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1.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(6): 2035-2044, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212609

RESUMO

Engraulis japonicus, an important fishery resource, is a key species in ecosystem trophodynamics studies. In this study, we examined stomach content of E. japonicusby stable isotope analyses, with samples collected from the East China Sea in 2008-2009 and 2020. The aim of this study was to demonstrate their diet composition, diel and ontogenetic changes in feeding habits and trophic level. Results of the stomach content analysis showed that E. japonicus mainly fed on planktonic crustaceans and small fish. The main prey species were Euphausia pacifica [index of relative importance (IRI)=87.6%; frequency(F)=57.6%], Paracalanus parvus (IRI=3.2%, F=15.3%), and Themisto gracilipes (IRI=2.1%, F=13.1%). Results of the stable isotope analysis showed that Copepoda were the main food source of E. japonicus, followed by Euphausiacea, and the contribution rate of Amphipoda was the least, which was less than 1%. There was significant diel change in diet composition. Feeding intensity was higher in the daytime than at night, with the highest in the dusk and the lowest at midnight. Ontogenetic change in feeding habit occurred when fork length reached 90 mm, over which the fish fed both zooplankton and small fishes. The δ13C of E. japonicus was between -21.66‰ and -18.14‰, with an average of (-19.92±0.86)‰. The δ15N of E. japonicus ranged from 4.07‰ to 10.78‰, with an average of (8.14±2.48)‰. Both δ13C and δ15N values were positively correlated with fork length. Trophic level of the fish was 3.4 with stomach content analysis and 2.7 with stable isotope analysis. The results would provide important reference for understanding nutritional status of pelagic small fish, and offer some basic data to establish ecopath model.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
2.
Science ; 373(6551): 226-231, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244416

RESUMO

Early events in the evolutionary history of a clade can shape the sensory systems of descendant lineages. Although the avian ancestor may not have had a sweet receptor, the widespread incidence of nectar-feeding birds suggests multiple acquisitions of sugar detection. In this study, we identify a single early sensory shift of the umami receptor (the T1R1-T1R3 heterodimer) that conferred sweet-sensing abilities in songbirds, a large evolutionary radiation containing nearly half of all living birds. We demonstrate sugar responses across species with diverse diets, uncover critical sites underlying carbohydrate detection, and identify the molecular basis of sensory convergence between songbirds and nectar-specialist hummingbirds. This early shift shaped the sensory biology of an entire radiation, emphasizing the role of contingency and providing an example of the genetic basis of convergence in avian evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Néctar de Plantas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória , Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/química , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Aves/fisiologia , Carboidratos , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Multimerização Proteica , Sacarose
3.
Parasite ; 28: 58, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283022

RESUMO

Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of important pathogens affecting domestic and wild animals and have played a major role in the re-emergence of new outbreaks of bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV) viruses in Europe. To determine vector-host specificity, trophic preference from blood meal analysis is of major importance in the surveillance of arthropod-borne diseases. Of 28,752 specimens collected, we identified 17 Culicoides species and investigated a total of 48 host sequences from the blood meals. Culicoides obsoletus/C. scoticus, C. dewulfi, C. pulicaris, C. lupicaris, C. punctatus, C. newsteadi, C. riethi, and C. furcillatus were found to feed on mammals (cattle, horses, and humans), birds (domestic chickens), small rodents (Apodemus flavicollis), and hares (Lepus europaeus). To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating trophic preferences of Culicoides spp. in Slovakia. This study demonstrated that Culicoides species are able to feed on domesticated host vertebrates as well as birds, rodents, and humans.


Assuntos
Ceratopogonidae , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Alimentar , Cavalos , Refeições , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205413

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to reveal the characteristics of gut microbiome altered by acarbose intervention in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its possible association with habitual dietary intake. Eighteen patients with T2D were administered acarbose for four weeks. The abundances of two major phyla, namely Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were reciprocally changed accompanied by the acarbose intervention. There were also significant changes in the abundances of ten genera, including the greater abundance of Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Lactobacillus and the lower abundance of Bacteroides in the group after the intervention than that before the intervention. Hierarchical clustering of habitual dietary intake was performed based on the pattern of changes in the gut microbiota and were classified into distinct three clusters. Cluster I consisted of sucrose, cluster II mainly included fat intake, and cluster III mainly included carbohydrate intake. Moreover, the amount of change in Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with the intake of rice, but negatively correlated with the intake of bread. The intake of potato was negatively correlated with the amount of change in Akkermansia and Subdoligranulum. Acarbose altered the composition of gut microbiome in Japanese patients with T2D, which might be linked to the habitual dietary intake.


