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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008059

RESUMO

COVID-19 related restrictions aimed at curbing the spread of the coronavirus result in changes in daily routines and physical activity which can have a negative effect on eating and health habits. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with diabetes and their nutrition and health behaviours. A survey conducted in July 2020 included 124 individuals with type 1 (n = 90) and 2 (n = 34) diabetes mellitus from Poland. To assess nutritional and health behaviours, an online questionnaire covering basic information, anthropometric data, and details regarding physical activity, eating, and hygiene habits was used. Almost 40% of all respondents with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) stated that their disease self-management had significantly improved. Over 60% of all participants declared that they had started eating more nutritious and regular meals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhanced hygiene, in particular, during the period, a statistically significant increase in hand sanitiser use was reported by respondents (18% vs. 82%, p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that the pandemic had a significant impact on the behaviour of patients with DM. Improved disease self-management and making healthy, informed food and hygiene choices were observed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autogestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008102

RESUMO

Assessing healthy diet literacy and eating behaviors is critical for identifying appropriate public health responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the psychometric properties of digital healthy diet literacy (DDL) and its association with eating behavior changes during the COVID-19 pandemic among nursing and medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 7 April to 31 May 2020 at 10 public universities in Vietnam, in which 7616 undergraduate students aged 19-27 completed an online survey to assess socio-demographics, clinical parameters, health literacy (HL), DDL, and health-related behaviors. Four items of the DDL scale loaded on one component explained 71.32%, 67.12%, and 72.47% of the scale variances for the overall sample, nursing, and medical students, respectively. The DDL scale was found to have satisfactory item-scale convergent validity and criterion validity, high internal consistency reliability, and no floor or ceiling effect. Of all, 42.8% of students reported healthier eating behavior during the pandemic. A 10-index score increment of DDL was associated with 18%, 23%, and 17% increased likelihood of healthier eating behavior during the pandemic for the overall sample (OR, 1.18; 95%CI, 1.13, 1.24; p < 0.001), nursing students (OR, 1.23; 95%CI, 1.10, 1.35; p < 0.001), and medical students (OR, 1.17; 95%CI, 1.11, 1.24; p < 0.001), respectively. The DDL scale is a valid and reliable tool for the quick assessment of digital healthy diet literacy. Students with higher DDL scores had a higher likelihood of healthier eating behavior during the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 61, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic has transformed and continues to transform and affect the daily lives of communities worldwide, particularly due to the lockdown restrictions. Therefore, this study was designed to understand the changes in dietary and lifestyle behaviours that are major determinants of health during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online questionnaire using a convenience sample of 415 adults living in Kuwait (age range 18-73 years). RESULTS: The rate of skipping breakfast remained consistent, with a slight increase during the pandemic. Lunch remained the main reported meal before and during COVID-19. Compared to before COVID-19, people were much more likely have a late-night snack or meal during COVID-19 (OR = 3.57 (95% CI 1.79-7.26), p < 0.001). Moreover, there was a drastic decrease in the frequency of fast-food consumption during COVID-19, up to 82% reported not consuming fast food (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the percentage of participants who had their main meal freshly made (OR = 59.18 (95% CI 6.55-1400.76), p = 0.001). Regarding food group patterns, no significant differences were found before and during the pandemic in terms of the weekly frequency of consumption, except in the case of fish and seafood. There were no remarkable changes in beverage consumption habits among participants before and during the pandemic, except for Americano coffee and fresh juice. Furthermore, there was a great reduction in physical activity and an increase in the amount of screen time and sedentary behaviours. A notable increase was detected in day-time sleep and a decrease in night-time sleep among participants. CONCLUSION: In general, this study indicates some changes in daily life, including changes in some eating practices, physical activity and sleeping habits during the pandemic. It is important that the government considers the need for nutrition education programmes and campaigns, particularly during this critical period of the pandemic in Kuwait.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Tempo de Tela , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 105051, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907717

