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1.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 45-54, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631473

RESUMO

Animal-mediated indirect interactions play a significant role in maintaining the biodiversity of plant communities. Less known is whether interspecific synchrony of seed rain can alter the indirect interactions of sympatric tree species. We assessed the seed dispersal success by tracking the fates of 21 600 tagged seeds from six paired sympatric tree species in both monospecific and mixed plots across 4 successive years in a subtropical forest. We found that apparent mutualism was associated with the interspecific synchrony of seed rain both seasonally and yearly, whereas apparent competition or apparent predation was associated with interspecific asynchrony of seed rain either seasonally or yearly. We did not find consistent associations of indirect interactions with seed traits. Our study suggests that the interspecific synchrony of seed rain plays a key role in the formation of animal-mediated indirect interactions, which, in turn, may alter the seasonal or yearly seed rain schedules of sympatric tree species.


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Árvores , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Florestas , Roedores , Sementes
2.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 33-48, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29845727

RESUMO

Feeding behavior and plant response to feeding were studied for the aphid Aphis gossypii Glover on susceptible and resistant melons (cv. Iroquois and TGR-1551, respectively). Average phloem phase bout duration on TGR-1551 was <7% of the duration on Iroquois. Sixty-seven percent of aphids on TGR-1551 never produced a phloem phase that attained ingestion (EPG waveform E2) in contrast to only 7% of aphids on Iroquois. Average bout duration of waveform E2 (scored as zero if phloem phase did not attain E2) on TGR-1551 was <3% of the duration on Iroquois. Conversely, average bout duration of EPG waveform E1 (sieve element salivation) was 2.8 times greater on TGR-1551 than on Iroquois. In a second experiment, liquid nitrogen was used to rapidly cryofix leaves and aphids within a few minutes after the aphids penetrated a sieve element. Phloem near the penetration site was then examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Ninety-six percent of penetrated sieve elements were occluded by protein in TGR-1551 in contrast to only 28% in Iroquois. Usually in TGR-1551, occlusion was also observed in nearby nonpenetrated sieve elements. Next, a calcium channel blocker, trivalent lanthanum, was used to prevent phloem occlusion in TGR-1551, and A. gossypii feeding behavior and the plant's phloem response were compared between lanthanum-treated and control TGR-1551. Lanthanum treatment eliminated the sieve element protein occlusion response and the aphids readily ingested phloem sap from treated plants. This study provides strong evidence that phloem occlusion is a mechanism for resistance against A. gossypii in TGR-1551.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Afídeos/fisiologia , Cucumis melo/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia
3.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 99-112, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039604

