Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 97.093
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546

RESUMO

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.


Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Estrigiformes , Reprodução , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

RESUMO

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Murinae , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Zea mays , Comportamento Alimentar
3.
Perm J ; 26(2): 98-117, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933678

RESUMO

Introduction Behavioral interventions targeting sustained weight loss have largely failed for decades, with little chance of improvement using prevailing methods. Objective To address treatment limitations, a focused 25-year research program was reviewed through the lens of social cognitive theory, probative investigations, and original predictive models. Innovative, but evidence-based, treatment suggestions were sought. Results Task 1 of the research program addressed adherence to exercise, a well-established requirement for maintained weight loss. A culminating model addressing this treatment aspect suggested that interrelations among changes in self-regulatory skills usage, self-efficacy, and mood should guide exercise-support programming. Task 2 attached an eating-behavior change component and probed for malleable psychosocial variables predictive of success over the weight-loss phase (initial 6 months after treatment initiation). After thorough evaluation of selected theory- and research-driven psychosocial variables, changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood were again deemed to be the most salient predictors driving eating change. In Task 3, treatment foci related to changes in the 3 psychosocial variables were supported into the weight-loss maintenance phase (beyond 6 months), and the carry-over of changes in self-regulation and self-efficacy from exercise- to eating-related contexts was identified and leveraged. Task 4 suggested value in additionally addressing emotional eating as a distinct factor. Conclusion Suggestions informing principles and extensions of a treatment approach previously demonstrating atypically high degrees of success with maintaining weight loss in field- and community-based settings are provided. Those methods emanate from the reviewed research program, which shaped novel procedures to leverage exercise-induced psychosocial changes for their carry-over benefits for controlling eating.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Obesidade , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Obesidade/terapia , Autoeficácia , Redução de Peso/fisiologia
4.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(8): 771-777, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the longitudinal association of eggs consumption with cognitive function in Chinese elderly. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 9028 participants aged ≥60 years from Zhejiang Ageing and Health Cohort Study without cognitive impairment at baseline survey. MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive function was assessed through the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline and three waves of follow-up (2015, 2016, and 2019-2020). Data on eggs consumption was collected in the diet habits section within the questionnaire at baseline. Log-binomial regression models with the Generalized Estimating Equations, controlled for an extensive range of potential confounders, were used to evaluate the association and estimate relative risks (RRs). RESULTS: After 6 years of follow-up, 3266 (36.18%) participants were indicated as cognitive impairment by MMSE at least once. Compared with non-consumers or less-than-weekly consumers, participants consuming 0.1-2.9 eggs/week and 3.0-5.9 eggs/week had 18% (RR=0.82, 95%CI 0.76-0.89) and 9% (RR=0.91, 95%CI 0.84-0.99) lower risks of cognitive impairment respectively, whereas no association was found in those consuming ≥6.0 eggs/week (P=0.32). Moreover, infrequent lower-quantity consumption (1-2 days/week and 0.1-1.9 eggs/day), infrequent higher-quantity consumption (1-2 days/week and ≥2.0 eggs/day), and frequent lower-quantity consumption (≥3 days/week and 0.1-1.9 eggs/day) were associated with better cognitive performance, whereas null association was found among frequent higher-quantity consumers (≥3 days/week and ≥2.0 eggs/day). The sensitivity analyses yielded consistent results to the main analysis. CONCLUSION: Limited eggs consumption is prospectively related to a lower risk of cognitive impairment in Chinese elderly.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0267369, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925929