RESUMO

In order to detect the possible regulatory effect of non-native C. gigas on the native O. edulis, under aquaculture conditions, feeding interactions between them were investigated in a highly productive environment of Lim Bay (Adriatic Sea). The present study uses a multi-methodological approach, including stomach content, DNA barcoding and stable isotope analysis to elucidate the feeding ecology of two oyster species. The research confirmed a high overlap throughout the year in the feeding traits among native and non-native oyster species. Competition for food was not the only relationship that exists between the investigated species as the presence of O. edulis larvae in C. gigas stomach content was confirmed by DNA analysis. Findings are not in favour of introducing C. gigas to commercial aquaculture in any new areas in the Adriatic Sea and support the need to improve the existing O. edulis aquaculture and conserve its wild stocks.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Crassostrea , Comportamento Alimentar , Ostrea , Animais , Ecologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Larva
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140220, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887000

RESUMO

Human-dominated environments alter the availability and quality of resources for many species, especially for scavengers that have large home ranges and plastic foraging behaviors that enable them to exploit novel resources. Along the western slope of the Andes, the modification of natural landscapes have resulted in significant declines in native prey, the introduction of non-native species, and an increase in the availability of anthropogenic resources. These factors have likely influenced the resources available to Andean condors (Vultur gryphus), however, data are lacking as to how condor's diet vary along their large latitudinal range. We evaluated differences in Andean condor diet along a ~2500 km latitudinal gradient in Chile from the heavily modified Central zone (32-34°S) to the more pristine Austral zone (44-56°S). We assessed diet composition through the identification of prey remains in condor pellets, and carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of condor feathers and their primary prey identified from pellet analysis. Our results identified medium- and large-bodied domesticated mammals (ungulates) and introduced exotic species (lagomorphs) as common prey across the study area. Condors from the Central zone had the largest isotopic niche width, probably related to consumption of anthropogenic resources with distinctly high carbon isotope values indicative of C4-based foods likely acquired from landfills or corn-fed livestock. Isotopic niches for condors from the Southern and Austral zones almost completely overlapped. Andean condor diet is strongly influenced by local conditions determining differential access to prey sources. The high dependence of Andean condors on livestock across a large geographical area, and landfills in more (sub)urban areas, may help stabilize their populations via anthropogenic resources subsidies. Long-term dependence on such resources, however, may have health costs including contaminant exposure and greater mortality risk. These data will help identify potential threats related to resource availability and use, and better inform management and conservation decisions.


Assuntos
Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Chile , Dieta , Plumas , Humanos
6.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020037, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921731

RESUMO

The COVID-19 lockdown imposed radical changes in the lifestyles of the population through isolation measures, with considerable health, social, psychological and economic consequences. Lockdown measures may have exacerbated negative population behaviors regarding exercise and nutrition, with risk of weight gain and obesity, collectively predisposing to increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality. At particular risk of deleterious consequences were patients such as those affected by chronic non communicable diseases (CNCD). The benefits of regular exercise are evident at several levels of CNCD prevention, however, from a public health standpoint, it is important to consider they are also related to improved stress management, work/academic performance, and reduced illegal behavior, isolation and depression. Therefore, during enforced isolation, a primary goal for all individuals is to maintain energy balance. During lockdown, several lifestyle interventions were posted online, with the internet playing a major role in exercise and fitness promotion. Among these one must recognize the ambitious "#StayHomeStayFit" project by the University of Milan, providing useful general information and trustworthy advice regarding nutrition, physical activity, and psychological support, for the general population in a time of need. Data showed a total of 21224 views on various social media and webpages during the reference period, with a mean time of 4' 17'' spent per page/video. Given the health risks associated with population physical inactivity and unhealthy lifestyle, policymakers should evaluate the benefits of projects such as #StayHomeStayFit and consider how to maximize population perception and reach. After all, additional COVID-19 lockdowns might be implemented in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 413-419, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871635

