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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445040

RESUMO

Food insecurity is a persistent issue among individuals with low income and is associated with various nutrition- and health-related consequences. Creative approaches to increasing food access should be investigated as possible solutions. Meal kits, which are boxes or bags of fresh and shelf-stable ingredients for one or more meals, along with a step-by-step recipe showing how to cook each meal at home, may serve as a creative solution. Meal kits have historically been marketed to higher-income demographics. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the utilization, acceptability, and willingness to pay for a healthy meal kit program among African American main food preparers with children and low income (n = 36). Participants received a healthy meal kit with three recipes and ingredients, a cooking incentive, and a nutrition handout weekly for six weeks. Data were collected on participants' use, acceptability, and willingness to pay for the meal kits and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The intervention was highly utilized, and participants reported high acceptability ratings for most recipes. After the intervention, participants were willing to pay $88.61 ± 47.47 for a meal kit with three meals, each with four portions, which was higher than indicated at baseline and similar to the cost to produce the kits. Meal kits may offer a creative solution to improving food access if affordable for families with low income.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Livros de Culinária como Assunto/economia , Culinária/economia , Comportamento Alimentar , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Insegurança Alimentar/economia , Renda , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/economia , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Análise Custo-Benefício , Dieta Saudável/economia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Projetos Piloto , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia
2.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(10): 2825-2830, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353701

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this viewpoint was to discuss a profound health gap in type 2 diabetes that exists between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. DATA SYNTHESIS: In Australia, type 2 diabetes is ranked as the fastest growing chronic condition, with the rates of type 2 diabetes higher among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians. Improvements to diet could aid in reducing overweight and obesity in the Indigenous community, with sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) examples of discretionary foods that contain a high amount of sugar. The marked increase in type 2 diabetes, obesity and consumption of SSBs in the Indigenous community may suggest that type 2 diabetes may result from weight gain caused by SSB consumption. Recent evidence suggests that higher consumption of SSBs was associated with greater incidence of type 2 diabetes independent of adiposity. Some determinants influencing increased SSBs consumption in the Indigenous population include advertising, marketing, availability and affordability. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes continue to be higher among Indigenous than non-Indigenous Australians and overall, a link between SSBs and risk of type 2 diabetes is reported. Three solutions to high SSBs consumption in Indigenous communities include increased availability, affordability, and accessibility of healthy food and drink, engagement of Indigenous people in offering solutions including discussion of a sugar tax on SSBs framed with Indigenous input, and the provision of clean community water supply and water bubblers.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444850

RESUMO

This scoping review examined intervention and sample characteristics of family-based obesity prevention interventions among Hispanic youth. This review also examined the degree to which existing interventions were culturally-adapted, acknowledged social determinants of health (SDoH), and collaborated with community stakeholders. A comprehensive search across Medline Ovid, Embase, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Pubmed was used to identify 13 studies primarily based in the U.S. (92.3%). Data was extracted by two independent reviewers. Most used a randomized control trial design (69.2%), a behavior change theory (84.6%), and reported moderate to high (≥70%) retention (69.2%). Studies targeted improvements in physical activity (69.2%) and fruit and vegetable intake (92.3%) through nutrition education, cooking demonstrations, and tastings. Younger children from low socioeconomic backgrounds (61.5%) were well represented. Most interventions were culturally-adapted (69.2%), all studies reported collaboration with stakeholders, yet only half used strategies that acknowledged SDoH (46.2%). To increase our understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which family-based approaches can reach and engage Hispanic youth and families, future studies should rigorously evaluate theoretical constructs, family processes, and SDoH that influence program participation and health behaviors. This information will guide the design and development of future interventions aimed at reducing obesity disparities among Hispanic youth.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Terapia Familiar/métodos , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/etnologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371801