Assuntos
Acarbose/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205416

RESUMO

Understanding the role in pediatric obesity of early life feeding practices and dietary intake at school age is essential for early prevention. The study aimed to examine associations of early life feeding practices, environmental and health-related exposures, and dietary intake at school age as determinants of obesity in children aged 10-12 years. In an earlier study of 233 healthy infants in two Arab towns in northern Israel, neonatal history, feeding practices, and health information were obtained up to age 18 months. This follow-up study assessed dietary intake and anthropometric measurements at age 10-12 years using the 24 h recall method. Overall, 174 children participated in this study. Almost all (98%) the children were breastfed. The prevalence of obesity at school age was 42%. A multivariable model adjusted for energy intake and socioeconomic status showed positive associations of total fat intake and of weight-for-height z score, but not feeding practices in infancy, with obesity. Higher gestational age at birth was associated with lower odds of obesity at age 10-12 years. In conclusion, in a population with near universal breastfeeding, gestational age at birth, weight indicators but not feeding practices in infancy, and total fat intake at school age were associated with increased likelihood of obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Árabes , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Cultura , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Métodos de Alimentação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207626

RESUMO

Commensality (the act of eating together) is studied in a range of disciplines and often considered important for social communion, order, health and well-being, while simultaneously being understood as in decline (especially the family meal). However, such claims are also contested in various ways. In this paper, we discuss the expanding field of commensality research and critically reflect on the debates surrounding its social functions, including its role in public health. We illuminate the deep social and cultural significance of commensality, through time and space, and conclude that whether or not commensality is the preferred social form of eating for any given individual, it is difficult to escape its sociocultural desirability and idealization. As a cross-cultural phenomenon in both past, present, and future, we suggest that commensality deserves further research. This includes commensality as a research topic in itself and as an entry point to unveil different dimensions of social relations between people, as well as interactions between humans and material objects.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Refeições , Humanos , Ajustamento Social , Simbiose
7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199264

RESUMO

Rutin and its aglycone quercetin occur in the fruits, leaves, seeds, and grains of many plant species and are involved in plant herbivore interactions. We studied the effect of the exogenous application of rutin and quercetin on the probing behavior (= stylet penetration activities in plant tissues) of Acyrthosiphon pisum on Pisum sativum, Myzus persicae on Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, and Rhopalosiphum padi on Avena sativa using the electrical penetration graph technique (EPG = electropenetrography). The reaction of aphids to quercetin and rutin and the potency of the effect depended on aphid species, the flavonol, and flavonol concentration. Quercetin promoted probing activities of A. pisum within non-phloem and phloem tissues, which was demonstrated in the longer duration of probes and a trend toward longer duration of sap ingestion, respectively. M. persicae reached phloem in a shorter time on quercetin-treated B. rapa than on the control. Rutin caused a delay in reaching sieve elements by A. pisum and deterred probing activities of M. persicae within non-phloem tissues. Probing of R. padi was not affected by quercetin or rutin. The potency of behavioral effects increased as the applied concentrations of flavonols increased. The prospects of using quercetin and rutin in plant protection are discussed.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Floema/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Rutina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Afídeos/fisiologia , Herbivoria
8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(6): 6948-6956, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This article summarizes the research progress on the association of dietary habits with esophageal cancer (EC), with the aim of gaining a better understanding of lifestyle, dietary, and drug-related risk factors as well as protective factors of EC. BACKGROUND: EC is one of the most common malignant cancers and has a high mortality rate. Evidence has suggested that dietary habits are closely related to EC. Several researches refer to the issue of the relationship between dietary habits and EC, but rare of them summary systematically and comprehensively. It is of great importance to study the role of dietary habits in the etiology of EC for the prevention and treatment of this disease. METHODS: We searched the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, Medline and EMBASE databases to identify studies on the association of dietary habits with EC published between the databases' dates of inception and March 2021. CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive review summarizes the state-of-the-art research findings on the association between dietary habits and EC, with the literature we obtained revealing that dietary habits have been increasingly regarded as potential etiologies or protective factors of EC, which reinforce the importance of suitable planning of interventions to reduce the burden of this disease among the population.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Esofágicas , China , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional status influences immunity but its specific association with susceptibility to COVID-19 remains unclear. We examined the association of specific dietary data and incident COVID-19 in the UK Biobank (UKB). METHODS: We considered UKB participants in England with self-reported baseline (2006-2010) data and linked them to Public Health England COVID-19 test results-performed on samples from combined nose/throat swabs, using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-between March and November 2020. Baseline diet factors included breastfed as baby and specific consumption of coffee, tea, oily fish, processed meat, red meat, fruit, and vegetables. Individual COVID-19 exposure was estimated using the UK's average monthly positive case rate per specific geo-populations. Logistic regression estimated the odds of COVID-19 positivity by diet status adjusting for baseline socio-demographic factors, medical history, and other lifestyle factors. Another model was further adjusted for COVID-19 exposure. RESULTS: Eligible UKB participants (n = 37,988) were 40 to 70 years of age at baseline; 17% tested positive for COVID-19 by SAR-CoV-2 PCR. After multivariable adjustment, the odds (95% CI) of COVID-19 positivity was 0.90 (0.83, 0.96) when consuming 2-3 cups of coffee/day (vs. <1 cup/day), 0.88 (0.80, 0.98) when consuming vegetables in the third quartile of servings/day (vs. lowest quartile), 1.14 (1.01, 1.29) when consuming fourth quartile servings of processed meats (vs. lowest quartile), and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98) when having been breastfed (vs. not breastfed). Associations were attenuated when further adjusted for COVID-19 exposure, but patterns of associations remained. CONCLUSIONS: In the UK Biobank, consumption of coffee, vegetables, and being breastfed as a baby were favorably associated with incident COVID-19; intake of processed meat was adversely associated. Although these findings warrant independent confirmation, adherence to certain dietary behaviors may be an additional tool to existing COVID-19 protection guidelines to limit the spread of this virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etiologia , Café , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Carne , Estado Nutricional , Verduras , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Aleitamento Materno , COVID-19/virologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204602