RESUMO

Eosinophilia occurs commonly in many diseases including allergic diseases and helminthic infections. Toxocariasis has been suggested as one cause of eosinophilia. The present study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia and to identify the risk factors for toxocariasis. This prospective cohort study recruited a total of 81 patients with eosinophilia (34 males and 47 females) who visited the outpatient clinic at Seoul National University Hospital from January 2017 to February 2018 and agreed to participate in this study. The prevalence of toxocariasis was examined by T. canis-specific ELISA, and the various risk factors for toxocariasis were evaluated by a questionnaire survey. Among 81 patients with eosinophilia, 18 were positive for anti-T. canis antibodies (22.2%); 88.9% were male (16/18) and 11.1% were female (2/18). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that males (OR 21.876, 95% CI: 1.667-287.144) with a history of consuming the raw meat or livers of animals (OR 5.899, 95% CI: 1.004-34.669) and a heavy alcohol-drinking habit (OR 8.767, 95% CI: 1.018-75.497) were at higher risk of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia. Toxocariasis should be considered a potential cause of eosinophilia when the patient has a history of eating the raw meat or livers of animals in Korea. A single course of albendazole is recommended to reduce the migration of Toxocara larvae in serologically positive cases with eosinophilia.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/etiologia , Toxocaríase/complicações , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxocara canis/imunologia , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
8.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 457-460, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871640

RESUMO

The Pacific tapeworm Adenocephalus pacifcus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is a causative agent of diphyllobothriosis occurred in Pacific coast of South America, mainly in Peru. Source of infections are traditional meal from raw or undercooked marine fish such as "cebiche". We confirmed 3 new cases, one including scolex and the other two headless. A strobila 46 cm long without scolex was discharged from an 8-year-old boy before treatment. Specimens were confirmed morphologically by presence of tegumental protuberances on proglottids and small sized eggs. Partial sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene was congruent with A. pacificus sequences.


Assuntos
Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Filogenia
9.
J UOEH ; 42(3): 275-279, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879192

RESUMO

The Japan Environment Health and Children's Study (JECS) is an ongoing cohort study designed to evaluate the impact of various environmental factors on children's health. In this study, more than 100,000 pregnant women were recruited in 15 regional centers throughout Japan. Within the University of Occupational and Environmental Health, the departments of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Environmental Health, and the School of Health Sciences collaborate with the JECS University of Occupational and Environmental Health Subunit Center in advancing research in this study. Several original articles based on JECS and written by our unit members were published in recent years. The aim of this review is to summarize these studies by JECS and University of Occupational and Environmental Health Subunit Center based on the data from JECS. We introduce research articles covering the following categories; environmental health, occupational health, and maternal and child health. Studies found associations between concentrations of metals and maternal health, such as premature birth, placenta previa and placenta accrete, associations between metals and IgE, dietary differences among occupational groups, associations between work-related factors and dietary behaviors, associations between job changes and pregnancy/delivery, mental and physical stress among pregnant women and influence on work, associations between sleep and gestational diabetes, and associations between an ability to push up in the prone position and infant development. This review may promote the development of new research, such as collaborative research projects, including clinical and social medicine, epidemiological studies and laboratory investigations.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Saúde Ambiental , Saúde do Trabalhador , Universidades , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Japão , Metais/metabolismo , Placenta Acreta , Placenta Prévia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Trabalho
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201095, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873202

RESUMO

The ideal free distribution (IFD) has been used to predict the distribution of foraging animals in a wide variety of systems. However, its predictions do not always match observed distributions of foraging animals. Instead, we often observe that there are more consumers than predicted in low-quality patches and fewer consumers than predicted in high-quality patches (i.e. undermatching). We examine the possibility that animal personality is one explanation for this undermatching. We first conducted a literature search to determine how commonly studies document the personality distribution of populations. Second, we created a simple individual-based model to conceptually demonstrate why knowing the distribution of personalities is important for studies of populations of foragers in context of the IFD. Third, we present a specific example where we calculate the added time to reach the IFD for a population of mud crabs that has a considerable number of individuals with relatively inactive personalities. We suggest that animal personality, particularly the prevalence of inactive personality types, may inhibit the ability of a population to track changes in habitat quality, therefore leading to undermatching of the IFD. This may weaken the IFD as a predictive model moving forward.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Braquiúros/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar
11.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000828, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936797