RESUMO

This study investigated ethnic differences in childhood body mass index (BMI) in children from Dutch and Turkish descent and the role of infant feeding factors (breastfeeding duration, milk feeding frequency, as well as the timing, frequency and variety of complementary feeding (CF)). We used data from 244 children (116 Dutch and 128 Turkish) participating in a prospective study in the Netherlands. BMI was measured at 2, 3 and 5 years and standard deviation scores (sds) were derived using WHO references. Using linear mixed regression analyses, we examined ethnic differences in BMI-sds between 2 and 5 years, and the role of infant feeding in separate models including milk or CF factors, or both (full model). Relative to Dutch children, Turkish children had higher BMI-sds at age 3 (mean difference: 0.26; 95%CI: 0.04, 0.48) and 5 (0.63; 0.39, 0.88), but not at 2 years (0.08; -0.16, 0.31). Ethnic differences in BMI-sds were somewhat attenuated by CF factors at age 3 (0.16; -0.07, 0.40) and 5 years (0.50; 0.24, 0.77), whereas milk feeding had a minor impact. Of all factors, only CF variety was associated with BMI-sds in the full model. CF factors, particularly CF variety, explain a small fraction of the BMI-sds differences between Dutch and Turkish children. The role of CF variety on childhood BMI requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/etnologia , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Países Baixos/etnologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Turquia/etnologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371848

RESUMO

In contrast to the decreasing burden related to cardiovascular disease (CVD), the burden related to dysglycemia and adiposity complications is increasing in Czechia, and local drivers must be identified. A comprehensive literature review was performed to evaluate biological, behavioral, and environmental drivers of dysglycemia and abnormal adiposity in Czechia. Additionally, the structure of the Czech healthcare system was described. The prevalence of obesity in men and diabetes in both sexes has been increasing over the past 30 years. Possible reasons include the Eastern European eating pattern, high prevalence of physical inactivity and health illiteracy, education, and income-related health inequalities. Despite the advanced healthcare system based on the compulsory insurance model with free-for-service healthcare and a wide range of health-promoting initiatives, more effective strategies to tackle the adiposity/dysglycemia are needed. In conclusion, the disease burden related to dysglycemia and adiposity in Czechia remains high but is not translated into greater CVD. This discordant relationship likely depends more on other factors, such as improvements in dyslipidemia and hypertension control. A reconceptualization of abnormal adiposity and dysglycemia into a more actionable cardiometabolic-based chronic disease model is needed to improve the approach to these conditions. This review can serve as a platform to investigate causal mechanisms and secure effective management of cardiometabolic-based chronic disease.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adiposidade/etnologia , Adulto , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/etnologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/etnologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/etnologia , Prevalência , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204927

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of parental feeding practices and adolescent emotional eating (EE) on dietary outcomes among overweight African American adolescents. Based on Family Systems Theory, it was hypothesized that parental feeding practices, such as parental monitoring and responsibility, would buffer the effects of EE on poor dietary quality, whereas practices such as concern about a child's weight, restriction, and pressure-to-eat would exacerbate this relationship. Adolescents (N = 127; Mage = 12.83 ± 1.74; MBMI% = 96.61 ± 4.14) provided baseline data from the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial and an ancillary study. Dietary outcomes (fruit and vegetables (F&Vs), energy intake, sweetened beverage, total fat, and saturated fat) were assessed using random 24-h dietary recalls. Validated surveys were used to assess adolescent-reported EE and parental feeding practices. Results demonstrated a significant interaction between EE and parental monitoring (adjusted analyses; B = 0.524, SE = 0.176, p = 0.004), restriction (B = -0.331, SE = 0.162, p = 0.043), and concern (B = -0.602, SE = 0.171, p = 0.001) on F&V intake; under high monitoring, low restriction, and low concern, EE was positively associated with F&V intake. There were no significant effects for the other dietary outcomes. These findings indicate that parental feeding practices and EE may be important factors to consider for dietary interventions, specifically for F&V intake, among overweight African American adolescents.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Emoções , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(8): 2436-2448, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The type of fat consumed in animal-based western diets, typically rich in the saturated fat palmitate, has been implicated in cardiometabolic disease risk. In contrast, the most abundant mono- and polyunsaturated fats, more typical in a vegetarian or plant-based diet, potentiate less deleterious effects. This study determined differences in plasma and urine metabolites when switching from omnivorous to vegetarian diet, including metabolites involved in fatty acid utilization. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective cohort of 38 European (EA) and African American (AA) omnivorous females were matched by age (25.7 ± 5.3y) and BMI (22.4 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Pre-intervention samples were collected while subjects consumed habitual animal-based diet. Changes in metabolites were assessed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (Metabolon, Inc.) upon completing four days of novel vegetarian diet provided by the Vanderbilt Metabolic Kitchen. Changes in several diet-derived metabolites were observed, including increases in compounds derived from soy food metabolism along with decreases in metabolites of xanthine and histidine. Significant changes occurred in metabolites of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids along with significant differences between EA and AA women in changes in plasma concentrations of acylcarnitines, which reflect the completeness of fatty acid oxidation (versus storage). CONCLUSION: These data suggest improvements in fatty acid metabolism (oxidation vs storage), a key factor in energy homeostasis, may be promoted rapidly by adoption of a vegetarian (plant-based) diet. Mechanistic differences in response to diet interventions must be understood to effectively provide protection against the widespread development of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in population subgroups, such as AA women.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Dieta Vegetariana/etnologia , Metabolismo Energético , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/urina , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Oxirredução , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tennessee , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063799

