102, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35232044

RESUMO

Substances of abuse are known to activate and disrupt neuronal circuits in the brain reward system. We propose a simple and easily interpretable dynamical systems model to describe the neurobiology of drug addiction that incorporates the psychiatric concepts of reward prediction error, drug-induced incentive salience, and opponent process theory. Drug-induced dopamine releases activate a biphasic reward response with pleasurable, positive "a-processes" (euphoria, rush) followed by unpleasant, negative "b-processes" (cravings, withdrawal). Neuroadaptive processes triggered by successive intakes enhance the negative component of the reward response, which the user compensates for by increasing drug dose and/or intake frequency. This positive feedback between physiological changes and drug self-administration leads to habituation, tolerance, and, eventually, to full addiction. Our model gives rise to qualitatively different pathways to addiction that can represent a diverse set of user profiles (genetics, age) and drug potencies. We find that users who have, or neuroadaptively develop, a strong b-process response to drug consumption are most at risk for addiction. Finally, we include possible mechanisms to mitigate withdrawal symptoms, such as through the use of methadone or other auxiliary drugs used in detoxification.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Motivação , Recompensa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/metabolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329043

RESUMO

The negative association between the growth mindset and mental health problems suggests that prevention and intervention programs to improve mental health by targeting mindset may have potential clinical value. However, research on the longitudinal effect of mindset on adolescent mental health and its underlying mechanisms is lacking. Using a three-wave longitudinal design, we obtained data from a diverse sample of Chinese adolescents (n = 2543). Longitudinal multiple mediation models were constructed to examine the effects of the growth mindset on levels of anxiety and depression two years later. In addition, the mediating effects of smartphone use for entertainment and problematic smartphone use (PSU) were examined. After controlling for various covariates and the autoregressive effects of mental health problems, the growth mindset had significant negative effects on anxiety (ß = -0.053, p = 0.004) and depression (ß = -0.074, p < 0.001). Smartphone use had a significant mediating role in the effect of mindset on anxiety (ß = -0.016, p < 0.001) and depression (ß = -0.016, p < 0.001). The growth mindset has long-lasting positive effects on adolescent mental health. Smartphone use for entertainment and PSU mediate the effect of mindset on adolescent mental health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Smartphone , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329369

RESUMO

Internet pornography use (IPU) refers to Internet-based sexually explicit materials that are ultimately used to elicit sexual feelings or thoughts. The accessibility of Internet pornography could lead to excessive exposure to pornographic messages, posing a risk to heavy users' psychological health. This paper offers a preliminary understanding of the relationship between Internet pornography use and psychological distress among emerging adults and the moderating role of gender in the association. This cross-sectional study has taken a purposive sampling approach to recruit 144 emerging adult pornography users via the online survey method. The results indicated that males reported having more problematic Internet pornography use, and there were no gender differences in psychological distress. Meanwhile, gender is a significant moderator between Internet pornography use and psychological distress. The females were found to be more psychologically affected by their problematic Internet pornography use than the males. Overall, this study has provided a novel finding of the moderating role of gender in problematic Internet pornography use and psychological distress in the Malaysian context. This study also calls for a gender-focused sexual health programme for Malaysian emerging adults. Furthermore, the scores of problematic IPU in this study raise a concern over the effectiveness of current sex education in Malaysia. The scores may highlight the need to provide education targeting Internet pornography use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Angústia Psicológica , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Literatura Erótica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
14.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264716, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet Addiction (IA) is often shown to be associated with health issues, but no study explicitly examined a possible gradient in the association between different levels of IA and health. This study aimed to examine if the levels of IA had a graded relationship with poor sleep quality, psychological distress, and self-rated health among university students in Bangladesh. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 625 students from six universities/colleges responded to an online survey that contained measures of internet addiction test (IAT), general health questionnaire (GHQ-12), sleep quality, and self-rated health. Modified Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate the adjusted risk ratios (RR) and confidence intervals (CI) of the associations between IA and health outcomes. RESULTS: The IA levels were associated with each of the three health outcomes in a linear fashion. Compared to the lowest IA quintile, the highest quintile remained associated with an increased risk of poor-quality sleeping (RR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.48), psychological distress (RR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.55, 2.82), and worse self-rated health (RR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.96) after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. There were also dose-response associations between IAT z-scores and health outcomes. The association between IAT z-scores and psychological distress was significantly stronger in males compared to females (p-value for interaction<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The study found strong gradients between levels of addiction to internet and health outcomes, suggesting that increased health risks may exist even at lower levels of internet addiction. The findings highlight the need for departure of current research from a focus on the classic dichotomy of problematic versus not problematic internet use and a move toward recognizing the potential hierarchical effects of IA on health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
15.
Neurosci Lett ; 777: 136588, 2022 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341891

