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3.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(707): 1748-1750, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969611

RESUMO

There is a renewed interest in the use of psychedelics in the treatment of addictions. The mode of action of psychedelics could be explained by the addictolytic effect of the substance or by an amplifying effect a unique experience. If studies are lacking on the intrinsic addictolytic effects of psychedelics in humans, animals and in vitro experiences show an increase in neurogenesis. In humans, the effectiveness could be explained by the intensity of the lived experience. If the purely experiential aspect is the key to the effectiveness of treatment, it strengthens the idea that psychedelics act as reinforcers of the psychotherapeutic experience by exposure to intense and unusual internal stimuli.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/tratamento farmacológico , Alucinógenos/uso terapêutico , Psicoterapia/métodos , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos
4.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113463, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic and the consequent containment measures are leading to increasing mental health issues both in psychiatric patients and general population. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the number and characteristics of emergency psychiatric consultations during the phase 1 of lockdown with respect to the same period in 2019 in a Department of Mental Health and Addiction (DMHA) located in Lombardy region. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study including subjects consecutively admitted to two psychiatric emergency rooms of DMHA in Monza, Lombardy, Italy. Sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics, referred symptoms, diagnosis and information on patients' illness course following the emergency consultations were collected. No subjects were excluded for the purposes of the study. RESULTS: Between February 21st and May 3rd 2020, there was a marked reduction in the number of psychiatric emergency consultations, if compared to the same period of 2019. Subjects who were living in psychiatric residential treatment facilities, had cannabis addiction and a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder were significantly more likely to present to emergency psychiatric consultations during lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 epidemic may have a negative impact on more vulnerable individuals. Strategies to enhance relapse prevention and the use of alternative approaches as e-health technologies should be promoted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica/métodos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(326): 16-19, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718521

RESUMO

The change process in addictive behaviours can be long and cause caregivers and patients to question their competences. In this context, caregivers are invited to adopt a coaching approach. They can then use this expertise to support a partnership relationship, which encourages the sharing of power while at the same time lightening each other's "load".


Assuntos
Medicina do Vício , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Tutoria , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Humanos
7.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(326): 20-23, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718522

RESUMO

Psychologists occupy a specific position in the care process in addictology. The basic notions of care are considered from the perspective of a professional experience in an addiction care, support and prevention unit in the Paris region. These fundamental notions offer insights into how the psychologist's psychotherapeutic methods can be integrated into the care process, as well as the potential pitfalls.


Assuntos
Medicina do Vício/organização & administração , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Psicologia , Humanos , Paris , Psicoterapia/métodos
8.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(326): 24-29, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718523

RESUMO

Frequently overlooked during the patient's treatment, psychological trauma can constitute a significant part of the addiction problem. Clinical data reveal a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder for which addictive behaviours may be a way of repressing the anxiety caused by the trauma. Systematic screening for trauma would help to ensure an appropriate treatment plan is put in place.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Humanos , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
9.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(326): 12-15, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718520

RESUMO

The concept of addiction emerged subsequent to the moral approaches of the end ofthe 19th century as a pathological behaviour. The manuals which classify mental disorders, together with the notion of substance-related disorders, enable them to be approached with a medical vision. The subject of numerous, often heated or divisive debates, addictology requires a clinical approach. The treatment of addiction must involve professionals from the medical, nursing, psychological and social fields. This multi-disciplinarity encourages each player to consider their own nursing identity while taking into account that of each other.


Assuntos
Medicina do Vício , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Humanos
10.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(326): 30-34, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718524

RESUMO

Addictive disorders restrict addicts' physical activity. On a neurobiological level, the reward system is disrupted. Pleasure is transformed into a constraint and patients lose control of themselves. Differing from a physical activity technique, psychomotor therapy, by drawing on the body's experience, in relation to the environment, can form part of the care plan. It is based on sensation, tonus, posture and tonico-emotional engagement.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor
11.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 353-374, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615894