RESUMO

This study sheds light on a poorly understood area in insect-plant-microbe interactions, focusing on aphid probing and feeding behavior on plants with varying levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus root colonization. It investigates a commonly occurring interaction of three species: pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, barrel medic Medicago truncatula, and the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis, examining whether aphid-feeding behavior changes when insects feed on plants at different levels of AM fungus colonization (42% and 84% root length colonized). Aphid probing and feeding behavior was monitored throughout 8 h of recording using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique, also, foliar nutrient content and plant growth were measured. Summarizing, aphids took longer to reach their 1st sustained phloem ingestion on the 84% AM plants than on the 42% AM plants or on controls. Less aphids showed phloem ingestion on the 84% AM plants relative to the 42% AM plants. Shoots of the 84% AM plants had higher percent carbon (43.7%) relative to controls (40.5%), and the 84% AM plants had reduced percent nitrogen (5.3%) relative to the 42% AM plants (6%). In conclusion, EPG and foliar nutrient data support the hypothesis that modifications in plant anatomy (e.g., thicker leaves), and poor food quality (reduced nitrogen) in the 84% AM plants contribute to reduced aphid success in locating phloem and ultimately to differences in phloem sap ingestion. This work suggests that M. truncatula plants benefit from AM symbiosis not only because of increased nutrient uptake but also because of reduced susceptibility to aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Animais , Antibiose , Comportamento Alimentar , Nutrientes/análise , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 714-720, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Longitudinal data analysis contributes to detect differences in the growing curve by exploiting all the information involved in repeated measurements, allowing to distinguish changes over time within individuals, from differences in the baseline levels among groups. In this research, longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis were compared to evaluate differences in growth in Angus heifers under two different grazing conditions, ad libitum (AG) and controlled (CG) to gain 0.5 kg day-1 . RESULTS: Longitudinal mixed models show differences in growing curve parameters between grazing conditions, that were not detected by cross-sectional analysis. Differences (P < 0.05) in first derivative of growth curves (daily gain) until 289 days were observed between treatments, AG being higher than CG. Correspondingly, pubertal heifer proportion was also higher in AG at the end of rearing (AG, 0.94; CG, 0.67). CONCLUSION: In longitudinal studies, the power to detect differences between groups increases by exploiting the whole information of repeated measures, modelling the relation between measurements performed on the same individual. Under a proper analysis, valid conclusion can be drawn with fewer animals in the trial, improving animal welfare and reducing investigation costs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poaceae/metabolismo
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 755-763, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß-Hydroxy-ß-methylbutyrate (HMB) is the metabolite of leucine that plays an important role in muscle protein metabolism. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of HMB at 7 days of incubation (DOI) via air cell or 18 DOI via amnion on hatchability, muscle growth and performance in prenatal and posthatch broilers. RESULTS: IOF of HMB via air cell at 7 DOI increased hatchability by 4.34% compared with the control (89.67% versus 85.33%). Birds in IOF groups exhibited higher body weight, average daily body weight gain and pectoral muscle percentage. Furthermore, IOF of HMB significantly increased the level of plasma growth hormone, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Chicks hatched from IOF treatment had larger diameters of muscle fiber and higher mitotic activity of satellite cells at early posthatch age. IOF of HMB activated satellite cells by upregulation of mRNA expression of myogenic transcription factors, myogenic differentiation one (MyoD) and myogenin. Chicks hatched from air cell injection group had higher pectoral muscle percentage at 5 d posthatch and greater satellite cell mitotic activity at 7 d posthatch than counterparts from amnion injection group. CONCLUSIONS: IOF of HMB via amnion at 18 DOI or especially via air cell at 7 DOI could be used as an effective approach to enhance hatchability, productive performance and breast muscle yield in broilers. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Músculos Peitorais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valeratos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Mitose , Proteína MyoD/genética , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Miogenina/genética , Miogenina/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo
6.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124609, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524604

RESUMO

Human pharmaceuticals are pollutants of special concern due to their widespread consumption over the last decades, their high persistence in the environment, and the reported alterations produced on non-target organism. The antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) exerts its effect by inhibiting serotonin (5-HT) reuptake at the presynaptic membrane, thus increasing brain serotonergic activity. In vertebrates, there is a clear inverse relationship between hypothalamic 5-HT levels and food intake, therefore we hypothesized that FLX would inhibit food intake, and in consequence alter energy metabolism in freshwater fish. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FLX on feeding behavior and energy storage of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. Adult fish were intraperitoneally injected daily with 2 or 20 µg.g-1 FLX or saline for a 5-day period, during which the 20 µg.g-1 FLX-injected fish exhibited a marked reduction in food intake, consistent with a decrease in total body weight and total hepatocyte area observed at the end of the experiment. Although not statistically significant, a marked 50% decrease in glycogen and lipid content and an increase in protein levels in liver was observed for the 20 µg.g-1 FLX dose. This was evidenced histochemically by a weak PAS positive reaction and an intense Coomasie Blue stain. Taken together, these results suggest that the SSRI antidepressant FLX produces an anorectic effect in adults of C. dimerus, which could alter normal physiological function and, in consequence, have a negative impact on fish growth, reproduction, and population success.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/toxicidade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Opioid Manag ; 15(6): 487-494, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize hedonic eating behaviors such as sugar cravings, food preferences, and appetitive responsiveness for sweet and hyper-palatable foods, and to determine the prevalence of addictive like eating behaviors and food addiction (FA) in individuals receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for opioid use disorder (OUD). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. SETTING: Outpatient MAT center. PARTICIPANTS: Nonpregnant adult patients undergoing MAT (n = 116) receiving either buprenorphine/naloxone or methadone for at least 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hedonic eating, FA, and food craving. RESULTS: Of the aggregate sample, 13.3 percent met criteria for FA. More than onethird of all subjects endorsed consuming larger amounts of highly palatable food than intended, unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down on eating such foods, and a great deal of time spent on consuming or recovering from consuming such foods. Both medication groups demonstrated greatest cravings for sweets and fast foods followed by carbohydrates and fats (p < 0.001). Similarly, subjects reported "giving in" most frequently to sweets and fast foods followed by carbohydrates then fats (p < 0.001). Greater appetitive responsiveness was noted in the presence of hyper-palatable foods. No group differences were found. Weight change was not associated with addictive like eating, food craving, or appetitive responsiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals receiving MAT exhibit preferences for sweet and fast foods that appear to be influenced by the proximity of such foods. FA was present. Collectively, such eating behaviors and food preferences may pose additional adverse health consequences and associated co-morbidities. This underlies the importance of comprehensive healthcare for patients with OUD, including nutrition education and evaluation of eating behaviors and food preferences.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Fissura , Gorduras na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia
8.
; IBFAN.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46901