RESUMO

Substance and behavioral addiction is a global health problem related to cognitive functioning and emotional responses like top-down control and craving. The present review discusses the role of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as evidence-based treatments for addiction disorders. The discussion spans between several evidence for both therapies, also considering the difference and heterogeneity among clinical protocols. Nowadays, literature is consistent in indicating the neurostimulation of the prefrontal cortex as effective for different kinds of addiction, corroborating the evidence that they rely on a common network in the brain. Likewise, within the CBT studies it is possible to observe a wide range of interventions that are overall effective in regulating the executive functions associated with addiction disorders. Nevertheless, the integration of NIBS and CBT in addictions has been scarcely considered in literature so far. For this reason, the present article is meant to foster empirical research in this field by highlighting the findings supporting these evidence-based interventions, both as stand-alone and integrated treatments. To this aim, psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms of NIBS and CBT in addictions are reviewed, and the rationale of their integration discussed. In particular, as evidence suggest these treatments affect top-down and bottom-up processes in different ways, with NIBS reducing craving and CBT boosting motivation and coping, we suggest their combination might better target the different components of addiction to promote abstinence.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Fissura , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 311: 114507, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349859

RESUMO

We examined the symptoms network of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We recruited 793 heavy game players online and 184 of them were diagnosed with IGD. We measured IGD via the 27-item IGD Scale and analyzed symptoms to examine how they interacted with each other to drive the addictive behaviors. Furthermore, we added motives and psychological well-being variables into the network. We found that the most central symptoms were conflict, withdrawal, and tolerance. Overall, two distinct groups of symptoms were discovered: one group for addictive symptoms and the other for psychological consequences.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina D , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet , Motivação , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264000, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35176068