RESUMO

Many animals have flexible morphological traits that allow them to succeed in differing circumstances with differing diets available to them. For brachyuran crabs, claw height and gut size are diet-specific and largely reflect foraging strategies, while abdomen width reflects relative levels of fecundity. However, the link between claw size and diet has largely been documented only for primarily carnivorous crabs, while the link between diet and fecundity is strong in herbivorous crabs. We sought to determine the nature of the intraspecific relationship between claw size, dietary habits, and fecundity for two primarily herbivorous crab species, Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Aratus pisonii. Specifically, we examined whether claw size and/or abdomen width can be used as reliable measures of individual diet strategy. To test these hypotheses, we collected crabs and measured the dimensions of their claws, abdomens, and guts. By comparing these dimensions for each individual, we found that strongly predictive relationships do not exist between these traits for the primarily herbivorous species in our study. Thus, identifying external morphological features that can be used to assess diets of primarily herbivorous crabs remains elusive.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Animais , Braquiúros/anatomia & histologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Reprodução
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270807, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925967

RESUMO

AIMS: This study assessed lifestyle and health behavior habits among a representative sample of Saudi adolescents with self-reported diabetes and compared them to non-diabetic peers. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study, from the Jeeluna cohort, a nationwide, cross-sectional study of 12,575 Saudi boys and girls aged 10-19 years. Non-diabetic adolescents were matched to those with diabetes on a ratio of 4:1 based on age, gender and region. Retained information from the original study included: socio-demographics, lifestyle behaviors, tobacco/substance use, screen use, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory results. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes was 0.7% (n = 87). Overall, 65% of diabetic participants were males, and 22.4% aged ≤14 years. Overall, both groups had low rates of healthful habits in their diet and physical activity. Both groups had similar rates of tobacco use, and high digital screen time. Adolescents with diabetes had more consistent sleeping pattern, were more likely to be on a diet, thought they spent enough time with their physician and obtained medical information more often from their health clinic. They were also more likely to feel down and to chat more often. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with diabetes remain far from guideline targets but seem predisposed to better lifestyle and have more access to health as compared to their non-diabetic peers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Estilo de Vida , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hábitos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 100, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infant appetitive traits including eating rate, satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, and enjoyment of food predict weight gain in infancy and early childhood. Although studies show a strong genetic influence on infant appetitive traits, the association of parent and infant appetite is understudied. Furthermore, little research examines the influence of maternal pregnancy dietary intake, weight indicators, and feeding mode on infant appetite. The present study investigated relations of maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode with infant appetitive traits. METHODS: Mothers in the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study (458 mothers enrolled, 367 retained through delivery) completed self-report measures of reward-related eating, and principal component analysis yielded two components: (1) food preoccupation and responsiveness and (2) reinforcing value of food. Mothers completed 24-h dietary recalls across pregnancy, and the standardized NOVA (not an acronym) system categorized recalled foods based on processing level. Maternal anthropometrics were measured across pregnancy. At infant age 6 months, mothers reported on feeding mode and infant appetitive traits. Linear regressions were conducted predicting infant appetitive traits from household income-poverty ratio (step 1); maternal reward-related eating components (step 2); pregnancy ultra-processed food intake (% of energy intake), early pregnancy body mass index, and gestational weight gain (step 3); and exclusive breastfeeding duration (step 4). RESULTS: A 1-SD greater maternal food preoccupation and responsiveness was associated with 0.20-SD greater infant satiety responsiveness (p = .005). A 1-SD greater % energy intake from ultra-processed foods during pregnancy was associated with 0.16-SD lower infant satiety responsiveness (p = .031). A 1-SD longer exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with 0.18-SD less infant food responsiveness (p = .014). Other associations of maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode with infant appetitive traits were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal early-life environmental factors including maternal pregnancy dietary intake and feeding mode may facilitate or protect against obesogenic infant appetitive traits, whereas infant appetite may not parallel maternal reward-related eating. Further investigation into the etiology of appetitive traits early in development, particularly during solid food introduction, may elucidate additional modifiable risk factors for child obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov. Registration ID - NCT02217462 . Date of registration - August 13, 2014.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Recompensa , Saciação , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1860): 20210302, 2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934961