RESUMO

Few studies have integrated positive parenting and motivational strategies to address dietary outcomes such as frequency of family mealtime. The Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial was a randomized group cohort trial (n = 241 dyads) testing the efficacy of integrating a motivational plus family weight loss (M + FWL) intervention for healthy eating and weight loss in overweight and obese African American adolescents. The current study tested the interaction of parenting styles (responsiveness, demandingness) and parental feeding practices (restriction, concern about child's weight, pressure to eat) and the FIT intervention on frequency of family mealtime over 16 weeks. Multilevel modeling demonstrated significant interactions between the group-based treatment and responsiveness (p = 0.018) and demandingness (p = 0.010) on family mealtime. For the group-based M + FWL intervention, increased responsiveness and reduced demandingness were associated with increased frequency of family mealtime from baseline to 16 weeks. There was also a negative association between parental restriction and frequency of family mealtime, but a positive association between parental concerns about their adolescent's weight and frequency of mealtime. These findings are the first to demonstrate that an authoritative or nurturing parenting style moderated intervention effects for improving the frequency of family mealtime in overweight and obese African American adolescents.


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar/métodos , Refeições/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Análise Multinível , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e215262, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844000

RESUMO

Importance: Time trends and population disparities in nutritional quality of foods from major US sources, including grocery stores, restaurants, schools, worksites, and other sources, are not well established. Objective: To investigate patterns and trends in diet quality by food sources among US children and adults overall and in sociodemographic subgroups. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial, cross-sectional survey study included respondents from 8 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles (2003-2018) with valid dietary recalls. Data were analyzed from April 16, 2020, to July 20, 2020. Exposures: Survey cycle, food source, and key sociodemographic subgroups. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean diet quality of foods (meals, snacks, and beverages) consumed per person, characterized by the American Heart Association diet score (range, 0-80, with higher scores indicating healthier diets), the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (range, 0-100, with higher scores indicating healthier diets), and their components. For the American Heart Association diet score, poor diet was defined as less than 40.0% adherence (score, <32.0), intermediate diet as 40.0% to 79.9% adherence (score, 32.0-63.9), and ideal as 80.0% or greater adherence (score, ≥64.0). Results: The study included 20 905 children 5 to 19 years of age (mean [SD] age, 12.1 [5.24] years; 51.0% male) and 39 757 adults 20 years or older (mean [SD] age, 47.3 [15.1] years; 51.9% female). Diet quality of foods consumed from grocery stores increased modestly in children (53.2% to 45.1% with poor diet quality; P = .006 for trend) and adults (40.1% to 32.9% with poor diet quality; P = .001 for trend), with smaller changes for restaurants among children (84.8% to 79.6% with poor diet quality; P = .003 for trend). Changes for restaurants among adults were not statistically significant (65.4% to 65.2% with poor diet quality; P = .07 with poor diet quality); the same was true of worksites (adults: 55.6% to 50.7% with poor diet quality; P = .25 for trend). Food quality from other sources worsened (children: 40.0% to 51.7% with poor diet quality; adults: 33.8% to 43.8% with poor diet quality; P < .001 for trend each). The largest improvement in diet quality was in schools, with the percentage with poor diet quality decreasing from 55.6% to 24.4% (P < .001 for trend), mostly after 2010, and with equitable improvements across population subgroups. Findings were similar for Healthy Eating Index 2015. Significant disparities in diet quality trends were seen by sex, race/ethnicity, educational level, and household income for food consumed from grocery stores. For example, the proportion of foods consumed from grocery stores that were of poor diet quality decreased among high-income adults (from 36.9% to 26.5%; P = .001 for trend) but not among low-income adults (from 45.8% to 41.3%; P = .09 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance: By 2017-2018, foods consumed at schools improved significantly and provided the best mean diet quality of major US food sources, without population disparities. Additional improvements are needed from all major US food sources, with particular attention on equity.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923539