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects are mono- or oligophagous, having evolved to select a limited range of host plants. They specifically identify host-plant leaves using their keen sense of taste. Plant secondary metabolites and sugars are thought to be key chemical cues that enable insects to identify host plants and evaluate their quality as food. However, the neuronal and behavioral mechanisms of host-plant recognition are poorly understood. Here, we report a two-factor host acceptance system in larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori, a specialist on several mulberry species. The first step is controlled by a chemosensory organ, the maxillary palp (MP). During palpation at the leaf edge, the MP detects trace amounts of leaf-surface compounds, which enables host-plant recognition without biting. Chemosensory neurons in the MP are tuned with ultrahigh sensitivity (thresholds of attomolar to femtomolar) to chlorogenic acid (CGA), quercetin glycosides, and ß-sitosterol (ßsito). Only if these 3 compounds are detected does the larva make a test bite, which is evaluated in the second step. Low-sensitivity neurons in another chemosensory organ, the maxillary galea (MG), mainly detect sucrose in the leaf sap exuded by test biting, allowing larvae to accept the leaf and proceed to persistent biting (feeding). The two-factor host acceptance system reported here may commonly underlie stereotyped feeding behavior in many phytophagous insects and determine their feeding habits.


Assuntos
Bombyx/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bombyx/anatomia & histologia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/citologia , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia
12.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872577

RESUMO

During the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the lockdown, various changes of dietary habits are observed, including both positive and negative ones. However, the food choice determinants in this period were not studied so far for children and adolescents. The study aimed to analyze the changes in the food choice determinants of secondary school students in a national sample of Polish adolescents within the Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study population. The study was conducted in May 2020, based on the random quota sampling of schools (for voivodeships and counties) and a number of 2448 students from all the regions of Poland participated. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) (36 items) was applied twice-to analyze separately current choices (during the period of COVID-19 pandemic) and general choices (when there was no COVID-19 pandemic). For both the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, sensory appeal and price were indicated as the most important factors (with the highest scores). However, differences were observed between the scores of specific factors, while health (p < 0.0001) and weight control (p < 0.0001) were declared as more important during the period of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with the period before, but mood (p < 0.0001) and sensory appeal (p < 0.0001) as less important. The observations were confirmed for sub-groups, while female and male respondents were analyzed separately. It can be concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic may have changed the food choice determinants of Polish adolescents, as it may have increased the importance of health and weight control, but reduced the role of mood and sensory appeal. This may be interpreted as positive changes promoting the uptake of a better diet than in the period before the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia
13.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899861

RESUMO

Perceived stress affects emotional eating and food choices. However, the extent to which stress associates with food choice motives is not completely understood. This study assessed whether emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress levels and food choice motives (i.e., health, mood, convenience, natural content, price, sensory appeal, familiarities, weight control, and ethical concerns) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. A total of 800 respondents were surveyed in the United States in June 2020. Their perceived stress, emotional eating, and food choice motives were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and Food Choice Questionnaire, respectively. Moderate to high levels of perceived stress were experienced by the majority (73.6%) of respondents. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with emotional eating (r = 0.26) as well as five out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.32), convenience (r = 0.28), natural content (r = -0.14), price (r = 0.27), and familiarity (r = 0.15). Emotional eating was significantly correlated with four out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.27), convenience (r = 0.23), price (r = 0.16), and familiarity (r = 0.16). The mediation analyses showed that emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress and five food choices motives: mood, convenience, sensory appeal, price, and familiarity. Findings were interpreted using theories and concepts from the humanities, specifically, folklore studies, ritual studies, and symbolic anthropology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emoções , Feminino , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942695

