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1.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020037, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921731

RESUMO

The COVID-19 lockdown imposed radical changes in the lifestyles of the population through isolation measures, with considerable health, social, psychological and economic consequences. Lockdown measures may have exacerbated negative population behaviors regarding exercise and nutrition, with risk of weight gain and obesity, collectively predisposing to increased cardiometabolic risk and mortality. At particular risk of deleterious consequences were patients such as those affected by chronic non communicable diseases (CNCD). The benefits of regular exercise are evident at several levels of CNCD prevention, however, from a public health standpoint, it is important to consider they are also related to improved stress management, work/academic performance, and reduced illegal behavior, isolation and depression. Therefore, during enforced isolation, a primary goal for all individuals is to maintain energy balance. During lockdown, several lifestyle interventions were posted online, with the internet playing a major role in exercise and fitness promotion. Among these one must recognize the ambitious "#StayHomeStayFit" project by the University of Milan, providing useful general information and trustworthy advice regarding nutrition, physical activity, and psychological support, for the general population in a time of need. Data showed a total of 21224 views on various social media and webpages during the reference period, with a mean time of 4' 17'' spent per page/video. Given the health risks associated with population physical inactivity and unhealthy lifestyle, policymakers should evaluate the benefits of projects such as #StayHomeStayFit and consider how to maximize population perception and reach. After all, additional COVID-19 lockdowns might be implemented in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000828, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936797

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects are mono- or oligophagous, having evolved to select a limited range of host plants. They specifically identify host-plant leaves using their keen sense of taste. Plant secondary metabolites and sugars are thought to be key chemical cues that enable insects to identify host plants and evaluate their quality as food. However, the neuronal and behavioral mechanisms of host-plant recognition are poorly understood. Here, we report a two-factor host acceptance system in larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori, a specialist on several mulberry species. The first step is controlled by a chemosensory organ, the maxillary palp (MP). During palpation at the leaf edge, the MP detects trace amounts of leaf-surface compounds, which enables host-plant recognition without biting. Chemosensory neurons in the MP are tuned with ultrahigh sensitivity (thresholds of attomolar to femtomolar) to chlorogenic acid (CGA), quercetin glycosides, and ß-sitosterol (ßsito). Only if these 3 compounds are detected does the larva make a test bite, which is evaluated in the second step. Low-sensitivity neurons in another chemosensory organ, the maxillary galea (MG), mainly detect sucrose in the leaf sap exuded by test biting, allowing larvae to accept the leaf and proceed to persistent biting (feeding). The two-factor host acceptance system reported here may commonly underlie stereotyped feeding behavior in many phytophagous insects and determine their feeding habits.


Assuntos
Bombyx/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bombyx/anatomia & histologia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/citologia , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000801, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810126

RESUMO

The evolutionary radiation of birds has produced incredible morphological variation, including a huge range of skull form and function. Investigating how this variation arose with respect to non-avian dinosaurs is key to understanding how birds achieved their remarkable success after the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event. Using a high-dimensional geometric morphometric approach, we quantified the shape of the skull in unprecedented detail across 354 extant and 37 extinct avian and non-avian dinosaurs. Comparative analyses reveal fundamental differences in how skull shape evolved in birds and non-avian dinosaurs. We find that the overall skull shape evolved faster in non-avian dinosaurs than in birds across all regions of the cranium. In birds, the anterior rostrum is the most rapidly evolving skull region, whereas more posterior regions-such as the parietal, squamosal, and quadrate-exhibited high rates in non-avian dinosaurs. These fast-evolving elements in dinosaurs are strongly associated with feeding biomechanics, forming the jaw joint and supporting the jaw adductor muscles. Rapid pulses of skull evolution coincide with changes to food acquisition strategies and diets, as well as the proliferation of bony skull ornaments. In contrast to the appendicular skeleton, which has been shown to evolve more rapidly in birds, avian cranial morphology is characterised by a striking deceleration in morphological evolution relative to non-avian dinosaurs. These results may be due to the reorganisation of skull structure in birds-including loss of a separate postorbital bone in adults and the emergence of new trade-offs with development and neurosensory demands. Taken together, the remarkable cranial shape diversity in birds was not a product of accelerated evolution from their non-avian relatives, despite their frequent portrayal as an icon of adaptive radiations.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Aves/classificação , Aves/fisiologia , Dinossauros/classificação , Dinossauros/fisiologia , Extinção Biológica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Crânio/fisiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4171, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820176