RESUMO

Sleep quality, diet quality, and physical activity are significant factors influencing physical and mental health. However, few studies have explored their underlying mechanisms, especially among the elderly population in East Asia, where people have food culture and lifestyles distinct from those living in Western countries. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the relationships among sleep quality, diet quality, physical activity, and physical and mental health in a Chinese elderly sample. Sleep quality, diet quality, physical activity, physical health, and mental health were investigated among 313 Chinese elderly (aged 51-92 years, M = 67.90, SD = 7.94). Mediation analysis was used to examine the empirical model based on previous theories and literature. Close positive relationships were observed between all factors investigated (r = 0.22~0.73, p < 0.001). The relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health were partially mediated by diet quality and physical activity. In clinical interventions, sleep quality, diet quality, and physical activity can be targeted to improve physical and mental health among the older adult populations.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Saúde Mental , Sono , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923855

RESUMO

Poor dietary habits have been shown to be associated with a range of chronic diseases and can potentially be a major contributor to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) mortality. We therefore aimed to identify the prevailing dietary patterns among Chinese adults and to evaluate trends in dietary patterns from 1991 to 2015. We used data collected in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. We studied 29,238 adults aged 18 and above with complete demo-graphic and dietary data. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified: southern (high intakes of rice, vegetables, and pork), modern (high intakes of fruits, dairy products, cakes, cookies, and pastries), and meat (high intakes of organ meats, poultry, and other livestock meat). The southern pattern score decreased (mean ± SD scores in 1991: 0.11 ± 1.13; scores in 2015: -0.22 ± 0.93). The modern pattern score (mean ± SD scores in 1991: -0.44 ± 0.59; scores in 2015: 0.21 ± 1.01) and meat pattern score (mean ± SD scores in 1991: -0.18 ± 0.98; scores in 2015: 0.27 ± 0.91) increased. We observed that China has experienced a shift from traditional dietary patterns to western dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918283