RESUMO

Relatório do UNICEF examina a questão das crianças, alimentação e nutrição, fornecendo uma nova perspectiva sobre um desafio em rápida evolução. Apesar do progresso nas últimas duas décadas, um terço das crianças com menos de 5 anos está desnutrido – atrofiado, desnutrido ou com sobrepeso – enquanto dois terços correm risco de desnutrição e fome devido à má qualidade de suas dietas. Este relatório também fornece novos dados e análises de desnutrição no século 21 e esboça recomendações para colocar os direitos das crianças no centro dos sistemas alimentares.


Assuntos
Nutrição do Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Nações Unidas , Fome , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692856

RESUMO

Introduction: Prevalence of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) may be on the increase as a result of changing lifestyles. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of DH and relative importance of associated factors in 18-35 year old Nigerians and compare to findings from a similar European study. Methods: Following ethical approval, 1349 subjects from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria participated in this cross sectional study. DH was clinically evaluated by cold air tooth stimulation, patient pain rating (yes/no) and investigator rated pain using the Schiff ordinal scale (0-3). Erosive tooth wear using the BEWE index was assessed. A questionnaire regarding the nature of the DH, erosive dietary intakes, tooth brushing habits and other factors was completed by patients. Bivariate analysis was conducted. Results: 32.8% of patients reported pain on tooth stimulation and 32.9% scored ≥1 on Schiff scale for at least one tooth. Questionnaire reported sensitivity was 41.2%. There were statistically significant associations between Schiff score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001); and BEWE erosive tooth wear score and clinically elicited DH (p < 0.001). There were significant associations between DH and some oral hygiene practices such as brushing frequency, brush movement and brushing after breakfast. Fresh fruit and fruit/vegetable juice intake also showed significant association. Conclusion: The most important risk factors of DH for this population in Nigeria appear to be the frequency and characteristics of tooth brushing. This should be considered in its prevention and management.


Assuntos
Sensibilidade da Dentina/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Desgaste dos Dentes/epidemiologia , Escovação Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17642, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725607

RESUMO

The sleep allows many psychological processes, such as immune system activity, body metabolism and hormonal balance, emotional and mental health, learning, mnemonic processes. The lack of sleep could undermine mental and physical purposes, causing an alteration in cognitive functions or metabolic disorders. In our study, we have examined the irregular sleep effects with the overweight and obesity risk in children and adults.The sample was composed of 199 subjects, of which 71 adults, (29 males and 42 females), and 128 children (73 males and 55 females). We have measured the weight and height with standard techniques; we also have measured the body mass index dividing the weight in kg with the height square expressed in meters (kg/m). Subjects were divided into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. Were administered some questionnaires to measure the quantity and quality of sleep, and eating habits and individual consumption of food.Analysis of demographic variables not showed significant differences between male and female groups but highlighted a significant trend differences in normal-weight score. The clinical condition has a substantial impact on body mass index score and sleep hours were significant predictor on this.Quantity and quality sleep can also represent a risk factor of overweight and obesity, so sufficient sleep is a factor that influence a normal weight. Adults and children that sleep less, have an increase in obesity and overweight risk with dysfunctional eating behaviors, decreased physical activity, and metabolic changes.


