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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180332, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508655

RESUMO

This ethnography is about a particular human-animal relationship based on primatological research on groups of wild robust capuchin monkeys living in Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (Brazil), one of the largest preserved areas of Atlantic Tropical Forest in the world. It emphasizes the complex situations that highlight the difficulty of making this research. This space integrates administrative, scientific and local interests, producing a unique cartography. We reflect on the scientific research considering the relations among primatologist, field assistant and other animals and comparing it with the hunt. "Hunt" is a model inspired in techniques and in some aspects of recreational hunt to expand the comprehension of a complex routine defined to obtain behavior data.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cebus/fisiologia , Florestas , Pesquisadores , Animais , Antropologia Física , Brasil , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Clima Tropical
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46751

RESUMO

Cuidar da alimentação é fundamental para evitar doenças causadas por falta de nutrientes e combater e a obesidade.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar
3.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2169-2197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the gut microbiota play a positive role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: This study aims to elucidate the "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis and to provide guidance for prevention and intervention in CRC. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from their inceptions to August 2018, and 75 articles and 25 conference abstracts were included and analysed after identification and screening. RESULTS: The concentrations of SCFAs in CRC patients and individuals with a high risk of CRC were higher than those in healthy individuals. The protective mechanism of SCFAs against CRC has been described in three aspects: epigenetics, immunology and molecular signalling pathways. Many food and plant extracts that were fermented by microorganisms produced SCFAs that play positive roles with preventive and therapeutic effects on CRC. The "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis was constructed by summarizing the pertinent literature. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the basic research and practical application of SCFAs by assessing the protective effect of SCFAs on CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
4.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 28-36, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398663

RESUMO

The application of forensic entomotoxicology in investigations of death by poisoning has gained popularity as insects serves as an alternative specimen (evidence) when conventional toxicological samples have degraded or are no longer available. Successful detection, identification, and quantification of drugs and toxic substances from insects have been demonstrated through various research experiments. In the present review paper, role of insects as toxicological sample, its collection and preservation, analysis using various instrumental techniques, and trends in the use of analytical techniques have been discussed. Limitations hindering the growth of this field and the way forward for future studies have been highlighted. In addition, the effect of poisons on insects used for postmortem interval estimation has been described.


Assuntos
Entomologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/análise , Besouros , Dípteros , Etanol/análise , Humanos , Larva , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Praguicidas/análise , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Xenobióticos
5.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 67: 37-48, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419763

RESUMO

Previous studies have begun to characterize the microbial community dynamics of the skin, soil, gut, and oral cavities of decomposing remains. One area that has yet to be explored in great detail is the microbiome of the fly larval mass, the community of immature flies that plays a significant role in decomposition. The current study aimed to characterize the microbiology and chemistry of larval masses established on pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) carcasses and to determine if these characteristics have potential as temporal evidence. Carcasses (n = 3) were decomposed on the soil surface of a tropical habitat on Oahu, Hawaii, USA and sampled over three days at 74 h, 80 h, 98 h, 104 h, 122 h, and 128 h (∼85-142 Accumulated Degree Days) postmortem. Larval masses were analyzed via high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and in situ chemical measurements (pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential). A trend was observed that resulted in three distinct microbial communities (pre-98 h, 98 h, and post-98 h). The oxidation-reduction potential (Eh) of larval masses apparently regulated microbial community structure with the most negative Eh being associated with the least rich and diverse microbial communities. Overall, a significant interaction between time and taxa was observed, particularly with bacterial phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The current results provide new insight into the microbial community and chemical parameters of larval masses and indicate a temporal shift that could be further studied as a PMI estimator.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Larva/química , Larva/microbiologia , Microbiota , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Entomologia , Patologia Legal , Hawaii , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Animais , Oxirredução , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Suínos
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 73, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455333