RESUMO

Spiralia is a large, ancient and diverse clade of animals, with a conserved early developmental program but diverse larval and adult morphologies. One trait shared by many spiralians is the presence of ciliary bands used for locomotion and feeding. To learn more about spiralian-specific traits we have examined the expression of 20 genes with protein motifs that are strongly conserved within the Spiralia, but not detectable outside of it. Here, we show that two of these are specifically expressed in the main ciliary band of the mollusc Tritia (also known as Ilyanassa). Their expression patterns in representative species from five more spiralian phyla-the annelids, nemerteans, phoronids, brachiopods and rotifers-show that at least one of these, lophotrochin, has a conserved and specific role in particular ciliated structures, most consistently in ciliary bands. These results highlight the potential importance of lineage-specific genes or protein motifs for understanding traits shared across ancient lineages.


Assuntos
Motivos de Aminoácidos/genética , Cílios/genética , Invertebrados/genética , Proteínas/genética , Animais , Anelídeos/classificação , Anelídeos/genética , Anelídeos/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Cílios/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Invertebrados/classificação , Invertebrados/fisiologia , Larva/genética , Larva/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Moluscos/classificação , Moluscos/genética , Moluscos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2775-2781, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737590

RESUMO

Triatoma platensis is occasionally found coexisting with Triatoma infestans in chicken coops in Argentina. Some authors have reported the presence of hybrid specimens of both species in chicken coops and other peridomestic habitats. Given the coexistence of T. infestans with T. platensis and the possibility of generating fertile hybrids, it is important to evaluate the vectorial competence of these hybrids. The objective of this study was to record the dynamics of feeding-defecation behavior in fifth-stage nymphs and adults of hybrids between both species and to compare it with T. platensis and T. infestans. Three experimental groups were formed separated by stage and sex: Hybrid group, T. infestans group, and T. platensis group. During feeding, the following variables were recorded for each group: (i) blood meal size, (ii) feeding time, (iii) number of defecations during feeding, and (iv) number of defecations at 10 and 30 min after feeding. The results indicate that adults and fifth-instar nymphs of hybrids have a feeding and defecation behavior similar to T. infestans: they achieve feeding in a short time and first defecation occurs during or just after feeding. Nevertheless, hybrid's ingestion of blood occurs at higher velocity and they require higher blood intake to provoke early defecations. Considering the blood ingestion velocity, the amount of blood ingested, and the short time required for the production of the first defecation, the results of this study suggest that hybrid can be a competent Trypanosoma cruzi vector.


Assuntos
Defecação/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Triatoma/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Galinhas/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 318, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID 19-related quarantine led to a sudden and radical lifestyle changes, in particular in eating habits. Objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of quarantine on sleep quality (SQ) and body mass index (BMI), and if change in SQ was related to working modalities. MATERIALS: We enrolled 121 adults (age 44.9 ± 13.3 years and 35.5% males). Anthropometric parameters, working modalities and physical activity were studied. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. At baseline, the enrolled subjects were assessed in outpatient clinic and after 40 days of quarantine/lockdown by phone interview. RESULTS: Overall, 49.6% of the subjects were good sleepers (PSQI < 5) at the baseline and significantly decreased after quarantine (p < 0.001). In detail, sleep onset latency (p < 0.001), sleep efficiency (p = 0.03), sleep disturbances (p < 0.001), and daytime dysfunction (p < 0.001) significantly worsened. There was also a significant increase in BMI values in normal weight (p = 0.023), in subjects grade I (p = 0.027) and II obesity (p = 0.020). In all cohort, physical activity was significantly decreased (p = 0.004). However, analyzing the data according gender difference, males significantly decreased physical activity as well as females in which there was only a trend without reaching statistical significance (53.5% vs 25.6%; p = 0.015 and 50.0% vs 35.9%, p = 0.106; in males and females, respectively). In addition, smart working activity resulted in a significant worsening of SQ, particularly in males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Quarantine was associated to a worsening of SQ, particularly in males doing smart working, and to an increase in BMI values.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3794, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732906