RESUMO

Tilting is a poker-related phenomenon that involves cognitive and emotional dysregulation in response to unfavourable gambling outcomes. Tilting is characterised by an increase in irrational, impulsive and strategically weak betting decisions. This study aimed to adapt and investigate the concept of tilting amongst sport bettors in order to provide preliminary insight regarding previously unexplored instances of maladaptive sports betting. The sample consisted of 225 sports bettors who completed an online questionnaire that investigated their reported tilting episodes, awareness of tilting, impulsivity, perceived skill, gambling severity, gambling frequency, and product preferences. Cluster analyses revealed three distinct groups of sports bettors based on their reported tilting episodes and their awareness of this phenomenon. The first group were labelled 'Conscious tilters' due to being cognizant of their own tilting occurrence which was significantly higher than the other two groups. These 'Conscious tilters' had the highest mean problem gambling severity that was indicative of the 'problem gambler' categorisation. The second group were labelled 'Unconscious tilters' due to their underestimation of their own tilting occurrence and were categorised as 'moderate risk gamblers'. The third group were labelled 'Non-tilters' due to a relatively accurate perception of their low to non-existent tilting occurrence and were categorised as 'low-risk gamblers'. Additionally, there were significant differences between these groups in relation to reported gambling frequency, impulsivity, and product preferences. There is evidence of various classifications of 'tilters' within sports betting. Specific sports betting product features may also facilitate tilting and therefore require further research in this context. It is important for this research area to develop in order to mitigate harms associated with the rapidly changing sport betting environment.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Formação de Conceito , Emoções/fisiologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 296: 114721, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Gaming Disorder' (GD) is now an officially recognized mental health disorder according to the World Health Organization (WHO) framework while 'Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) remains as a tentative disorder as per the American Psychiatric Association (APA) framework. Although both GD and IGD reflect disordered gaming tendencies marked by excessive time spent gaming, little is known about the extent to which too much time spent gaming becomes particularly problematic. Moreover, emerging research has highlighted the need to further explore how both disordered gaming frameworks perform in the assessment and estimation of disordered gaming symptoms and related behaviors. METHODS: The primary aim of the present study was to shed light on the complex relationship between time spent gaming and disordered gaming and to provide prevalence estimates of disordered gaming across the WHO and APA frameworks. This study adopted an online survey methodology and a cross-sectional design in a large sample of 123,262 eligible gamers from 168 countries. RESULTS: The results obtained indicated that the prevalence rate of disordered gaming among the participants was smaller when assessed with the WHO framework (i.e., 1.96%) in comparison to the APA framework (i.e., 4.97%). Additionally, the relationship between time spent gaming and disordered gaming varied, and disordered gaming was associated on average with 34.53 h of gaming a week within the APA framework (i.e., with at least five criteria endorsed; higher gaming-time-averages for those endorsing more criteria) and an average of 40.13 h a week within the WHO framework (i.e., with all criteria endorsed). CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between weekly time spent gaming and disordered gaming is multifaceted and varies according to the diagnostic framework adopted. The results highlight the need for further refinement at the diagnostic level in regard to disordered gaming.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina D , Internet , Transtorno de Adição à Internet
19.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263560, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192661

RESUMO

This article considers players' experiences seeking out new games to play, and their use of the Australian National Classification Scheme in doing so. The global video game industry is booming, with hundreds of games being released each month across numerous platforms. As a result, players have an unprecedented number of games available when choosing what games to purchase. However, a number of confounding issues around the emergent content of games and the subjective nature of game reviewing makes it difficult to relate what kinds of experiences a given game will facilitate. In this study, we surveyed game players in order to find their game platform and acquisition preferences; strategies and experiences when choosing games; and attitudes towards classification systems. Our findings suggest that players find it difficult to choose what games to purchase, and that existing classification systems are mostly only beneficial when choosing games for minors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terminologia como Assunto , Jogos de Vídeo/economia , Jogos de Vídeo/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162194

RESUMO

The literature on online gaming has generally focused on male gamers and has been dominated by negative aspects of gaming. The present study addresses the gender gap in this field by exploring experiences of female gamers further by unravelling several positive experiences alongside some potentially harmful tendencies connected to gaming, including female gamers' wishes and ambitions for their future gaming. A total of 20 female adult gamers across Europe were interviewed and results were analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were identified: (i) to be or not to be a (female) gamer; (ii) improving social skills and levelling up on mental health; (iii) not always a healthy escape; and (iv) there is more to explore. The present study is one of few empirical studies regarding the construction of self-image, and experiences of female gamers. It has showed participants have a history as gamers from adolescence, but still face problems derived from the stigmatised internal gender self-image. Externally, female gamer stigmatisation may result in sexism, gender violence, harassment, and objectification. Additionally, females may decide against identifying as gamers, engaging in social gaming interaction, or hold back from online gaming in general, thereby missing out on the opportunities for recreation as well as social and psychological benefits that gaming brings. There is, therefore, urgent need for more research and actions to promote change, equity, education, and security for female gamers as well as their male counterparts. Game developers would benefit from understanding this large gamer demographic better and tailoring games for women specifically.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Autoimagem , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
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