RESUMO

The potential effects of dishware size on energy intake are unclear, as many previous studies have been of low methodological quality. A newly published paper by Kosite et al. (IJBNPA 10.1186/s12966-019-0826-1, 2019) reports findings from a rigorous, pre-registered investigation of the effects of manipulating plate size on total energy intake within a single eating occasion. This Editorial considers the implications of these new findings in light of previous evidence pertaining to the efficacy of behavioral nudges in particular, and in relation to contextual drivers of food consumption more generally. We conclude that the potential impact of behavioral nudges may have been exaggerated in the past, and call for future high-quality randomized controlled trials to establish whether reducing dishware size and other behavioral nudges might offer an effective complement to more comprehensive, multi-level interventions to reduce overconsumption of foods and beverages at a population-level.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Bebidas , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos , Humanos
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1121: 33-40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392650

RESUMO

The origin of some non communicable disease (NCDs) is in early life. Evidence has shown that early life nutrition is associated with the risk of developing chronic non communicable diseases. Pregnancy and infancy are the most critical stages that influence the risks of NCDs in childhood and adult life. Prenatal maternal undernutrition and low birth weight lead to obesity and increase the risk factors of cardiovascular disease and diabetes later in life. Nutrition is one of the easily modifiable environmental factors that may affect outcome of pregnancy, trajectory of growth, and immune system of the fetus and infant. Healthy eating behaviors associate with prevention of weight disorders in pediatric, non communicable diseases, and deficiencies of micronutrient.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Gravidez
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1121: 61-66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392653

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is one of the major public health problems. Childhood obesity mostly remains in adulthood and lead to non communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. Therefore, childhood obesity prevention needs high priority. Several risk factors including genetic factor, unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity related to childhood obesity.Providing suitable strategies and novel interventions should be considered by the entire health care system for prevention and management of obesity.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
10.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125678, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383297

RESUMO

In a majority of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), effective acquisition of food resources is predicated on rapid jaw adduction. Although the musculoskeletal architecture of the feeding system has been the subject of comparative research for many decades, individual contributions of the major adductor divisions to closing dynamics have not been elucidated. While it is understood that the dorsal divisions that arise from the head and insert on the posterior of the lower jaw are major contributors to closing dynamics, the contribution of the ventral components of the adductor system has been largely overlooked. In many ray-finned fishes, the ventral component is comprised of a single division, the Aω, that originates on an intersegmental aponeurosis of the facialis divisions and inserts on the medial face of the dentary, anterior to the Meckelian tendon. This configuration resembles a sling applied at two offset points of attachment on a third-order lever. The goal of this study was to elucidate the contributions of the Aω to jaw adduction by modeling jaw closing in the deep-sea viperfish Chauliodus sloani. To do this, we simulated adduction with a revised computational model that incorporates the geometry of the Aω. By comparing results between simulations that included and excluded Aω input, we show that the Aω adds substantially to lower-jaw adduction dynamics in C. sloani by acting as a steering motor and displacing the line of action of the dorsal facialis adductor muscles and increasing the mechanical advantage and input moment arms of the jaw lever system. We also explored the effect of the Aω on muscle dynamics and found that overall facialis muscle shortening velocities are higher and normalized force production is lower in simulations including the Aω. The net effect of these changes in muscle dynamics results in similar magnitudes of peak power in the facialis divisions between simulations, however, peak power is achieved earlier in adduction Modifications of muscle mechanics and posture result in significant increases in closing performance, including static bite force, angular velocity, and adduction time. We compare this configuration to a similar design in crocodilians and suggest that the Aω configuration and similar sling configurations across the vertebrate tree of life indicate the importance of this musculoskeletal design in feeding.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Peixes/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia
11.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 148-153, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465181