RESUMO

Understanding the affective lives of animals has been a long-standing challenge in science. Recent technological progress in infrared thermal imaging has enabled researchers to monitor animals' physiological states in real-time when exposed to ecologically relevant situations, such as feeding in the company of others. During social feeding, an individual's physiological states are likely to vary with the nature of the resource and perceptions of competition. Previous findings in chimpanzees have indicated that events perceived as competitive cause decreases in nasal temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed for cooperative interactions. Here, we tested how food resources and audience structure impacted on how social feeding events were perceived by wild chimpanzees. Overall, we found that nasal temperatures were lower when meat was consumed as compared to figs, consistent with the idea that social feeding on more contested resources is perceived as more dangerous and stressful. Nasal temperatures were significant affected by interactions between food type and audience composition, in particular the number of males, their dominance status, and their social bond status relative to the subject, while no effects for the presence of females were observed. Our findings suggest that male chimpanzees closely monitor and assess their social environment during competitive situations, and that infrared imaging provides an important complement to access psychological processes beyond observable social behaviours. This article is part of the theme issue 'Cognition, communication and social bonds in primates'.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Pan troglodytes , Animais , Cognição , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Comportamento Social
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1486, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Truck drivers have difficulties participating in health education programs delivered at a fixed time and place due to the mobility of their workplace. Interventions conducted via social media can overcome these limitations of time and place. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a nutrition education intervention program delivered via a social media platform on the healthy eating behaviors of truck drivers. METHODS: This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. A 12-week intervention program was conducted for a social-media group (n = 125) and a conventional-teaching group (n = 117) from February to May 2020. The social-media group participated in a social-media-based health intervention on the LINE application. The intervention involved the provision of online messages, online instant responses, a picture-based food log, an audio e-book, and a loyalty e-card. The conventional-teaching group participated in a healthy diet course and a hygiene education manual. The generalized estimation equation (GEE) was applied to evaluate the intervention effects on the outcome measures derived from the Health Belief Model. RESULTS: The results of the GEE showed the social-media-based intervention strategies significantly decreased perceived barriers of consuming a healthy diet (p = < 0.001), increased willingness to follow cues of action (p = 0.036), improved the self-efficacy of healthy eating behaviors (p = 0.001), and increased the score of healthy eating behaviors (p < 0.001) compared with the conventional teaching strategies. For the social-media and conventional-teaching groups, no significant changes occurred in self-perceived health status, self-perceived susceptibility, or self-perceived severity after the intervention. More than 90% of the participants in the social-media group believed the social-media-based intervention strategies could help implement and maintain healthy eating behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate social-media-based intervention strategies can facilitate approaching a population without a fixed workplace, such as truck drivers. Health promoters and planners focusing on occupational health can consider developing social-media-based intervention strategies for improving truck drivers' health status.