RESUMO

This study investigated major healthy and sustainable dietary patterns in the Dutch population. Two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in 2078 participants aged 19-79 years in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2012-2016. Dietary patterns were identified using reduced rank regression. Predictor variables were food groups and response variables were Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index) score, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), and blue water use. Three patterns were discovered, including a "high fruit and vegetable dietary pattern", a "low meat dietary pattern", and a "high dairy, low fruit juices dietary pattern". Diets in the highest quartile of these patterns had higher DHD15-index score than the average population. However, diets of the "high fruit and vegetable dietary pattern" were associated with higher dietary GHGE (14%) and blue water use (69.2%) compared to the average population. Diets of the "low meat dietary pattern" were associated with lower GHGE (19.6%) and higher blue water use (7.7%). Concluding, the "low meat dietary pattern" was the most healthy and sustainable dietary pattern in this population. The addition of blue water use as an environmental impact indicator shows the difficulty of finding existing dietary patterns that have low environmental impact in all determinants.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Feminino , Água Doce , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1046-1057, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined how household food insecurity (HFI) and chronic stress relate to adiposity among Tsimane' hunter-forager-horticulturalists in remote Bolivia with limited access to energy-dense processed foods that promote weight gain among industrialized populations. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional data on HFI (via the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale [HFIAS]), hair cortisol concentration (HCC), adiposity (BMI, body fat percentage [%BF]), and sociodemographics were collected from 171 men, 164 women, and 167 children. Linear mixed-effects models tested linear, quadratic, joint, and interactive relationships between adiposity measures and both the HFIAS score and HCC. RESULTS: Among children, each 3-point HFIAS score increase was associated with a 0.44-point higher %BF (SE = 0.22, P = 0.04). However, each 20% increase in HCC was associated with a -0.29-point difference in %BF (SE = 0.12, P = 0.01). Among men, a slight curvilinear relationship emerged between HFIAS and BMI. HFIAS and HCC were unrelated to adiposity measures among women. HCC did not modify relationships between HFIAS and adiposity in any subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: These findings from a remote, small-scale population suggest that positive associations between HFI and adiposity are not isolated to contexts of industrialized food environments and heavy reliance on processed foods. However, these dynamics and the role of stress appear to differ by sex and age group.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Cabelo/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bolívia/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Cabelo/química , Horticultura , Humanos , Fome/etnologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Povos Indígenas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652952

RESUMO

This article aims to explore the food patterns of Chinese immigrants living in Spain and to understand the factors associated with these behaviors. This qualitative ethnographic study included 133 Chinese immigrants; using interviews with scripts were based on the National Health Survey of Spain. Three categories were defined: "Differences between Chinese food and Western food"; "Products and dishes consumed by Chinese immigrants" and "Modification of eating habits". Participants found a remarkable difference between eastern (i.e., vegetables and rice) and western (i.e., dairy, high-fat, bread) foods. They also experienced a change in their eating habits, mostly related to acculturation and lack of time. Chinese immigrants have different eating patterns as compared to the native population in Spain and this information could help in future healthcare strategies. Knowing the food culture could infer aspects, such as insertion or integration, and promoting health and well-being.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Dieta/etnologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Aculturação , Adulto , Antropologia Cultural , China/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Espanha
15.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668386

RESUMO

Nutritional epidemiology studies on Roma people are scarce and, to date, their nutrient-based dietary patterns with regards to both healthy and sustainable dietary considerations have never been reported. We report, for the first time, adherence to healthy and sustainable dietary patterns using scoring and regression models, based on recommendations defined by the World Health Organization, in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study and the EAT-Lancet report, as well as dietary quality based on Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) among the Hungarian Roma (HR) population living in North East Hungary, with Hungarian general (HG) adults as reference. Data were obtained from a complex, comparative health survey involving dietary assessment, structured questionnaire-based interview, physical and laboratory examinations on 359 HG and 344 HR subjects in Northeast Hungary. Poisson regressions were fit to models that included DASH, EAT, DII and Healthy Diet Indicator as dependent variables to assess the influence of ethnicity on healthy and sustainable nutrient-based patterns. Adjusted models controlled for all relevant covariates using the residual method indicated poor dietary quality with regards to the selected dietary patterns. These associations were not ethnicity-sensitive, except for DII, where Roma ethnicity was linked to a decrease of DII score (ß = -0.455, 95%CI: -0.720; -0.191, p < 0.05). Currently, HR dietary patterns appear to be relatively unhealthy and unsustainable, rendering them vulnerable to elevated risk of ill-health. Nevertheless, their dietary patterns did not strongly differ from HG, which may contribute to Hungarians being one of the most obese and malnourished nations in Europe. Further prospective research on the potential public and environmental health effects of these findings is warranted.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Nível de Saúde , Roma (Grupo Étnico)/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hungria/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(4): 1299-1307, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both the Nordic and Mediterranean diets claim to have a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism and cardiovascular prevention. The objective of this study was to compare diets consumed by children with FH at the time of diagnosis in Norway and Spain and to study their relationship with the lipid profile. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, we appraised the dietary intake in children (4-18 years old) with (n = 114) and without FH (n = 145) from Norway and Spain. We compared Nordic and Mediterranean diet composition differences and determined the association between food groups and lipid profiles. RESULTS: The Spanish FH group had a higher intake of total fats (mainly monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)), cholesterol and fibre, but a lower intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) compared to the Norwegian FH group. The Norwegian children consumed more rapeseed oil, low-fat margarine and whole grains and less olive oil, eggs, fatty fish, meat, legumes and nuts. In the Norwegian FH group, fat and MUFAs were directly correlated with total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). In Spanish children with FH, the intake of fats (mainly MUFAs) was directly associated with HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar lipid phenotype, diets consumed by children with FH in Norway and Spain have significant differences at time of diagnosis. Nutrition advice should be more adapted to local intake patterns than on specific nutrient composition.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características Culturais , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Dieta Mediterrânea/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/etnologia , Masculino , Noruega , Valor Nutritivo , Espanha
17.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435317