RESUMO

Due to the pandemic situation caused by the COVID-19 infection, some governments have implemented house confinement measures. The objective of our study is to learn the dietary patterns, consumption, and physical activity of the Spanish population before and during the period of confinement by COVID-19. A cross-sectional descriptive study based on a questionnaire during May 2020, coinciding with the period of confinement and the step forward into Phase 1, is carried out. During confinement, the adherence to the Mediterranean Diet increases (8.0% versus 4.7%; p < 0.001). No socio-demographic variables show statistical significance (p < 0.05) regarding good adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) before and during confinement. During confinement, consumption of homemade baking shows a higher increase (0.28% versus 4.60%; p = 0.004). During confinement, the number of subjects that practice exercise decreases (29.4% versus 28.8%; p = 0.004), as well as the time spent exercising (more than an hour, 26.6% versus 14.7%, p = 0.001). Mediterranean Diet adherence slightly increases during confinement, although consumption of 'unhealthy' food also increases. Moreover, the number of subjects that practice physical activity, as well as the time spent on it weekly, decreases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Culinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena , Espanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Trials ; 21(1): 809, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early reports indicate that COVID-19 may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission in 5-26% and overall mortality can rise to 11% of the recognised cases, particularly affecting the elderly. There is a lack of evidence-based targeted pharmacological therapy for its prevention and treatment. We aim to compare the effects of a World Health Organization recommendation-based education and a personalised complex preventive lifestyle intervention package (based on the same WHO recommendation) on the outcomes of the COVID-19. METHODS: PROACTIVE-19 is a pragmatic, randomised controlled clinical trial with adaptive "sample size re-estimation" design. Hungarian population over the age of 60 years without confirmed COVID-19 will be approached to participate in a telephone health assessment and lifestyle counselling voluntarily. Volunteers will be randomised into two groups: (A) general health education and (B) personalised health education. Participants will go through questioning and recommendation in 5 fields: (1) mental health, (2) smoking habits, (3) physical activity, (4) dietary habits, and (5) alcohol consumption. Both groups A and B will receive the same line of questioning to assess habits concerning these topics. Assessment will be done weekly during the first month, every second week in the second month, then monthly. The composite primary endpoint will include the rate of ICU admission, hospital admission (longer than 48 h), and mortality in COVID-19-positive cases. The estimated sample size is 3788 subjects per study arm. The planned duration of the follow-up is a minimum of 1 year. DISCUSSION: These interventions may boost the body's cardiovascular and pulmonary reserve capacities, leading to improved resistance against the damage caused by COVID-19. Consequently, lifestyle changes can reduce the incidence of life-threatening conditions and attenuate the detrimental effects of the pandemic seriously affecting the older population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study has been approved by the Scientific and Research Ethics Committee of the Hungarian Medical Research Council (IV/2428- 2 /2020/EKU) and has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT04321928 ) on 25 March 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Ensaios Clínicos Adaptados como Assunto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
16.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987773

RESUMO

Emotional eating (EE) is prevalent among women and is associated with obesity. The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mandatory quarantine increased the risk of mental symptoms and, inferentially, emotional eating (EE). We investigated the EE prevalence and predictors during this pandemic. Overall, 638 women, ages 18-39, completed an online survey incorporating the Emotional Eating Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. We asked about nutrition and collected data on weight, height, and pandemic responses. Most respondents (47.2%) reported low EE; 40.4% were "moderate" and 12.4% "high" emotional eaters; 42.8% reported depression, 27% anxiety, 71% moderate stress, and 12.5% severe stress. The main EE indicators/predictors were fat intake (ß = 0.192, p = 0.004), number of meals (ß = 0.187, p < 0.001), sugar consumption (ß = 0.150, p < 0.001), body mass index (ß = 0.149, p < 0.001), stress (ß = 0.143, p = 0.004), energy intake (ß = 0.134, p = 0.04), and fast food intake frequency (ß = 0.111, p < 0.01). EE score correlated negatively with increased family income (ß = -0.081, p = 0.049). Higher stress correlated with worse sleep, less sleep, and less physical activity. Emotional eating is common among young Saudi women during the pandemic. We recommend healthy food choices and increased physical activity to improve sleep and mitigate stress.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20200762, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933447

RESUMO

Despite their miniature brains, insects exhibit substantial variation in brain size. Although the functional significance of this variation is increasingly recognized, research on whether differences in insect brain sizes are mainly the result of constraints or selective pressures has hardly been performed. Here, we address this gap by combining prospective and retrospective phylogenetic-based analyses of brain size for a major insect group, bees (superfamily Apoidea). Using a brain dataset of 93 species from North America and Europe, we found that body size was the single best predictor of brain size in bees. However, the analyses also revealed that substantial variation in brain size remained even when adjusting for body size. We consequently asked whether such variation in relative brain size might be explained by adaptive hypotheses. We found that ecologically specialized species with single generations have larger brains-relative to their body size-than generalist or multi-generation species, but we did not find an effect of sociality on relative brain size. Phylogenetic reconstruction further supported the existence of different adaptive optima for relative brain size in lineages differing in feeding specialization and reproductive strategy. Our findings shed new light on the evolution of the insect brain, highlighting the importance of ecological pressures over social factors and suggesting that these pressures are different from those previously found to influence brain evolution in other taxa.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Encéfalo , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamento Social , Animais , Evolução Biológica
18.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(10): 1872-1885, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936023