Assuntos
Veículos Automotores , Mídias Sociais , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1480, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy and sustainable diets need to be adopted to reduce the negative impact of food consumption on human and planetary health. Food systems account for a third of greenhouse gas emissions. "Dietary Patterns for Health and Sustainability" is a World Health Organization (WHO) project that aims to build consensus among international food, health, and sustainability experts and policymakers on how to conceptualise healthy and sustainable diets and on the actions and policies that could be implemented in the WHO European Region to promote these diets. METHODS: A qualitative study among European food, health, and sustainability experts and policymakers to elicit their views on multiple dimensions of food sustainability and health was carried out using a three-phase process, including semi-structured interviews, a Nominal Group Technique, and focus groups during a participatory WHO workshop held in Copenhagen. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the three data sources. RESULTS: The workshop resulted in a shared understanding of the interconnected components of sustainable healthy eating habits. As a result of this understanding, a variety of potential solutions were identified, including actions across different policy domains, tools, strategic guidelines, needs, and pathways for sustainable healthy diets. The pathways included the need for a multi-stakeholder approach, as well as the simultaneous execution of an aligned and coherent mix of policies at the local and national levels. CONCLUSIONS: The prioritised actions should be aimed at helping government policymakers promote sustainable healthy diets and make decisions on improving dietary patterns for citizens' health and wellbeing in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in the European Region.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Dieta Saudável , Consenso , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
11.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(5): 279-284, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruptions in sleep related to mealtime may contribute to gut microbial imbalances, and put individuals at higher risk for metabolic diseases. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationships between late-night eating habits and sleep quality and duration, with gut microbiota (GM) profiles. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 36 men referred to a clinic were enrolled. In addition to demographic information, each participant completed questionnaires regarding medical history, physical activity, late-night eating habits, sleep quality and sleep duration. The scores from these questionnaires were used to categorize study participants into the following groups: sleep quality (good or poor), late-night eating (yes or no) and sleep duration (<7 or ≥7 hours). Five grams of stool was also obtained from each participant for GM profiling analysis by sequencing. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 42.1 ± 1.6 years. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the two dominant phyla present in all participant samples. Differences in the relative abundance of GM at each taxonomic rank between study groups were insignificant. Only Erysipelotrichales at the order level were found to be significantly different between individuals who had late-night eating habits and those who did not (P & q < 0.05). No other parameter demonstrated a significant difference in GM profiles of participants. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, we found Erysipelotrichales to be more abundant in individuals with late-night eating habits. Studies with higher sample sizes are warranted to better delineate the possible effects of time of eating on microbial composition.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Projetos Piloto
12.
Span J Psychol ; 25: e1, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923152

RESUMO

The elaborated intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a cognitive motivational process involving intrusive thoughts. Changing the way we react to them, cognitive defusion (CD), should limit thought elaboration and craving. We induced chocolate craving in female chocolate cravers before CD (Study 1). A decrease in craving measured by a single-item scale, Visual Analogical Scale (VAS; p < .001, ηp2 = .449) and as a state, State Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ-S; p = .029, ηp2 = .106) were found in the experimental group, while similar results were also found in group control. The reduction in craving (VAS) in group CD correlated negatively with chocolate consumption on a bogus taste test (r = -.439, p = .036), while the correlation was positive in the case of group control (r = .429, p = .047). Food craving as a trait, measured by the Trait Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ-T), showed negative correlations with measures of CD and mindfulness skills (lowest r = -.313, p = .018). In Study 2 participants made use of a smartphone application implementing the CD procedure in real contexts whenever they experienced food craving. A corresponding decline in self-reported craving was found, as well as in consumption of the craved food (indulgence) compared with the control condition. Our findings indicate that CD may be a promising intervention for tackling the elaboration of intrusive thoughts and eating behavior in young female food cravers, both in a controlled laboratory environment after a cue-food exposure craving induction procedure, as well as responding to naturally occurring food cravings in real-life settings.


Assuntos
Fissura , Preferências Alimentares , Cognição , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 902114, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911732

RESUMO

Background: Eating behaviors contribute to disproportionate energy intake and are linked to the development of obesity. Animal studies support the role of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the regulation of obesity-related eating behaviors and offer a potential target to combat obesity through the modulation of inflammation. However, more complex eating behaviors are present in humans, and their relationships with immune/inflammation markers are unclear. The present study reviewed current literature to synthesize the evidence on the association of immune/inflammation markers with obesity-related eating behaviors in humans. Methods: A systematic search of three electronic databases yielded 811 articles, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria. Results: The majority of the included studies (91%) were either case-control or cross-sectional studies. A variety of immune/inflammation markers and obesity-related eating behaviors have been assessed in the chosen studies. Three out of four studies identified a positive relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP)/high-sensitivity CRP and loss of control eating. Other inflammatory markers that potentially have a positive relationship with obesity-related eating behaviors include fractalkine and fibrinogen. Additionally, immune molecules, including interferon gamma (INF-γ), interleukin (IL)-7, IL-10, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-reactive immunoglobulin G (α-MSH/IgG) immune complex, may have negative associations with obesity-related eating behaviors. However, most findings were identified by single studies. Conclusion: Limited studies have been conducted in humans. Current evidence indicates a potential bi-directional relationship between inflammatory/immune markers and obesity-related eating behaviors. Additional studies with sophisticated research design and comprehensive theoretical models are warranted to further delineate the relationship between immune/inflammation markers and obesity-related eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade , Animais , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Inflamação
15.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 904754, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909536