RESUMO

Mindfulness in Development-oriented Approaches to Substance Use Prevention and Therapy: Rationale, Design and Objectives of the Research Consortium IMAC-Mind Substance use disorders (SUD) are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. They are typically initiated during adolescence and can have fatal implications for healthy development. Despite substantial scientific advances, there remains a need to prioritize research directed at reducing risks for SUD, particularly in vulnerable periods and populations from a developmental perspective. Research indicates that reward sensitivity, impulsivity, deficient self-regulation, and stress reactivity develop markedly in childhood and adolescence and play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of SUD. A growing number of research results suggest that these factors can be favorably influenced by mindfulness-based interventions and that mindfulness-based exercises can be successfully integrated into established prevention and treatment programs. In this paper we summarize the conceptual relationships between the development and maintenance of addiction disorders and mindfulness, discuss existing empirical findings with regard to childhood and adolescence, and present the aims, study designs and intervention models of the subprojects from the ongoing research network "IMAC-Mind: Improving Mental Health and Reducing Addiction in Childhood and Adolescence through Mindfulness: Mechanisms, Prevention and Treatment".


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Atenção Plena , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Imidazóis
12.
Brain Stimul ; 13(4): 1124-1149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has broadly disrupted biomedical treatment and research including non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS). Moreover, the rapid onset of societal disruption and evolving regulatory restrictions may not have allowed for systematic planning of how clinical and research work may continue throughout the pandemic or be restarted as restrictions are abated. The urgency to provide and develop NIBS as an intervention for diverse neurological and mental health indications, and as a catalyst of fundamental brain research, is not dampened by the parallel efforts to address the most life-threatening aspects of COVID-19; rather in many cases the need for NIBS is heightened including the potential to mitigate mental health consequences related to COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To facilitate the re-establishment of access to NIBS clinical services and research operations during the current COVID-19 pandemic and possible future outbreaks, we develop and discuss a framework for balancing the importance of NIBS operations with safety considerations, while addressing the needs of all stakeholders. We focus on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and low intensity transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) - including transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS). METHODS: The present consensus paper provides guidelines and good practices for managing and reopening NIBS clinics and laboratories through the immediate and ongoing stages of COVID-19. The document reflects the analysis of experts with domain-relevant expertise spanning NIBS technology, clinical services, and basic and clinical research - with an international perspective. We outline regulatory aspects, human resources, NIBS optimization, as well as accommodations for specific demographics. RESULTS: A model based on three phases (early COVID-19 impact, current practices, and future preparation) with an 11-step checklist (spanning removing or streamlining in-person protocols, incorporating telemedicine, and addressing COVID-19-associated adverse events) is proposed. Recommendations on implementing social distancing and sterilization of NIBS related equipment, specific considerations of COVID-19 positive populations including mental health comorbidities, as well as considerations regarding regulatory and human resource in the era of COVID-19 are outlined. We discuss COVID-19 considerations specifically for clinical (sub-)populations including pediatric, stroke, addiction, and the elderly. Numerous case-examples across the world are described. CONCLUSION: There is an evident, and in cases urgent, need to maintain NIBS operations through the COVID-19 pandemic, including anticipating future pandemic waves and addressing effects of COVID-19 on brain and mind. The proposed robust and structured strategy aims to address the current and anticipated future challenges while maintaining scientific rigor and managing risk.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Telemedicina/métodos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Idoso , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392863

RESUMO

As the smartphone has become an indispensable device in modern lives, consequential psychosocial problems such as smartphone addiction have been getting attention worldwide, especially regarding adolescents. Based on its positive effect on young individuals' mental health, mind subtraction meditation has been widely applied to many school-based programs in South Korea. This study aims to identify the effects of a school program based on mind subtraction on the smartphone addiction of adolescents. A total of 49 high school sophomores, 24 from the experimental group (mean age = 16), and 25 from the control group (mean age = 16) are included in this case-control study. The experimental group is given the meditation program sessions in the morning, two times a week for 20 min per session, for a total of 12 weeks. The experimental group shows improvements regarding the 'smartphone addiction' section (p < 0.001), for instant satisfaction (p < 0.001) and long-term satisfaction (p < 0.001). Concerning the 'self-control' section and decreasing stress (p < 0.001), problem focusing (p < 0.001), and social support navigation (p = 0.018), there are improvements in these 'stress coping strategies' sections. This study directly shows the positive effect of mind subtraction meditation on smartphone addiction in adolescents and, thus, provides guidance to the future development of smartphone addiction prevention programs for young individuals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Meditação , Smartphone , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia
14.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 37(3): 164-168, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434597