RESUMO

The present study assessed patients' metabolic control of phenylketonuria (PKU) during the first 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in Poland. Blood (phenylalanine) Phe results of the tests of 535 patients, performed in 2019 and in the first months of 2020, were analysed. The six-week lockdown period was compared to the preceding six-week period as well as to the two corresponding periods of 2019 (three non-lockdown periods). More patients failed to perform Phe tests in the lockdown period (32.7%) than in non-lockdown periods (15.6%, 15.1%, 17.2%; p < 0.001 for all). The median Phe levels for those patients who performed testing in all the four periods did not differ between periods. However, these patients tended to perform only one test during the lockdown (ORs: 1.43 to 1.60; 95% CI: from 1.01-2.04 to 1.11-2.30, p-value 0.02 to 0.005). Patients who did not take blood during the lockdown (46.7%) performed significantly fewer blood tests in the remaining periods (median : 1 <0-1> vs. 2 <1-4>; p < 0.001). In conclusion, direct assessment of patients' compliance based upon Phe levels during the pandemic lockdown was not possible. Pre-pandemic non-compliant patients frequently failed to perform the test during the lockdown, whereas the previously compliant ones were more likely to perform only one test. This strongly suggests that metabolic control might have worsened.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Cooperação do Paciente , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenilcetonúrias/sangue , Fenilcetonúrias/dietoterapia , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205057

RESUMO

COVID-19 is an unprecedented global pandemic. On 12 March 2020, a lockdown order was issued in Italy in attempt to contain the health crisis. The study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on diet, physical activity, sleep quality, and distress in an Italian cohort. An online anonymous interview, which included validated questionnaires was created to compare lifestyle habits pre- and during the lockdown. Data analysis from 604 subjects with a mean age of 29.8 years was carried out using multivariate analysis. Compared to pre-COVID-19 times, 67% of people changed their eating habits and increased consumption of foods containing added sugars. Women and men with low adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) were more likely to be physically inactive (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.01, respectively). Results from logistic regression showed a three times higher risk of being inactive if adherence to the MedDiet was low (p < 0.0001), especially in men between 26 and 35 years. Lower levels of distress were reported in males who were physically active (89%) (p < 0.001). Our findings may help to identify effective lifestyle interventions during restrictive conditions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Adulto , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Distanciamento Físico , Angústia Psicológica , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205138

RESUMO

The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked world health authorities generating a global health crisis. The present study discusses the main finding in nutrition sciences associated with COVID-19 in the literature. We conducted a consensus critical review using primary sources, scientific articles, and secondary bibliographic indexes, databases, and web pages. The method was a narrative literature review of the available literature regarding nutrition interventions and nutrition-related factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The main search engines used in the present research were PubMed, SciELO, and Google Scholar. We found how the COVID-19 lockdown promoted unhealthy dietary changes and increases in body weight of the population, showing obesity and low physical activity levels as increased risk factors of COVID-19 affection and physiopathology. In addition, hospitalized COVID-19 patients presented malnutrition and deficiencies in vitamin C, D, B12 selenium, iron, omega-3, and medium and long-chain fatty acids highlighting the potential health effect of vitamin C and D interventions. Further investigations are needed to show the complete role and implications of nutrition both in the prevention and in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Nutrientes/deficiência , Obesidade/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205306