RESUMO

Ghrelin is considered one of the most potent orexigenic peptide hormones and one that promotes homeostatic and hedonic food intake. Research on ghrelin, however, has been conducted predominantly in males and particularly in male rodents. In female mammals the control of energy metabolism is complex and it involves the interaction between ovarian hormones like estrogen and progesterone, and metabolic hormones. In females, the role that ghrelin plays in promoting feeding and how this is impacted by ovarian hormones is not well understood. Basal ghrelin levels are higher in females than in males, and ghrelin sensitivity changes across the estrus cycle. Yet, responses to ghrelin are lower in female and seem dependent on circulating levels of ovarian hormones. In this review we discuss the role that ghrelin plays in regulating homeostatic and hedonic food intake in females, and how the effects of ghrelin interact with those of ovarian hormones to regulate feeding and energy balance.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Grelina , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Homeostase , Masculino , Mamíferos/metabolismo
16.
Elife ; 112022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791902

RESUMO

Taste detection and hunger state dynamically regulate the decision to initiate feeding. To study how context-appropriate feeding decisions are generated, we combined synaptic resolution circuit reconstruction with targeted genetic access to specific neurons to elucidate a gustatory sensorimotor circuit for feeding initiation in adult Drosophila melanogaster. This circuit connects gustatory sensory neurons to proboscis motor neurons through three intermediate layers. Most neurons in this pathway are necessary and sufficient for proboscis extension, a feeding initiation behavior, and respond selectively to sugar taste detection. Pathway activity is amplified by hunger signals that act at select second-order neurons to promote feeding initiation in food-deprived animals. In contrast, the feeding initiation circuit is inhibited by a bitter taste pathway that impinges on premotor neurons, illuminating a local motif that weighs sugar and bitter taste detection to adjust the behavioral outcomes. Together, these studies reveal central mechanisms for the integration of external taste detection and internal nutritive state to flexibly execute a critical feeding decision.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila , Paladar , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fome , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Açúcares , Paladar/fisiologia
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 930532, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35865515

RESUMO

Ticks are blood-sucking parasites that are harmful to humans and animals. MicroRNAs are a class of conserved small noncoding RNAs that play regulatory roles in the expression of many genes at the posttranscriptional level. Here, a novel miRNA (nov-miR-17) was identified from a small RNA data library of Hyalomma asiaticum by next-generation sequencing. PCR was used to obtain precursor nov-miR-17 by RACE using mature loop primers. The secondary structure was predicted with UNAFold. The interaction of nov-miR-17 with its target gene TAB2 was predicted using RNAhybrid software and identified in vitro by luciferase assays. Moreover, the interaction was confirmed in vivo by phenotype rescue experiments in which dsTAB2 was used for RNA interference (RNAi) and an antagomir of nov-miR-17 was used for miRNA silencing. The expression levels of nov-miR-17 and TAB2 in ticks at different developmental stages and the expression of nov-miR-17 in different tissues were analyzed by real-time qPCR. All data were analyzed using GraphPad Prism version 5. Results: The results showed that TAB2 was a target gene of nov-miR-17. When the blood-sucking process of larval, nymph and adult ticks was prolonged, the expression of nov-miR-17 was decreased, and TAB2 expression was increased. However, the level of nov-miR-17 in the midgut of engorged ticks was highest at all stages. Therefore, nov-miR-17 plays an important role in the blood-sucking process. The overexpression of nov-miR-17 indicated that this miRNA affected the engorged weight (P < 0.001) and spawn rate (P < 0.001) of female ticks. RNAi of TAB2 also had the same effect. dsRNA not only impacted the weight (P < 0.01) but also reduced the spawn rate (P < 0.001) of the ticks. Furthermore, significant recovery was observed in nov-miR-17-silenced ticks after TAB2 silencing by RNAi. nov-miR-17 silencing by antagomir not only impacted the engorged weight of the female ticks (P < 0.001) but also the number of days that the females needed to progress from engorgement to spawning (P < 0.001). The study showed that nov-miR-17, as a new miRNA, plays an important role along with its target gene TAB2 in the blood-sucking and spawning processes in female ticks.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , MicroRNAs , Carrapatos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Antagomirs , Feminino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Carrapatos/metabolismo
18.
Nat Metab ; 4(7): 826-835, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879458