Assuntos
Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/complicações
11.
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17490, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593113

RESUMO

Lifestyle in preschool children is associated with the onset of childhood obesity. However, the effect of environmental factors in childcare facilities on lifestyle and obesity in preschool children is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of environmental factors in childcare facilities on the association between obesity and individual lifestyle in preschool children.Subjects included 2902 infants, aged 4 to 6 years old in Kitakyushu City, Japan. A stratified multilevel analysis was conducted with 2 strata: factors related to individual lifestyle and maternal factors as the individual level and factors related to the childcare facility as the environmental level. Two-level multilevel regression analysis was conducted with the presence or absence of obesity.The proportion of infants with obesity was 4.2%. The childhood obesity was significantly associated with the mastication, nutritional methods during infancy, absence of breakfast, presence of skipping meals due to overeating of snacks, usual play activity, screen time on weekdays, maternal body mass index, and maternal weight increase during pregnancy at the individual level. On the other hand, childhood obesity had a significantly negative association with the receiving snacks in facilities by using multilevel analysis.The present study revealed that establishing and maintaining environmental factors in childcare facilities may play important roles in the prevention of obesity from early childhood.


Assuntos
Creches , Meio Ambiente , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exercício , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Análise Multinível , Análise Multivariada , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1740-1746, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Dietary trends such as consumption of lactose-free and gluten-free products or the use of alternative slimming diets are gaining increasing popularity, especially among young people. They determine their dietary choices, which are important from the point of view of human health. Unconventional diets are still considered as effective weight loss methods. The use of alternative diets may cause shortages of an essential nutrients, increase the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases and lead to the formation of incorrect eating habits. Balanced diet, in contrast to the alternative diet, takes into account the principles of rational nutrition and nutritional recommendations of the Institute of Food and Nutrition (IZZ). The aim: To investigate the influence of popular dietary trends on nutrition of high school adolescences. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: Subjects were adolescences in the age of 17-21 years attending high schools in Ruda Slaska (262 students, including 157 women and 105 men). Self-constructed questionnaire was applied in the study. Participation in the study was anonymous and voluntary. RESULTS: Results: In more than a half of young women (54,8%) and men (52,4%) the body mass deficiency was revealed (BMI<18 kg/m2). 33,6% of the respondents were on the non-balanced diets at least once in their lives. High school students knew gluten-free and lactose-free products but dietary trends, such as the consumption of gluten-free and lactose-free products, did not affect their diet. The main source of nutritional knowledge among respondents were their friends (78,2%). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The results of the conducted research indicate the need to implement educational programs on the principles of proper nutrition. The increasing awareness of the youth in this regard may contribute to reducing the interest in still popular alternative diets among young people and taking appropriate health behaviors by them.