RESUMO

Defective rhythmic metabolism is associated with high-fat high-caloric diet (HFD) feeding, ageing and obesity; however, the neural basis underlying HFD effects on diurnal metabolism remains elusive. Here we show that deletion of BMAL1, a core clock gene, in paraventricular hypothalamic (PVH) neurons reduces diurnal rhythmicity in metabolism, causes obesity and diminishes PVH neuron activation in response to fast-refeeding. Animal models mimicking deficiency in PVH neuron responsiveness, achieved through clamping PVH neuron activity at high or low levels, both show obesity and reduced diurnal rhythmicity in metabolism. Interestingly, the PVH exhibits BMAL1-controlled rhythmic expression of GABA-A receptor γ2 subunit, and dampening rhythmicity of GABAergic input to the PVH reduces diurnal rhythmicity in metabolism and causes obesity. Finally, BMAL1 deletion blunts PVH neuron responses to external stressors, an effect mimicked by HFD feeding. Thus, BMAL1-driven PVH neuron responsiveness in dynamic activity changes involving rhythmic GABAergic neurotransmission mediates diurnal rhythmicity in metabolism and is implicated in diet-induced obesity.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/fisiologia , Obesidade/genética , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Paraventricular/citologia
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1265: 167-185, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761576

RESUMO

Amino acids (AAs) and their metabolites play an important role in neurological health and function. They are not only the building blocks of protein but are also neurotransmitters. In the brain, glutamate and aspartate are the major excitatory neurotransmitters, whereas γ-aminobutyrate (GABA, a metabolite of glutamate) and glycine are the major inhibitory neurotransmitters. Nitric oxide (NO, a metabolite of arginine), H2S (a metabolite of cysteine), serotonin (a metabolite of tryptophan) and histamine (a metabolite of histidine), as well as dopamine and norepinephrine (metabolites of tyrosine) are neurotransmitters to modulate synaptic plasticity, neuronal activity, learning, motor control, motivational behavior, emotion, and executive function. Concentrations of glutamine (a precursor of glutamate and aspartate), branched-chain AAs (precursors of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate), L-serine (a precursor of glycine and D-serine), methionine and phenylalanine in plasma are capable of affecting neurotransmission through the syntheses of glutamate, aspartate, and glycine, as well as the competitive transport of tryptophan and tyrosine across from the blood-brain barrier. Adequate consumption of AAs is crucial to maintain their concentrations and the production of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Thus, the content and balance of AAs in diets have a profound impact on food intake by animals. Knowledge of AA transport and metabolism in the brain is beneficial for improving the health and well-being of humans and animals.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110954, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800228

RESUMO

Current study aims to determine difference in metal accumulation pattern in muscle of Liza parsia (pelagic, omnivore), Amblypharyngodon mola (surface feeder, herbivore) and Mystus gulio (benthic, carnivore) depending on their niche and feeding habit and how it affects the endogenous antioxidants and glucose metabolism in fish muscle. Fishes were collected from Malancha, Diamond Harbour and Chandanpiri, West Bengal, India. Concentrations of lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium were measured in water, sediment and fish muscle. Metal pollution index (MPI) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) was calculated to evaluate the ability of fish to accumulate specific metals in muscle tissue from the aquatic environment. Metal concentrations were found significantly higher (P < 0.05) in water, sediment, fish muscles from Malancha than Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. L. parsia (MPI: 0.4-1.6) showed highest metal deposition in their muscle followed by A. mola (MPI: 0.37-1.38) and M. gulio (MPI: 0.2-1.2). Malondealdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase and cortisol levels increased in case of L. parsia from Malancha and Chandanpiri. Succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, Ca+2 ATPase and cytochrome C oxidase levels were significantly (P < 0.05) lower at Malancha and Chandanpiri than Diamond Harbour. Heat shock protein (HSP70) expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in all fish species at Malancha followed by Chandanpiri and Diamond Harbour. Glucose, glycogen, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and glycogen phosphorylase levels varied between sites and selected fish species. Serum cortisol level was measured and found to be the highest in L. parsia from Malancha (2.94 ± 0.12 ng/ml) and the lowest in M. gulio from Diamond Harbour (0.7 ± 0.05 ng/ml). The results indicate that metal toxicity alters antioxidant levels, oxidative status and energy production in fish in species specific manner. Our results also indicate that Mystus has the highest degree of adaptability in response to metal toxicity possibly due to its specific food habit and niche position. Therefore, it can be concluded that maintenance of oxidative and metabolic status to combat metal-induced oxidative load will be helpful for the fishes to acquire better resistance under such eco-physiological stress. Alteration of niche and interactive segregation in aquatic organism may be one of the key modulator of resistance against such stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Índia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/enzimologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Especificidade da Espécie , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
11.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000548, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745077