RESUMO

Introduction: It is recommended to limit the consumption of sodium to 2 g / day and consume 25 g / 2000 kcal of fiber. Baked and cookies are the key food-vehicle to achieve these recommendations. x Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of the optimal healthy bread with nutritional information in a breakfast, teatime or snack (DMC) in real consumption situation. Methodology: In the offices of the Faculty of Medicine, a tray was delivered with: infusions, sweeteners, milk powder, jams, healthy bread, commercial orange juice and nutritional information to be consumed by participants as DMC. 100 students, teachers and non-teachers performed the acceptance test of different components of the tray using a scale of 1 (dislike very much) to 10 (like very much), they answered demographic data, what was your DM C, amount of bread consumed and the price they would pay for it. Results: 43.4% consumed the tray for teatime. Most consumed infusion: coffee. 100% consumed the bread and 91% accompanied it with jam. The average value of acceptability was 8.57 ± 1.44 without significant differences by age, sex or Body Mass Index. 76% consumed at least 3/4. The average price they were willing to pay was $ 54.65 / kilo ±12.32 (reference French bread $ 50 / kilo). The average scores of acceptability were: 8.82±1.27 for presentation of the tray, 8.53±1.43 of the DMC consumed and 8.17±2 of the commercial orange juice. Conclusions: The acceptability of the bread in real situation of consumption was very good, being an effective strategy to reduce the ingestion of NaCl and increase the fiber.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pão , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 193-197, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465190

RESUMO

Objective: The study was to explore elder's feeding process mind construction in different stages of life. Study selection, source and data extraction: Through a qualitative study with a phenomenological focus and using semi-structured interviews and discussion groups, it has been deepened into the perception of the childhood, adulthood and current experience towards the feeding process. As data sources, 28 elders that accomplished with the selection criterions of the investigation participated in it. Their answers were coded through the program NVivo 10 and for the conclusions it was used the content analysis through research triangulation. Data synthesis: For childhood, the feeding process is understood as healthy, associated to the availability of natural products and limited access to manufactured products. Adulthood was not considered as important in their feeding attention, situation that is opposed in their current life cycle, because it is perceived the necessity of a healthy feeding, though related to their health care. Conclusions: It is presented the meaning construction in elder people related to their feeding in key stages of their life, like in the childhood, adulthood and current experience as elder. Childhood and elderly stages are perceived as positive for a healthy feeding process.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Chile , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
13.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 17(2): 64-70, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1008421

RESUMO

La retinopatía diabética (RD) es una complicación microvascular crónica, específica de la diabetes. Es una causa importante de pérdida visual en adultos, con consecuencias médicas, sociales y financieras significativas. El objetivo fue evaluar los hábitos alimentarios y estado nutricional en diabéticos con retinopatía que acuden a la Clínica Vista 10 de la ciudad de Asunción entre setiembre y noviembre del año 2018. Estudio descriptivo, observacional de corte transverso que incluyó 50 pacientes, Siendo la mayor parte de ellos del sexo femenino (65%), la edad media fue de 62,8±11,3 años, el 66% (n=33) estaba casado con nivel educativo primario (n=20;40%) y vivía en Gran Asunción (n= 46; 92%). Respecto a la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, se encontró que casi la totalidad de la población realizaba el desayuno (96%). El 70% consumía lácteos descremados menos de la cantidad recomendada. Solo un 20% consumía frutas todos los días. Un poco más de la mitad (52%) consumía verduras todos los días. El 70% consumía pescado por debajo de las recomendaciones establecidas, y el 78% consumía legumbres menos de la cantidad recomendada. Más de la mitad (58%) consumía alimentos integrales por debajo de las recomendaciones. El 54% consumía comida casera todos los días y el 56% realizaba la cena todos los días. Más de la mitad de los participantes presentó sobrepeso u obesidad. Los hábitos de la población son deficientes, en relación al consumo de frutas, lácteos según las recomendaciones de las Guías Alimentarias del Paraguay