RESUMO

Optimizing protein intake is a novel strategy to prevent age associated loss of muscle mass and strength in older adults. Such a strategy is still missing for older adults from ethnic minority populations. Protein intake in these populations is expected to be different in comparison to the majority of the population due to several socio-cultural factors. Therefore, the present study examined the dietary protein intake and underlying behavioral and environmental factors affecting protein intake among older adults from ethnic minorities in the Netherlands. We analyzed frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting (HELIUS) cohort using ANCOVA to describe dietary protein intake in older adults from ethnic minorities in the Netherlands (N = 1415, aged >55 years, African Surinamese, South Asian Surinamese, Moroccan, and Turkish). Additionally, we performed focus groups among older adults from the same ethnic minority populations (N = 69) to discover behavioral and environmental factors affecting protein intake; 40-60% of the subjects did not reach minimal dietary protein recommendations needed to maintain muscle mass (1.0 g/kg bodyweight per day (BW/day)), except for Turkish men (where it was 91%). The major sources of protein originated from animal products and were ethnic specific. Participants in the focus groups showed little knowledge and awareness about protein and its role in aging. The amount of dietary protein and irregular eating patterns seemed to be the major concern in these populations. Optimizing protein intake in these groups requires a culturally sensitive approach, which accounts for specific protein product types and sociocultural factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Nutr Bull ; 41(2_suppl): 87S-103S, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356591

RESUMO

The rapid changes that societies have gone through in the last few decades have led to the increase in the prevalence of malnutrition in all its forms and to the degradation of natural resources and the environment. The change in the dietary habits and production systems are responsible for much of this change. Some territorial diets have been shown as potentially capable of reversing these trends by positively contributing to the health of people and the environment such as the Mediterranean Diet and the New Nordic Diet. In this paper, we review the contribution of these 2 diets to health and nutrition and to environmental, sociocultural, and economic sustainability proposing pertinent indicators. Learning from a culturally established diet and a constructed one, tradeoff could be reached to ensure better health and sustainability outcomes. Strong factors for achieving this goal lie in building on the sociocultural appropriation of diets, having the proper tools and indicators, investing in cross-sector collaboration and policy coherence, and having the necessary political support to push the agenda of sustainability forward.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Custos e Análise de Custo , Cultura , Dieta Saudável/tendências , Meio Ambiente , Humanos
20.
Food Nutr Bull ; 41(2_suppl): 59S-73S, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global policy discourse on sustainability and health has called for dietary transformations that require diverse, concerted actions from governments and institutions. In this article, we highlight the need to examine sociocultural influences on food practices as precursors to food policy decisions. DISCUSSION: Sociocultural food practices relate to ideas and materials that give rise to food choices and food patterns of a group. We begin with a discussion of how individuals experience, interpret, negotiate, and symbolize the food world around them. We examine primarily the ideational pathways, such as identity, gender, religion, and cultural prohibitions, and their influence on food practices. We then provide guiding questions, frameworks, and a brief overview of food choice values to support policy planning and design. Lastly, we explore how sociocultural change for sustainable or healthy diets is already happening through food movements, food lifestyles, and traditional diets.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Cultura , Humanos , Comportamento Social
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