RESUMO

Sleep is vital for survival. Yet under environmentally challenging conditions, such as starvation, animals suppress their need for sleep. Interestingly, starvation-induced sleep loss does not evoke a subsequent sleep rebound. Little is known about how starvation-induced sleep deprivation differs from other types of sleep loss, or why some sleep functions become dispensable during starvation. Here, we demonstrate that down-regulation of the secreted cytokine unpaired 2 (upd2) in Drosophila flies may mimic a starved-like state. We used a genetic knockdown strategy to investigate the consequences of upd2 on visual attention and sleep in otherwise well-fed flies, thereby sidestepping the negative side effects of undernourishment. We find that knockdown of upd2 in the fat body (FB) is sufficient to suppress sleep and promote feeding-related behaviors while also improving selective visual attention. Furthermore, we show that this peripheral signal is integrated in the fly brain via insulin-expressing cells. Together, these findings identify a role for peripheral tissue-to-brain interactions in the simultaneous regulation of sleep quality and attention, to potentially promote adaptive behaviors necessary for survival in hungry animals.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inanição/genética , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sono/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Inanição/metabolismo
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1932): 20200958, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752984

RESUMO

Human activities generate food attracting many animals worldwide, causing major conservation issues. The spatio-temporal predictability of anthropogenic resources could reduce search costs for animals and mediate their attractiveness. We investigated this through GPS tracking in breeding black-browed albatrosses attracted to fishing boats. We tested for answers to the following questions. (i) Can future boat locations be anticipated from cues available to birds? (ii) Are birds able to appropriately use these cues to increase encounters? (iii) How frequently do birds use these cues? Boats were spatially persistent: birds searching in the direction where they previously attended boats would encounter twice as many boats compared with following a random direction strategy. A large proportion of birds did not use this cue: across pairs of consecutive trips (n = 85), 51% of birds switched their foraging direction irrespective of previous boat encounters. Still, 15 birds (27%) were observed to closely approach (approx. 0.1-1 km) where they previously attended a boat while boats were no longer there. This is less than the distance expected by chance (approx. 10-100 km), based on permutation control procedures accounting for individual-specific spatial consistency, suggesting individuals could memorize where they encountered boats across consecutive trips. We conclude albatrosses were able to exploit predictive cues from recent boat encounters but most favoured alternative resources.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Pesqueiros , Atividades Humanas , Navios
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 19590-19598, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732431

RESUMO

During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, behavioral unresponsiveness contrasts strongly with intense brain-wide neural network dynamics. Yet, the physiological functions of this cellular activation remain unclear. Using in vivo calcium imaging in freely behaving mice, we found that inhibitory neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LHvgat) show unique activity patterns during feeding that are reactivated during REM, but not non-REM, sleep. REM sleep-specific optogenetic silencing of LHvgat cells induced a reorganization of these activity patterns during subsequent feeding behaviors accompanied by decreased food intake. Our findings provide evidence for a role for REM sleep in the maintenance of cellular representations of feeding behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/fisiologia , Sono REM/fisiologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Masculino , Camundongos , Rede Nervosa , Inibição Neural , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/fisiologia , Optogenética , Sono/fisiologia , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Aminoácidos Inibidores/genética , Proteínas Vesiculares de Transporte de Aminoácidos Inibidores/metabolismo
14.
Am J Primatol ; 82(8): e23176, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686188