Diabetic retinopathy (RD) is a chronic microvascular complication specific to diabetes. It is an important cause of visual loss in adults, with significant medical, social and financial consequences. The objective was to evaluate the dietary habits and nutritional status in diabetic atients with retinopathy who attend the Clínica Vista 10 in the city of Asunción between September and November of 2018. This was a descriptive, observational cross-sectional study The majority of the population studied was female (n = 33, 65%), the mean age was 62.8 ± 11.3 years, 66% (n = 33) was married and the highest percentage was presented primary education level(n = 20, 40%). According to the classification of the place of origin, most lived in Gran Asunción (n = 46, 92%). Regarding the frequency of food consumption, it was found that almost the entire population made breakfast(96%), 70% consumed low-fat dairy products less than the recommended amount. Only 20% consumed fruits every day. A little more than half(52%)consumed vegetables every day, 70% consumed fish below the established recommendations and 78% consumed legumes less than the recommended amount. More than half (58%) consumed whole food below the recommendations, 54% consumed home-cooked food every day and 56% made dinner every day. More than half of the population was overweight or obese. The habits of the population are deficient, in relation to the consumption of fruits, dairy products according to the recommendations of the Food Guides of Paraguay


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Comportamento Alimentar
14.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46684

RESUMO

Pesquisa do Ministério da Saúde mostra que número de obesos no país aumentou 67,8% entre 2006 e 2018. Ao mesmo tempo, a população passou a adquirir hábitos mais saudáveis


Assuntos
Obesidade , Comportamento Sedentário , Comportamento Alimentar , Doença Crônica
15.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 292-305, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284815

RESUMO

In the present study, Probit, Cauchy Fractional and three types of Log methods, i.e., Logit, Log-log, and Complementary log-log were employed to model the feeding deterrence of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), when fed latex protein, crude flavonoid fraction, 3-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, isolated from Calotropis procera (Ait.) (Gentianales: Asclepiadaceae). A nutritional study with treated flour discs at sub-lethal concentrations indicated that the tested natural products negatively affected the feeding behavior of the lesser grain borer, causing high feeding deterrent indices. Our results assure that Probit, Logit and Clog-log model the feeding deterrent indices with high goodness of fit. The models aim to support the management of the test insect when fed grains treated with sub-lethal doses of the tested phytochemicals in order to develop a viable, precise and long-term strategy to minimize the excessive reliance on the chemical pesticides currently in use.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Calotropis/química , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triticum/parasitologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 705-716, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301510