RESUMO

Body weight and adiposity represent biologically controlled parameters that are influenced by a combination of genetic, developmental and environmental variables. Although the hypothalamus plays a crucial role in matching caloric intake with energy expenditure to achieve a stable body weight, it is now recognized that neuronal circuits in the hindbrain not only serve to produce nausea and to terminate feeding in response to food consumption or during pathological states, but also contribute to the long-term control of body weight. Additionally, recent work has identified hindbrain neurons that are capable of suppressing food intake without producing aversive responses like those associated with nausea. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the hindbrain neurons that control feeding, particularly those located in the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius. We frame this information in the context of new atlases of hindbrain neuronal populations and develop a model of the hindbrain circuits that control food intake and energy balance, suggesting important areas for additional research.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Peso Corporal , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Náusea , Núcleo Solitário
19.
Nat Metab ; 4(7): 836-847, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879462

RESUMO

The overconsumption of highly caloric and palatable foods has caused a surge in obesity rates in the past half century, thereby posing a healthcare challenge due to the array of comorbidities linked to heightened body fat accrual. Developing treatments to manage body weight requires a grasp of the neurobiological basis of appetite. In this Review, we discuss advances in neuroscience that have identified brain regions and neural circuits that coordinate distinct phases of eating: food procurement, food consumption, and meal termination. While pioneering work identified several hypothalamic nuclei to be involved in feeding, more recent studies have explored how neuronal populations beyond the hypothalamus, such as the mesolimbic pathway and nodes in the hindbrain, interconnect to modulate appetite. We also examine how long-term exposure to a calorically dense diet rewires feeding circuits and alters the response of motivational systems to food. Understanding how the nervous system regulates eating behaviour will bolster the development of medical strategies that will help individuals to maintain a healthy body weight.


Assuntos
Apetite , Comportamento Alimentar , Apetite/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(8): 3319-3329, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894341

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the evolution of food acquisition for away from home consumption in Brazil from 2002 to 2018. The trend of food purchases for out-of-home consumption in Brazil was evaluated by comparing food purchase data from the Household Budget Surveys (HBS) of 2002-2003, 2008-2009, and 2017-2018. The frequency of food acquisition was estimated according to sociodemographic variables and the mean cost. In 2002-2003, the frequency of purchase of food for out-of-home consumption was 35.2% (95%CI: 34.4-35.9), increasing to 41.2% (95%CI: 40.4-42.0) in 2008-2009, followed by a decline in 2017-2018 (32.3%; 95%CI: 31.7-32.9). A declining trend was observed in the frequency of purchases of alcoholic beverages and soft drinks and fast foods maintained the frequency between the last two surveys. Spending on this type of food increased between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, while the mean value of this type of expenditure was maintained between 2008-2009 and 2017-2018. Brazilians increased food purchases for out-of-home consumption between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009, declining in 2017-2018. A consistent fall in the purchase of alcoholic beverages and soft drinks was observed over time, while the group of meals grew significantly.


Assuntos
Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar , Brasil , Comportamento do Consumidor , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...