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 and human responses to the resulting COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 have rapidly changed many aspects of human behavior, including our interactions with wildlife. In this commentary, we identify challenges and opportunities at human-primate interfaces in light of COVID-19, focusing on examples from Asia, and make recommendations for researchers working with wild primates to reduce zoonosis risk and leverage research opportunities. First, we briefly review the evidence for zoonotic origins of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss risks of zoonosis at the human-primate interface. We then identify challenges that the pandemic has caused for primates, including reduced nutrition, increased intraspecific competition, and increased poaching risk, as well as challenges facing primatologists, including lost research opportunities. Subsequently, we highlight opportunities arising from pandemic-related lockdowns and public health messaging, including opportunities to reduce the intensity of problematic human-primate interfaces, opportunities to reduce the risk of zoonosis between humans and primates, opportunities to reduce legal and illegal trade in primates, new opportunities for research on human-primate interfaces, and opportunities for community education. Finally, we recommend specific actions that primatologists should take to reduce contact and aggression between humans and primates, to reduce demand for primates as pets, to reduce risks of zoonosis in the context of field research, and to improve understanding of human-primate interfaces. Reducing the risk of zoonosis and promoting the well-being of humans and primates at our interfaces will require substantial changes from "business as usual." We encourage primatologists to help lead the way.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Primatas/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/transmissão
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667943

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pre-weaning heifer calves divergent for residual feed intake (RFI) or residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) exhibit differences in thermography, blood, and ruminal parameters. Thirty-two Gyr heifer calves were enrolled in a 63-d trial and classified into 2 feed efficiency (FE) groups based on RFI and RIG (mean ± 0.5 SD). The groups were classified as high efficiency (HE) RFI (HE RFI, n = 9), HE RIG (HE RIG, n = 10), low efficiency (LE) RFI (LE RFI, n = 10), and LE RIG (LE RIG, n = 11). The amount of whole milk provided for each calf was calculated based on their metabolic weight at birth (42% x BW0.75). The liquid diet was divided into two meals at 0700 and 1400 h. The total solid diet (TSD) was composed of 92% concentrate and 8% of Tifton 85 hay chopped in 5-cm lengths, as fed. Intake was measured daily. Blood concentrations of insulin, beta hydroxybutyrate, urea, and glucose, and ruminal pH, N-NH3, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were evaluated at 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 days of age. Thermal images of the calves were taken with an infrared camera (FLIR T420, FLIR Systems Inc., Wilsonville, OR) on d 56 (±3) at 0600 h, before the morning feeding. Total VFA concentration and propionate as % of total VFA were 24.2% and 22.2% lower in HE RFI compared to LE RFI calves, respectively. On the other hand, acetate as % of total VFA was 10.6% greater in HE RFI than LE RFI calves. Blood urea concentration tended to be greater in LE RFI than HE RFI calves. High efficiency HE RIG tended to have 6.8% greater acetate and 15.4% lower propionate as % of total VFA than LE RIG. Blood insulin concentration was greater and blood glucose tended to be greater for LE RIG than HE RIG group. Low efficiency RIG group had greater left rib, left flank, and anus surface temperature measured by infrared thermography than the HE RIG group. Differences in ruminal fermentation do not seem to be associated with pre-weaning calves efficiency, while differences in protein metabolism seem to affect RFI during this phase. Infrared thermography appears to be correlated to RIG in pre-weaning heifer calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Termogênese , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Bovinos , Ingestão de Energia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Termografia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609769