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in substantial lifestyle changes. No US study has identified predictors of perceived dietary healthfulness changes during the pandemic period. This study included analyses of lifestyle and dietary healthfulness changes using 958 survey responses from US primary household food purchasers. Information was collected related to demographics, COVID-19-related household changes, and health-related habits before and during the pandemic. Binary logistic regression identified predictors of perceived increase in dietary healthfulness during the pandemic period. Overall, 59.8%, 16.4%, and 23.4% of participants reported that their eating habits likely changed, may have changed, and likely did not change, respectively. Of the participants whose dietary habits likely or may have changed, 64.1%, 16.8%, and 19% reported healthier, neither healthier nor less healthy, and less healthy eating habits, respectively. COVID-19-related income loss, more meals consumed with household members in front of the television, an increase in food advertisement exposure, increased perceived stress, and better perceived current health were significant predictors of a perceived increase in dietary healthfulness. Overall, dietary habits were perceived to become healthier during the pandemic. The predictors of perceived improvement in dietary healthfulness were surprising and indicate the need for further study of these factors in crisis and noncrisis situations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205423

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic exerts a negative influence on dietary behaviors, which may lead to health deterioration. Dietary behaviors may be determined by psychological characteristics, such as basic hope and resilience, which facilitate the effective adjustment to new difficult conditions. The professional literature includes no research on the role of basic hope and resilience in the context of undertaken dietary behaviors in the situations of mental load associated with pandemics. The study aimed at the description of the dietary behaviors of individuals with various intensities of the discussed psychological characteristics (basic hope and resilience); (2) The observational cross-sectional online questionnaire study was conducted with the participation of 1082 adult Polish inhabitants. Three psychological scales were used: PSS-10, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) and BHI-12 questionnaire. The assessment of the adherence to dietary recommendations was performed with the present authors' Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGA Index); (3) Results: The value of DGA Index was variable depending on the psychological profile of study participants. The highest adherence to the principles of appropriate nutrition was observed in individuals characterized by the ability to cope with difficult situations and those who quickly adapted to new changing circumstances. The DGA Index values became poorer with the deterioration of the coping ability as regards stress and mental load; (4) Conclusions: Nutritional education during pandemics should encompass the psychological profile of the patients. It requires the implementation of a different psychodietetic approach which will facilitate a more effective introduction of a well-balanced diet.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Esperança , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Política Nutricional , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287526

RESUMO

The Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) is classified as an agricultural pest species. It feeds on plants and crops; hence, it is responsible for massive financial losses worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess the diet composition of Indian Crested Porcupine in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). Thus, fecal samples were collected and examined from different sampling sites. Reference slides of the material collected from the study area were prepared for identification of dietary components in fecal pellets. A total of 80 fecal samples were collected and processed. Percent relative frequencies (P.R.F.) were calculated for each plant species recovered from pellets. Data revealed that Indian Crested Porcupine consumed 31 plant species in its diet, among them Zea mays (34.31±7.76) was the most frequently selected species followed by Rumex obtusifolius (15.32±2.57) and Melia azedarach (12.83±4.79). The study revealed that the greatest diversity of (n=20) plant species were consumed in summer season while minimum (n=13) species were used during winter. Among the parts of plants, stem was highly consumed in spring (57.2%) as compared to seed in fall (36.7%) while spikes and leaf were the least recovered parts from the fecal matter. The Berger-Parker diversity index showed highly diversified food (10.92) in the summer time of the year as compared to the autumn season (2.95). This study provides a baseline for the diet preference of this pest in the study area. Based on current findings, a detailed investigation on damage assessment, exploration, habitat use and management of Indian Crested Porcupine in AJ&K has been recommended.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar
16.
Ther Umsch ; 78(6): 259-268, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291655