Assuntos
Dieta , Preferências Alimentares , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190011.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High income concentration prevails in Brazil and socioeconomic status influences living and health conditions, including dietary quality. OBJECTIVE: To measure the magnitude of social inequalities in the food quality profile of the Brazilian population. METHOD: We analyzed data from 60,202 adults who participated in the 2013 National Health Survey. The prevalence of indicators of food quality was estimated according to gender, ethnicity, income, schooling, and health insurance. We calculated prevalence ratios using multiple Poisson regression. RESULTS: Healthy food consumption was more prevalent among females, white people, and individuals with higher socioeconomic status. However, we also found a higher prevalence of some foods considered unhealthy, such as sweets, sandwiches, snacks, and pizzas, among the most favored social segments, in women, and white people, expressing the concomitance of healthy and unhealthy eating habits. The comparison between the consumption of skim and low-fat milk according to income (prevalence ratio - PR = 4.48) presented the most significant difference. CONCLUSION: In addition to the expressive social inequality identified in the Brazilian food profile, mixed patterns were detected, including healthy and unhealthy foods. These results point out the need for monitoring and promoting healthy eating habits, taking into account the social inequalities and contradictions concerning food intake.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/métodos , Classe Social , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential support of schools for oral health promotion and associated factors in Brazilian capitals. METHODS: Data from 1,339 public and private schools of the 27 Brazilian capitals were obtained from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) 2015. Data from the capitals were obtained from the United Nations Development Program and the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Datasus). The indicator " ambiente escolar promotor de saúde bucal " (AEPSB - oral health promoting school environment) was designed from 21 variables of the school environment with possible influence on students' oral health employing the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA). Associations between the AEPSB and characteristics of schools, capitals and regions were tested (bivariate analysis). RESULTS: Ten variables comprised CAPTCA, after excluding those with low correlation or high multicollinearity. The analysis resulted in a model with three dimensions: D1. Within-school aspects (sales of food with added sugar in the canteen and health promotion actions), D2. Aspects of the area around the school (sales of food with added sugar in alternative points) and D3. prohibitive policies at school (prohibition of alcohol and tobacco consumption). The sum of the scores of the dimensions generated the AEPSB indicator, dichotomized by the median. From the total of schools studied, 51.2% (95%CI 48.5-53.8) presented a more favorable environment for oral health (higher AEPSB). In the capitals, this percentage ranged from 36.6% (95%CI 23.4-52.2) in Rio Branco to 80.4% (95%CI 67.2-89.1) in Florianópolis. Among the Brazilian regions, it ranged from 45.5% (95%CI 40.0-51.2) in the North to 67.6% (95%CI 59.4-74.9) in the South. Higher percentages of schools with higher AEPSB were found in public schools [58.1% (95%CI 54.9-61.2)] and in capitals and regions with higher Human Development Index [61.0% (95%IC 55.8-66.0) and 57.4% (95%CI 53.2-61.4), respectively] and lower Gini index [55.7% (95%CI 51.2-60.0) and 52.8 (95%CI 49.8-55.8), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: The potential to support oral health promotion in schools in Brazilian capitals, assessed by the AEPSB indicator, was associated with contextual factors of schools, capitals and Brazilian regions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
16.
Oecologia ; 191(3): 541-553, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571038

RESUMO

Termites are eusocial insects having evolved several feeding, nesting and reproductive strategies. Among them, inquiline termites live in a nest built by other termite species: some of them do not forage outside the nest, but feed on food stored by the host or on the nest material itself. In this study, we characterized some dimensions of the ecological niche of Cavitermes tuberosus (Termitidae: Termitinae), a broad-spectrum inquiline termite with a large neotropical distribution, to explain its ecological success. We used an integrative framework combining ecological measures (physico-chemical parameters, stable isotopic ratios of N and C) and Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial communities and to analyse termites as well as the material from nests constructed by different termite hosts (the builders). Our results show that (1) nests inhabited by C. tuberosus display a different physico-chemical composition when compared to nests inhabited by its builder alone; (2) stable isotopic ratios suggest that C. tuberosus feeds on already processed, more humified, nest organic matter; and (3) the gut microbiomes cluster by termite species, with the one of C. tuberosus being much more diverse and highly similar to the one of its main host, Labiotermes labralis. These results support the hypothesis that C. tuberosus is a generalist nest feeder adapted to colonize nests built by various builders, and explain its ecological success.