RESUMO

In social insects, collective choices between food sources are based on self-organized mechanisms where information about resources are locally processed by the foragers. Such a collective decision emerges from the competition between pheromone trails leading to different resources but also between the recruiting stimuli emitted by successful foragers at nest entrances. In this study, we investigated how an additional nest entrance influences the ability of Myrmica rubra ant colonies to exploit two food sources of different quality (1M and 0.1M sucrose solution) and to select the most rewarding one. We found that the mobilisation of workers doubled in two-entrance nests compared to one-entrance nests but that ants were less likely to reach a food source once they exited the nest. Moreover, the collective selection of the most rewarding food source was less marked in two-entrance nests, with foragers distributing themselves evenly between the two feeders. Ultimately, multiple nest entrances reduced the foraging efficiency of ant colonies that consumed significantly less sugar out of the two available resources. Our results highlight that the nest structure, more specifically the number of nest entrances, can impede the ant's ability to process information about environmental opportunities and to select the most rewarding resource. This study opens new insights on how the physical interface between the nest interior and the outside environment can act upon collective decision-making and foraging efficiency in self-organized insect societies.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Formigas/metabolismo , Feminino , Alimentos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Feromônios , Recompensa , Comportamento Social
17.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 87, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The blood-feeding behavior evolved multiple times in Insecta lineages and it represents an excellent opportunity to study patterns of convergent molecular evolution regarding this habit. In insects the expansion of some gene families is linked with blood-feeding behavior, but a wide study comparing the evolution of these gene families among different lineages is still missing. Here we gathered genomic data from six independently-evolved hematophagous lineages, aiming to identify convergent expansions and/or contractions of gene families in hematophagous lineages of insects. RESULTS: We found four rapidly evolving gene families shared by at least two hematophagous independently-evolved lineages, including a heat-shock and a chemosensory protein. On the expression of these four rapidly evolving gene families we found more genes expressed in mated individuals compared with virgin individuals in rapidly-expanded families and more genes expressed in non-blood-feeding individuals compared with blood-feeding individuals in rapidly-contracted families. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal a new set of candidate genes to be explored in further analysis to help the development of new strategies to deal with blood-feeding vectors and also presents a new perspective to study the evolution of hematophagy identifying convergent molecular patterns.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Insetos/genética , Família Multigênica , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
18.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 524-533, mayo-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The TaqI A1 polymorphism (rs1800497; T>C) downstream of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene has been associated with diminished DRD2 receptor density, higher food reinforcement, and impaired eating behavior in adults. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the association between the rs1800497 polymorphism and the reinforcing value of food and eating in the absence of hunger in Chilean children. MATERIAL AND METHOD: nineteen Chilean children (aged 8-12 years) who were carriers of the A1-allele and 19 age- and gender-matched non-carriers (A2-allele) were evaluated on the reinforcing value of food and eating in the absence of hunger. Anthropometric measures were performed by standard procedures. Briefly, children received a standard pre-load lunch followed by an ad-libitum exposure to palatable foods. RESULTS: no differences were found between A1-allele carriers and non-carriers, whether obese or non-obese, in ad libitum energy intake, macronutrient consumption, or the relative reinforcing value of food (p > 0.05). In obese children, A1 carriers reported significantly lower satiety and fullness before lunch (p < 0.05). However, in children with normal weight A1 carriers were found to exhibit trends for greater satiety and fullness before lunch when compared to non-carriers, but this trend reversed after lunch such that carriers exhibited lower satiety and fullness (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: although TaqI A1 may play an important role in some eating behavior-related traits such as satiety and fullness, especially in obese children, our findings indicate that this polymorphism does not appear to affect eating in the absence of hunger or food reinforcement in children