RESUMO

Healthy diet in primary and secondary prevention of stroke Abstract. An unhealthy diet is one of the modifiable risk factors for stroke. The world population's diet is suboptimal. Healthy and nutritious food such as whole grain, vegetables, fruit and fish is not consumed enough, and unhealthy food such as sweetened beverages, processed meat and salty food takes up a higher proportion of the diet than recommended. We also see this imbalance in Switzerland. After a thorough literature review, we summarize the current findings about different diets and food groups affecting the risk of stroke. Generally, a diet low in salt and rich in potassium, vegetables, fruit, whole grains and unsaturated fats, moderate consumption of fish and low intake of meat is recommended to decrease the risk of stroke. The Mediterranean diet comprises all these aspects and was shown to reduce the stroke risk considerably. Generally, a high variety of food has more impact than supplementation of vitamins, minerals and micronutrients.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Animais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Suíça
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4173, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234137

RESUMO

The integration of circadian and metabolic signals is essential for maintaining robust circadian rhythms and ensuring efficient metabolism and energy use. Using Drosophila as an animal model, we show that cellular protein O-GlcNAcylation exhibits robust 24-hour rhythm and represents a key post-translational mechanism that regulates circadian physiology. We observe strong correlation between protein O-GlcNAcylation rhythms and clock-controlled feeding-fasting cycles, suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation rhythms are primarily driven by nutrient input. Interestingly, daily O-GlcNAcylation rhythms are severely dampened when we subject flies to time-restricted feeding at unnatural feeding time. This suggests the presence of clock-regulated buffering mechanisms that prevent excessive O-GlcNAcylation at non-optimal times of the day-night cycle. We show that this buffering mechanism is mediated by the expression and activity of GFAT, OGT, and OGA, which are regulated through integration of circadian and metabolic signals. Finally, we generate a mathematical model to describe the key factors that regulate daily O-GlcNAcylation rhythm.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/metabolismo , Hexosaminas/biossíntese , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/genética , Masculino , Modelos Animais , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209574

RESUMO

(1) The objective was to determine changes in parent-child (ages 7-18) dyad skin carotenoids spanning parental participation in a medical weight management program (WMP), and associations with parent BMI, child BMIz, fruit/vegetable intake, and family meals and patterns. (2) The study design was a longitudinal dyadic observational study with assessment at WMP initiation, mid-point (3-months), and conclusion (6-months). Twenty-three dyads initiated the study, 16 provided assessments at 3 months, and 11 at program conclusion. Associations between parent and child carotenoids (dependent variables) and parent BMI, child BMIz, increases in fruit/vegetable intake, and family meals and patterns were analyzed using Pearson's correlations and independent samples t-tests. Repeated measures ANOVA assessed changes in weight status and carotenoids. (3) Parents experienced significant declines in BMI and skin carotenoid levels over 6 months. Parent and child carotenoids were correlated at each assessment. At initiation, parent BMI and carotenoids were inversely correlated, child carotenoids were associated with increased family meals, and never consuming an evening fast food or restaurant meal were associated with increased parent and child carotenoids. (4) Results demonstrate skin carotenoids are strongly correlated within dyads and may be associated with lower parental BMI and positive family meal practices.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Obesidade/terapia , Pele/química , Programas de Redução de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Refeições , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento , Verduras
19.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209773

RESUMO

Nursery schools can play an important role in children developing healthy eating behaviours, including vegetable consumption. However, the effect of school-level vegetable promotion on vegetable consumption and body mass index (BMI) remains unclear. This study examined the associations of nursery school-level promotion of eating vegetables first at meals with Japanese children's vegetable consumption behaviours and BMI. We used cross-sectional data collected in 2015, 2016, and 2017 on 7402 children in classes of 3-5-year-olds in all 133 licensed nursery schools in Adachi, Tokyo, Japan. Caregivers were surveyed on their children's eating behaviours (frequency of eating vegetables, willingness to eat vegetables and number of kinds of vegetables eaten), height and weight. Nursery school-level promotion of eating vegetables first at meals was assessed using individual responses, with the percentage of caregivers reporting that their children ate vegetables first at meals as a proxy for the school-level penetration of the promotion of vegetable eating. Multilevel analyses were conducted to investigate the associations of school-level vegetable-eating promotion with vegetable consumption behaviours and BMI. Children in schools that were 1 interquartile range higher on vegetable promotion ate vegetable dishes more often (ß = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.004-0.07), and were more often willing to eat vegetables (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.28), as well as to eat more kinds of vegetables (adjusted odds ratio = 1.19 times; 95% CI: 1.06-1.34). School-level vegetable-eating promotion was not associated with BMI. The school-level health strategy of eating vegetables first may be effective in increasing children's vegetable intake but not in preventing being overweight.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Verduras , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cuidadores , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Refeições , Análise Multinível , Razão de Chances , Escolas Maternais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
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