Assuntos
Isópteros , Microbiota , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Isótopos , RNA Ribossômico 16S
17.
J Frailty Aging ; 8(4): 198-204, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Eating alone is related to depression, nutritional risk, and mortality. These effects are also influenced by living status. However, little is known about the relationship between eating alone despite living with family and frailty. This study explores the relationship of eating alone and living status with frailty in community-dwelling older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Kashiwa city, Chiba prefecture, Japan; randomly selected community-dwelling older adults (aged 65 years and over). MEASUREMENTS: Eating status was assessed by the question, "Do you eat meals with anyone, at least once a day: yes or no?" Frailty was defined by Kihon Checklist (KCL) score 8 or over. Domains of frailty were divided into instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), physical strength, nutrition, eating, socialization, memory, and mood, based on KCL categories. Binary logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age, years of education, chronic diseases, number of teeth and cognitive function. RESULTS: Among the total of 1,914 participants, 49.8% were male, and the overall mean age was 72.9 ± 5.5 years. Of all participants, 56 (5.9%) of men and 112 (11.7%) of women were frail. Older adults who ate alone despite living with others were more likely to be frail (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.1-5.5 for men and OR 2.16, 95%CI 1.0-4.5 for women). Of particular note, eating and living status were associated with lower physical strength and mood in men, whereas in women these statuses were associated with lower scores for IADL, socialization, memory, and mood. CONCLUSIONS: Eating alone despite living with others was associated with high frailty in both genders; however, the pathways were different between genders. These results might help yield a simple, fundamental intervention approach to multifaceted frailty, reflecting gender and associated high-risk domains.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino
18.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 757-764, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the association between lifestyle and dietary factors and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma( ESCC) in three different sections of the esophagus. METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2016, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted, and a total of 550 patients with ESCC and gender and age( ±3 age) frequency-matched 550 cancer-free control subjects were recruited in this study. Odds ratios( ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals( CIs) were calculated by using unconditional binary or multinomial logistic regression. Multiple correspondence analysis( MCA) was applied to illustrate the influence of the risk factors on different sections of the esophagus. RESULTS: Tea drinking was associated with lower risk of upper( Ut) and lower thoracic( Lt) ESCC( OR = 0. 40, 95% CI 0. 22-0. 73; OR= 0. 50, 95% CI 0. 31-0. 81; for Ut and Lt, respectively), and lower intake of vegetables increased the risk of Ut and Lt ESCC( OR = 3. 93, 95% CI 1. 61-9. 61; OR =2. 68, 95% CI 1. 30-5. 53; for Ut and Lt, respectively). Intake of hot food, hard food and lower intake of fruits were associated with an elevated risk of the ESCC in all subsites( P<0. 05). The strength of association between drinking and ESCC was lower in middle thoracic( Mt) compared with the Lt ESCC( OR = 0. 58, 95% CI 0. 35-0. 98). Moreover, this reduction of association strength were also found in eating hot food( OR = 0. 45, 95%CI 0. 27-0. 76) and lower intake of vegetables( Ut OR = 0. 44, 95% CI 0. 20-0. 99). However, the association between lower intake of fruits and the Mt ESCC risk was stronger compared with Lt ESCC( OR = 1. 66, 95% CI 1. 08-2. 55). In additional, the association between lower intake of fruits and the Ut ESCC risk was stronger compared with Mt ESCC. Joint category plot of MCA also identified the heterogeneous associations between risk factors and different sections of the esophagus. CONCLUSION: Differences in risk factors of ESCC in different subsites, intake of hot food, hard food, and lower intake of vegetables were common risk factors for three subsites of ESCC.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Fatores de Risco
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1727-1734, set.-out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038684

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the apparent selectivity of sheep in marandu palisadegrass (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu) pastures with four heights at the beginning of the deferment period (15, 25, 35 and 45cm). The deferment period was 92 days and started on 03/21/2014. Evaluations occurred in the beginning (first week), middle (45th day) and end (92nd day) of the grazing period, in winter (06/21/2014 to 09/21/2014). Deferred pastures with 15 and 25cm presented lower forage mass (FM), but higher live leaf (LL) percentage in FM than deferred pastures with 35 and 45cm. The live stem percentage in the FM and the apparent selectivity index (ASI) of the LL were superior in the deferred pasture with 45cm. The dead stem (DS) percentage in the grazing simulation (GS) and the ASI of this morphological component were lower in the pasture with 15cm, compared to the deferred pasture with 45cm. The FM and the LL percentages in FM and in the GS sample decreased, while the DS percentages in FM and in GS sample increased with the grazing period. Marandu palisadegrass with 15cm at beginning of the deferment period improves the morphology of the deferred pasture. Selective grazing is difficult during the grazing period.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade aparente de ovinos em pastos de capim-marandu (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu) com quatro alturas no início do diferimento (15, 25, 35 e 45cm). O período de diferimento foi de 92 dias e iniciou em 21/03/2014. As avaliações ocorreram no início (primeira semana), meio (45° dia) e fim (92° dia) do período de pastejo, no inverno (21/06/2014 a 21/09/2014). Os pastos diferidos com 15 e 25cm apresentaram menor massa de forragem (MF), mas maior percentual de folha viva (FV) na MF do que os pastos diferidos com 35 e 45cm. O percentual de colmo vivo na MF e o índice de seletividade aparente (ISA) da FV foram superiores no pasto diferido com 45cm. O percentual de colmo morto (CM) na simulação de pastejo (SP) e o ISA desse componente morfológico foram menores no pasto diferido com 15cm, em comparação ao diferido com 45cm. A MF e os percentuais de FV na MF e na amostra de SP se reduziram, enquanto os percentuais de CM na MF e na amostra de SP aumentaram com o período de pastejo. O capim-marandu com 15cm no início do período de diferimento melhora a morfologia do pasto diferido. O pastejo seletivo é dificultado no decorrer do período de pastejo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ovinos , Pastagens , Comportamento Alimentar , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Valor Nutritivo
20.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(5): 280-290, sept.-oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184152