ANTECEDENTES: los alimentos son un poderoso reforzador de la alimentación. El polimorfismo TaqI A1 (rs1800497; T> C) del gen del receptor 2 de dopamina (DRD2) se ha asociado con una menor densidad de DRD2, un mayor refuerzo alimentario y un comportamiento alimentario alterado en adultos. OBJETIVO: evaluar la asociación entre el polimorfismo rs1800497, el valor reforzador del alimento y la conducta de comer en ausencia de hambre en niños chilenos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: treinta y ocho niños chilenos, 19 portadores del alelo A1 y 19 no portadores (alelo A2), pareados por género y edad, fueron evaluados en condiciones de laboratorio para determinar el valor reforzador del alimento y la conducta de comer en ausencia de hambre. Las mediciones antropométricas se realizaron por procedimientos estándar. Brevemente, los niños recibieron un almuerzo estándar seguido de una exposición ad-libitum a alimentos sabrosos. RESULTADOS: no hubo diferencias en la ingesta ad libitum de energía, ni en el consumo de macronutrientes, ni en el valor reforzador del alimento entre los portadores del alelo A1 frente a los no portadores (p > 0,05). Entre los niños obesos, los portadores del alelo A1 reportaron un menor nivel de saciedad y plenitud pre-almuerzo (p < 0,05). Sin embargo, entre los niños con normopeso se observó que los portadores de A1 tenían tendencia a presentar un mayor grado de saciedad y plenitud (pre-almuerzo) frente a los no portadores. Esta tendencia se invirtió post-almuerzo, de modo que los portadores exhibieron menor saciedad y plenitud (p = 0,06). CONCLUSIONES: la variante TaqI A1 podría desempeñar un papel importante en algunos rasgos relacionados con la conducta alimentaria, como la saciedad y la plenitud


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Fome/fisiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/genética , Obesidade/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Chile , Variação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Antropometria , Peso Corporal/genética , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/fisiologia
19.
Nutr. hosp ; 37(3): 577-583, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-193866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: chronic pain is a complex entity with immense individual and societal burden. OBJECTIVES: to assess the effectiveness of specifically designed nutrition education for the management of chronic pain and whether any change in dietary habits contribute to decrease in pain intensity. Objectives and methods: 40 patients were enrolled in the 4-week intervention study. Patients filled-in questionaires regarding their basic characteristics, pain intensity, quality of life, and dietary habits at baseline and post-intervention. Intervention consisted of 1 individual and 2 group counselings based on the nutrition education specifically designed for the chronic pain management. RESULTS: post-intervention, pain intensity decreased in 67.5 % of patients while quality of life improved significantly (from 42.9 ± 31.3 to 70.1 ± 26.2 points, p = 0.015). All patients responded to nutrition education by increasing the number of meals per day (p < 0.001), improving regularity of breakfast (p = 0.005) and by less frequently skipping meals (p = 0.027). Fewer meal skipping (OR = 0.037, 95 % CI (0.003-0.482), p = 0.012) and lower consumption of foods with negative effect on chronic pain (OR = 0.008, 95 % CI (0.000-0.444), p = 0.019) were found to modestly, but independently contribute to decrease in pain intensity. Still, patients with higher BMI and several diagnoses had low response. CONCLUSIONS: the developed nutrition education is fit for the management of chronic pain. The main benefits are improved meal consumption pattern along with reduced consumption of foods with pro-inflammatory effect and food cravings. The complexity of chronic pain is obvious in low responsiveness among patients with higher BMI and several conditions


INTRODUCCIÓN: el dolor crónico es una entidad compleja con una inmensa carga individual y social. OBJETIVO: verificar si la educación nutricional diseñada específicamente para el tratamiento del dolor crónico y si algún cambio en los hábitos alimenticios contribuyen a disminuir la intensidad del dolor. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: se incluyeron 40 pacientes en el estudio observacional intervencionista de 4 semanas. Los pacientes completaron cuestionarios sobre las características básicas: la intensidad del dolor, la calidad de vida y los hábitos alimenticios al inicio y después de la intervención. La intervención consistió en 1 asesoramiento individual y 2 grupales basados en la educación nutricional diseñada específicamente para el tratamiento del dolor crónico. RESULTADOS: después de la intervención, la intensidad del dolor disminuyó en el 67,5 % de los pacientes al tiempo que mejoró significativamente la calidad de vida (de 42,9 ± 31,3 a 70,1 ± 26,2 puntos, p = 0,015). Todos los pacientes respondieron a la educación nutricional: aumentaron el número de comidas por día (p < 0,001), mejoraron la regularidad del desayuno (p = 0,005) y omitieron las comidas con menos frecuencia (p = 0,027). Menos saltos de comida (OR = 0,037, IC 95 % [0,003-0.482], p = 0,012) y menor consumo de alimentos con efecto negativo sobre el dolor crónico (OR = 0,008, IC 95 % [0,000-0,444], p = 0.019) se encontraron que modestamente, pero, de formma independiente, contribuyen a disminuir la intensidad del dolor. Sin embargo, los pacientes con mayor BMI y varios diagnósticos tuvieron baja resonancia. CONCLUSIÓN: la educación nutricional desarrollada es adecuada para el manejo del dolor crónico. Los mejores beneficios son un patrón mejorado de consumo de comida junto a un consumo reducido de alimentos con efecto proinflamatorio y antojos de alimentos. La complejidad del dolor crónico es visible en baja respuesta entre pacientes con mayor BMI y varios diagnósticos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Dor Crônica/dietoterapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos Piloto , Educação Alimentar e Nutricional , Croácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191134