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has undoubtedly had a major impact on the provision of physical healthcare in Ireland and worldwide. The mental health impact of this pandemic cannot be underestimated, particularly relating to patients suffering from addiction. Heightened public stress and anxiety levels, increasing isolation and the physical consequences of addiction play a large role in the proliferation and ongoing relapse of substance misuse and behavioural addiction. Service provision is an ongoing challenge not only due to the increasing need for services given the increased mental health burden of COVID-19 but also the restrictions in place in clinical areas to achieve social distancing. The necessary adaptations to service provision provide opportunities for the analysis of current processes used in our addiction unit and the introduction of new processes to our service. The current crisis tests the sustainability of the service to provide the high standard of care required for these patients.


Assuntos
Medicina do Vício/métodos , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Psiquiatria/métodos , Humanos , Irlanda , Pandemias , Telemedicina/métodos
15.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(4): 255-262, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325518

RESUMO

Problem gambling is a DSM-5-recognized behavioural addiction of growing concern through the emergence of the Internet with better availability and accessibility of gambling and a wider range of game offers. Thus, a new target group is approached through Online Gambling, which is leading to new issues in the prevention on problem gambling. In this study we discuss the differences in characteristics between Online and Offline Gamblers, the risk factors to develop a gambling problem as well as prevention methods and therapies. This review focuses on the situation in Switzerland with regard to the actual political occurrences and the new law on Online Gambling.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Jogo de Azar/epidemiologia , Internet , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Jogo de Azar/prevenção & controle , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Humanos , Internet/legislação & jurisprudência , Política , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272623

RESUMO

This pilot study aimed to explore the effect of solution-focused group counseling intervention on Internet addiction among college students. Eighteen college students participated in this study, out of which nine subjects were assigned into the experimental group and the rest (n = 9) to a control group. The experimental group received group counseling for five weeks, while the control group did not receive any intervention. The revised version of the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) was used to capture pre-test and post-test excessive use in the two groups. The experimental group was also subjected to a follow-up test and self-reported Internet addiction scores six months after the end of group counseling. Results showed that after the five-week solution-focused group counseling, the scores of four dimensions of the CIAS-R in the experimental group had CIAS-R decreased, and the reduction trend of the total score of CIAS-R was similar across all subjects in this group. The treatment effect was larger than the placebo reduction in the control group in two dimensions: compulsive and withdrawal (Sym-C & Sym-W) and tolerance (Sym-T) symptoms. Qualitative research confirmed the conclusions from the quantitative data, showing that the experimental group reduced its Internet addiction symptoms. Overall, the findings suggested that solution-focused group counseling had positive intervention effects on Internet addiction.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Aconselhamento , Internet , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudantes , Universidades
20.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 39(3): 238-245, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972876

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: People with substance use problems frequently present to mainstream health services with a variety of health issues. However, many medical and allied health-care providers feel under-equipped to respond to this population. We describe the Drug and Alcohol Clinical Advisory Service (DACAS), an established 24/7 telephone-delivered model of addiction specialist consultation, and examine recent call data to identify drug use issues for which health practitioners seek support. DESIGN AND METHODS: Methods of DACAS service provision and call data collection are provided. A retrospective review of routinely collected call data between July 2013 and June 2018 was performed, extracting information on call and caller characteristics, and consultation details. RESULTS: During 2013-2018, DACAS responded to 6565 calls, providing access to specialist alcohol and other drug support for more than 1200 practitioners across Victoria, Tasmania and the Northern Territory annually. Higher rates of service use were found among practitioners located in regional and remote areas, relative to those in metropolitan areas. Opioid agonist treatment was the most common drug class for which practitioners sought consultation (39.5%), followed by other opioids (19.4%). Advice-seeking patterns differed according to caller profession, service setting and location. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: DACAS is providing a multistate-level response to the challenges of accessing specialist addiction treatment, particularly for opioid agonist treatment and other opioid issues, with demonstrated uptake in regional and remote areas. This telephone-delivered service provides an opportunity to expand access to treatment for opioid use disorder and other substance use problems, particularly in areas with less equitable access to specialist addiction care.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/terapia , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Consultores , Humanos , Serviços de Informação , Papel Profissional , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Telefone
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