RESUMO

Wildlife physiological responses to environmental and human-related stressors provide useful clues on animal welfare. Non-invasive biomarkers, such as fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM), allow researchers to assess whether variations in habitat quality, behavior, and climate influence the animals' physiological stress. We examined the role of fragment size, ambient temperature, ripe fruit availability and consumption, percentage of records moving, sex, female reproductive state, and group composition as predictors of the level of fGCM in adult brown howler monkeys (Alouatta guariba clamitans) inhabiting three small (<10 ha) and three large (>90 ha) Atlantic Forest fragments in southern Brazil. We collected bimonthly behavioral data and fecal samples from adult individuals over three years, and used a multimodel inference framework to identify the main predictors of fGCM. We found that the mean (±SD) fGCM in the study groups ranged from 57 ±â€¯49 ng/g to 93 ±â€¯58 ng/g, which were within the known range for howler monkeys. We found 10 best models including five of the 17 tested variables. Sex and reproductive state were the only variables included in all these models. We found that fGCM was higher in nursing females (mean ±â€¯SD = 104 ±â€¯73 ng/g) than in non-nursing females (64 ±â€¯55 ng/g) and males (53 ±â€¯40 ng/g, P < 0.05) and that it decreased with increasing ripe fruit consumption and minimum temperature. However, fragment size did not predict fGCM concentration (groups in small fragments = 71 ±â€¯58 ng/g vs. groups in large fragments = 63 ±â€¯54 ng/g, P > 0.05). We conclude that factors related to the energetic balance of individuals play major roles in modulating the physiological stress of brown howler monkeys. Future studies should investigate the consequences of higher levels of stress hormones on howler monkey health and demography.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Primatas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Alouatta , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Primatas/psicologia
17.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(3): 314-321, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight-based stigmatization is frequent among overweight and obese people. AIM: To determine the association between weight-based stigmatization, psychological stress, cortisol, negative emotions, and eating behavior in a sample of middle-aged women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-two women aged 45 ± 8 years, 55% with overweight or obesity, were randomly allocated to watch a video called "Stigma: the human cost of obesity" or a control video about planet earth. The effect of watching either video on calorie consumption, psychological stress and cortisol reactivity was assessed. Cortisol was measured on four salivary samples. Psychological stress and negative emotions were self-reported. RESULTS: Among women who watched the stigmatizing video, there was a direct association between psychological stress and calorie intake, but negative emotions did not mediate this association. Moreover, psychological stress moderated the association between watching the stigmatizing video and the cortisol output (ß = 0.32; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Women with high psychological stress have a greater intake of calories. After watching the stigmatizing video, a greater psychological stress is associated with greater cortisol output.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 52, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the dietary patterns of pregnant women with maternal excessive body weight and gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted with a convenience sample of 785 adult pregnant women attended by the Unified Health System of Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, between 2011 and 2012. Two 24-hour dietary recalls, corrected by the multiple source method, were employed . For the classification of the body mass index and the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus, the criteria by Atalah and the World Health Organization were used, respectively. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal component analysis using the Varimax rotation method. The relationship between adherence to patterns, overweight and obesity was analyzed by multinomial logistic regression models and the relationship with gestational diabetes mellitus by adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: We identified four dietary patterns: "traditional Brazilian"; "snacks"; "coffee" and "healthy". Women with a higher adherence to the "Healthy" (OR = 0.52; 95%CI 0.33-0.83) and "Brazilian Traditional" patterns (OR = 0.61; 95%CI 0.38-0.96) presented a lower chance of obesity, when compared to women with lower adherence, regardless of confounding factors. After adjustment for maternal excessive body weight, there was no association between dietary patterns and gestational diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS: Among the pregnant women, greater adherence to "traditional Brazilian" and "healthy" patterns was inversely associated with obesity, but no relationship was identified with gestational diabetes mellitus after adjusting for excessive body weight. Prospective studies are recommended to investigate the relationship between dietary patterns, overweight and gestational diabetes mellitus, reducing the chance of reverse causality.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 301, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biological rhythms allow organisms to compartmentalise and coordinate behaviours, physiologies, and cellular processes with the predictable daily rhythms of their environment. There is increasing recognition that the biological rhythms of mosquitoes that vector parasites are important for global health. For example, whether perturbations in blood foraging rhythms as a consequence of vector control measures can undermine disease control. To address this, we explore the impacts of altered timing of blood-feeding on mosquito life history traits and malaria transmission. METHODS: We present three experiments in which Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were fed in the morning or evening on blood that had different qualities, including: (i) chemical-induced or (ii) Plasmodium chabaudi infection-induced anaemia; (iii) Plasmodium berghei infection but no anaemia; or (iv) stemming from hosts at different times of day. We then compared whether time-of-day variation in blood meal characteristics influences mosquito fitness proxies relating to survival and reproduction, and malaria transmission proxies. RESULTS: Mosquito lifespan is not influenced by the time-of-day they received a blood meal, but several reproductive metrics are affected, depending on other blood characteristics. Overall, our data suggest that receiving a blood meal in the morning makes mosquitoes more likely to lay eggs, lay slightly sooner and have a larger clutch size. In keeping with previous work, P. berghei infection reduces mosquito lifespan and the likelihood of laying eggs, but time-of-day of blood-feeding does not impact upon these metrics nor on transmission of this parasite. CONCLUSION: The time-of-day of blood-feeding does not appear to have major consequences for mosquito fitness or transmission of asynchronous malaria species. If our results from a laboratory colony of mosquitoes living in benign conditions hold for wild mosquitoes, it suggests that mosquitoes have sufficient flexibility in their physiology to cope with changes in biting time induced by evading insecticide-treated bed nets. Future work should consider the impact of multiple feeding cycles and the abiotic stresses imposed by the need to forage for blood during times of day when hosts are not protected by bed nets.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Comportamento Alimentar , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium berghei/fisiologia , Anemia , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Longevidade , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Reprodução
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