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: El cierre de fronteras, el confinamiento de la población y el distanciamiento físico han sido las principales medidas instauradas en muchos países para contener el alcance y gravedad de la pandemia COVID-19. En este estudio se analizan los cambios en los hábitos alimentarios y en otros estilos de vida durante el periodo de confinamiento en un grupo de población en España. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se ha realizado un estudio transversal, observacional en una muestra de conveniencia de personas mayores de 18 años de edad, reclutada de forma electrónica entre el 21 de abril y 8 de mayo de 2020 (semanas 6-8 de confinamiento) en España (n= 1036). El protocolo contemplaba datos sociodemográficos, características del confinamiento, hábitos de consumo alimentario y actividad física usuales, y modificaciones durante el periodo de confinamiento. RESULTADOS: Los cambios más frecuentes se refieren a mayor consumo de fruta (27%), huevos (25,4%), legumbres (22,5%), verduras (21%) y pescado (20%) y reducción en el consumo de carnes procesadas (35,5%), cordero o conejo (32%), pizza (32,6%), bebidas alcohólicas destiladas (44,2%), bebidas azucaradas (32,8%) o chocolate (25,8%), con algunas diferencias sobre todo en función de la edad y el grado de adecuación de la dieta usual. Un 14,1% que habitualmente no cocina, lo hace en este periodo. El 15% no realiza ejercicio físico, 24,6% pasa sentado más de 9 horas diarias y el 30,7% de las personas fumadoras (14,7%) fuma más. Un 37% refiere no dormir bien. CONCLUSIONES: Los participantes en este estudio refieren cambios alimentarios en el periodo de confinamiento en España con tendencia hacia mayor consumo de alimentos saludables, menor consumo de alimentos de menos interés nutricional y aumento de la práctica de cocinar en casa


BACKGROUND: The lockout of borders, lockdown of the population and social isolation are key measures adopted in many countries to contain the COVID-19 pandemic. This study describes changes in eating habits and other lifestyles during confinement in a population group in Spain. METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted on a convenience sample of people aged 18 yr. and over, recruited online between April 21 and May 8, 2020 (weeks 6-8 of lockdown) in Spain (n = 1036). The protocol considered sociodemographic data, characteristics of confinement, usual food consumption and physical activity, and changes during confinement. RESULTS: Most frequently reported changes in dietary habits are increased consumption of fruit (27%), eggs (25.4%), legumes (22.5%), vegetables (21%) and fish (20%) and reduced consumption of processed meats (35.5%), lamb or rabbit (32%), pizza (32.6%), distilled alcoholic beverages (44.2%), sugary drinks (32.8%) or chocolate (25.8%). Some differences were observed depending on age and adequacy of the usual diet. Some 14.1% who do not usually cook do so during this period; 15% do not do physical exercise, 24.6% sit more than 9 hours a day and 30.7% of smokers (14.7%) report increased tobacco use. 37% reported not sleeping well. CONCLUSIONS: Participants in this study report dietary changes during lockdown in Spain with a trend towards greater consumption of healthier foods, less consumption of foods of poor nutritional interest and an increase in the practice of cooking at home


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Atividade Motora , Consumo de Alimentos , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Intervalos de Confiança
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