RESUMO

Hyenas (family Hyaenidae) occupy a variety of different niches, of which the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) scavenges mainly on the carcasses of animals. We compared its genome with the genomes of nine other mammals, focusing on similarities and differences in chemoreception, detoxification, digestive, and immune systems. The results showed that the striped hyena's immune and digestive system-related gene families have significantly expanded, which was likely to be an adaptive response to its scavenging lifestyle. In addition, 88 and 26 positive selected genes (PSGs) were identified in the immune system and digestive system, respectively, which may be the molecular basis for immune defense system to effectively resist pathogen invasion. Functional enrichment analysis of PSGs revealed that most of them were involved in the immune regulation process. Among them, eight specific missense mutations were found in two PSGs (MHC class II antigen DOA and MHC class II antigen DOB), suggesting important reorganization of the immune system in the striped hyena. Moreover, we identified one cathelicidin gene and four defensin genes in the striped hyenas by genome mining, which have high-efficiency and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Of particular interest, a striped hyena-specific missense mutation was found in the cathelicidin gene. PolyPhen-2 classified the missense mutation as a harmful mutation, which may have aided in immune adaptation to carrion feeding. Our genomic analyses on the striped hyena provided insights into its success in the adaptation to the scavenging lifestyle.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Genoma , Hyaenidae/genética , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Defensinas/genética , Digestão/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Hyaenidae/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Mutação
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The confinement recommended during COVID-19 pandemic could affect behavior and health. METHODS: We conducted a self-reported survey in northern Italy to observe the lockdown effects on lifestyle changes and to assess their determinants. Prevalence Odds Ratio and Prevalence Risk Ratio were determined. RESULTS: 490 adults (84% female) completed the survey: 13% and 43% reported improved and unchanged sleep quality, respectively, while 43% had insomnia symptoms. Among the 272 active subjects in pre-lockdown, 14% continued habitual exercising, 18% increased it and 68% reduced it; 27% of sedentary subjects started physical exercise; 34% reported an improvement in diet quality; 42% increased food intake and 13% decreased it; and 38% of the smokers increased cigarette consumption. Age and the pre-lockdown habit of regular physical exercising were the mainly determinants of lifestyle changes whereas BMI, gender, and the presence of chronic diseases did not. Living with other people increased the likelihood of increasing the food intake (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: More than a third of people were able to positively reorganize their lives during the forced home confinement. It is worth to disseminate information to preserve a healthy lifestyle even when confined at home.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 89, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the nutritional composition of ultra-processed foods consumed by children that attend basic health units. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with a representative probabilistic sample of 536 children aged between 6 and 59 months treated at a health unit in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional information was extracted from labels of the ultra-processed foods referred to in a 24-hour recall. The 351 foods mentioned were divided into 22 groups and 38 subgroups according to the type of product, and they were characterized according to the averages of the values for energy, total fats, saturated fats, trans fats and sodium in 100 grams of the product, in addition to presence, number, and type of "other sweeteners". The nutritional Profile Model of the Pan American Health Organization was applied for each food and for the average of nutrient content obtained for each group to examine the occurrence of critical nutrients excess. RESULTS: Ultra-processed foods contained high energy value and high levels of total fats, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium. Out of the total of ultra-processed foods, 66% presented excess of at least one critical nutrient, with emphasis on requeijões and ultra-processed cheeses, instant noodles, and industrialized and sausage-like meats, which presented 100% of foods with excess of total fats, saturated fats and sodium. Out of the 21 groups, the following exceeded the limit established by the Pan American Health Organization: for total fats, 10 groups; for saturated fats, 11; for trans fats, 3; and sodium, 13. Requeijões and ultra-processed cheeses; industrialized and sausage-like meats; and biscuits exceeded this limit in all parameters. Out of the set of ultra-processed foods analyzed, 13.4% contained "other sweeteners" (eight different types). CONCLUSIONS: The ultra-processed foods analyzed presented unbalanced nutritional profile, and two thirds presented excess of at least one critical nutrient. Educational actions and regulatory measures are necessary to better inform the population and to discourage its consumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estados Unidos
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