RESUMO

Objetivo: Los objetivos de este trabajo han sido determinar el estado ponderal y los hábitos de alimentación y de consumo de alcohol y tabaco en estudiantes universitarios, determinar la asociación de estas variables con la autopercepción negativa de sus hábitos alimentarios, así como analizar el riesgo de desarrollar algún tipo de trastorno de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). Método: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal en 422 estudiantes universitarios. Los parámetros analizados fueron: estado nutricional, hábitos alimentarios, consumo alcohol/tabaco y conductas de TCA. Se aplicó regresión logística para identificar factores asociados a una percepción negativa de los hábitos alimentarios. Resultados: El 5% de la población presentaba peso insuficiente, el 16% sobrepeso y el 4% obesidad. El 55% no realizaba las cinco comidas/día. Los alimentos recomendados de ingesta diaria se consumían por debajo de las recomendaciones, mientras que embutidos/carnes grasas, bollería industrial, carnes magras y pescados se consumían en exceso. Percibieron sus hábitos alimentarios como buenos/muy buenos el 63%. El consumo de alcohol/tabaco predominaba los fines de semana. Las chicas mostraron mayor preocupación por su imagen (80,6% vs. 33%) y miedo a engordar (52,5% vs. 23,9%). Casi el 30% presentó una percepción distorsionada de su imagen corporal. Encontramos un riesgo del 12,8% de anorexia nerviosa atípica y del 4,7% de bulimia nerviosa atípica. Conclusiones: Los estudiantes universitarios presentan un estilo de vida poco saludable, principalmente debido a hábitos alimentarios alejados de las recomendaciones. Más del 17% presentan riesgo de desarrollar TCA atípico. Esta información puede resultar de interés para desarrollar acciones preventivas


Objective: The objectives of this paper were to determine weight status, eating, and alcohol drinking and smoking habits of university students, to determine the association between these variables with negative self-perception of their eating habits and to assess the risk of developing eating disorders. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 422 university students. The parameters analyzed were: nutritional status, eating habits, alcohol/ tobacco consumption, and risk of eating disorder. Logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with a negative perception of eating habits. Results: Out of the whole population that was analyzed, 5% were underweight, 16% overweight and 4% obese. Fifty-five percent of the sample analyzed did not consume five meals a day. The recommended foods for daily consumption were consumed below recommendations, while sausages/fatty meats, industrial pastries, lean meats, and fish were over-consumed. Overall, the population perceived their eating habits as good/very good (63%). Alcohol and tobacco consumption predominated at weekends. The girls were more image-conscious (80.6% vs. 66%) and fearful of gaining weight (52.5% vs. 23.9%). Almost 30% had a distorted perception of body image. There was a 12.8% risk of atypical anorexia nervosa and 4.7% of atypical bulimia nervosa. Conclusions: College students led unhealthy lifestyles, mainly due to eating habits that do not conform to the establish recommendations. More than 17% are at risk of developing an atypical eating disorder. This information may be of interest in developing preventive actions


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde , Saúde do Estudante , Estilo de Vida , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Transversais , Modelos Logísticos , Comportamento Alimentar , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Autoimagem , Anorexia/epidemiologia
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