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1.
Biol Bull ; 237(1): 36-47, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441703

RESUMO

The pteropod mollusc Clione limacina is a feeding specialist, preying on shelled pteropods of the genus Limacina. Specialized prey-capture structures, called buccal cones, are hydraulically everted from within the mouth to capture the prey. Once captured, the prey is manipulated so the shell opening is over the mouth of Clione. Analyses of high-speed cine sequences of prey capture suggest that the mouth is actively opened rather than passively forced open by buccal cone eversion. The inflated buccal cones are initially straight and form a wide angle (maximum, 113°) prior to prey contact. Individual buccal cones bend orally following prey contact, suggesting a sensory trigger. To determine the muscular basis of buccal cone movements, the musculature of the buccal cones is described. Three distinct muscle fiber types include circular smooth muscle, longitudinal smooth muscle, and longitudinal striated muscle. The organization, distribution, and innervation of the muscle types suggest that circular muscle is used during buccal cone eversion, longitudinal smooth muscle is used for buccal cone withdrawal, and longitudinal striated muscle is used for oral bending of the buccal cones after prey contact and for manipulation of the prey.


Assuntos
Clione/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Clione/fisiologia , Músculo Liso/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Liso/inervação , Músculo Estriado/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Estriado/inervação
2.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(9): 2169-2197, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the gut microbiota play a positive role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: This study aims to elucidate the "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis and to provide guidance for prevention and intervention in CRC. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched from their inceptions to August 2018, and 75 articles and 25 conference abstracts were included and analysed after identification and screening. RESULTS: The concentrations of SCFAs in CRC patients and individuals with a high risk of CRC were higher than those in healthy individuals. The protective mechanism of SCFAs against CRC has been described in three aspects: epigenetics, immunology and molecular signalling pathways. Many food and plant extracts that were fermented by microorganisms produced SCFAs that play positive roles with preventive and therapeutic effects on CRC. The "food-microorganism-SCFAs" axis was constructed by summarizing the pertinent literature. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the basic research and practical application of SCFAs by assessing the protective effect of SCFAs on CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Alimentos , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
3.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 148-153, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465181

RESUMO

Introduction: It is recommended to limit the consumption of sodium to 2 g / day and consume 25 g / 2000 kcal of fiber. Baked and cookies are the key food-vehicle to achieve these recommendations. x Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of the optimal healthy bread with nutritional information in a breakfast, teatime or snack (DMC) in real consumption situation. Methodology: In the offices of the Faculty of Medicine, a tray was delivered with: infusions, sweeteners, milk powder, jams, healthy bread, commercial orange juice and nutritional information to be consumed by participants as DMC. 100 students, teachers and non-teachers performed the acceptance test of different components of the tray using a scale of 1 (dislike very much) to 10 (like very much), they answered demographic data, what was your DM C, amount of bread consumed and the price they would pay for it. Results: 43.4% consumed the tray for teatime. Most consumed infusion: coffee. 100% consumed the bread and 91% accompanied it with jam. The average value of acceptability was 8.57 ± 1.44 without significant differences by age, sex or Body Mass Index. 76% consumed at least 3/4. The average price they were willing to pay was $ 54.65 / kilo ±12.32 (reference French bread $ 50 / kilo). The average scores of acceptability were: 8.82±1.27 for presentation of the tray, 8.53±1.43 of the DMC consumed and 8.17±2 of the commercial orange juice. Conclusions: The acceptability of the bread in real situation of consumption was very good, being an effective strategy to reduce the ingestion of NaCl and increase the fiber.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pão , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Zoology (Jena) ; 135: 125678, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383297

RESUMO

In a majority of ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii), effective acquisition of food resources is predicated on rapid jaw adduction. Although the musculoskeletal architecture of the feeding system has been the subject of comparative research for many decades, individual contributions of the major adductor divisions to closing dynamics have not been elucidated. While it is understood that the dorsal divisions that arise from the head and insert on the posterior of the lower jaw are major contributors to closing dynamics, the contribution of the ventral components of the adductor system has been largely overlooked. In many ray-finned fishes, the ventral component is comprised of a single division, the Aω, that originates on an intersegmental aponeurosis of the facialis divisions and inserts on the medial face of the dentary, anterior to the Meckelian tendon. This configuration resembles a sling applied at two offset points of attachment on a third-order lever. The goal of this study was to elucidate the contributions of the Aω to jaw adduction by modeling jaw closing in the deep-sea viperfish Chauliodus sloani. To do this, we simulated adduction with a revised computational model that incorporates the geometry of the Aω. By comparing results between simulations that included and excluded Aω input, we show that the Aω adds substantially to lower-jaw adduction dynamics in C. sloani by acting as a steering motor and displacing the line of action of the dorsal facialis adductor muscles and increasing the mechanical advantage and input moment arms of the jaw lever system. We also explored the effect of the Aω on muscle dynamics and found that overall facialis muscle shortening velocities are higher and normalized force production is lower in simulations including the Aω. The net effect of these changes in muscle dynamics results in similar magnitudes of peak power in the facialis divisions between simulations, however, peak power is achieved earlier in adduction Modifications of muscle mechanics and posture result in significant increases in closing performance, including static bite force, angular velocity, and adduction time. We compare this configuration to a similar design in crocodilians and suggest that the Aω configuration and similar sling configurations across the vertebrate tree of life indicate the importance of this musculoskeletal design in feeding.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Peixes/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104694, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311645

RESUMO

In dairy cattle, reproductive diseases and infertility are some of the most important reasons for culling, where postpartum negative energy balance (NEB) reduces reproductive performance. This single cohort observational study reports the association between eating time and the interval between calving and first service in 2036 dairy cows on 17 commercial farms in The Netherlands. Cows were equipped with a commercially available neck sensor (Nedap, Groenlo, The Netherlands), that measured the time cows spent eating, from 28 days (d) before until 28 d after parturition. Primiparous cows spent a mean of +45 minutes (min) eating time per day ante partum and +15 min eating time post partum more than multiparous cows. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze eating time variables in relation to the interval between calving and first service. From 4 weeks before until 4 weeks after calving eating time variables per week were used. Weeks -4, -3 + 3 and +4 were used as weeks with stable eating time patterns and therefore the mean eating time per week and the standard deviation of the mean eating time per week were used. Weeks -2, -1, +1 and +2 were addressed as periods with unstable eating patterns and therefore the slope in eating time per week and the residual variance of the slope per week were modeled. Significant results were the mean eating time in week -4 and +3 where in both weeks higher eating time lead to a higher hazard for first service. Difference between primiparous and multiparous cows were also significant with a higher hazard for first service for primiparous cows. Week 4 post partum presented a significant difference between eating time of primiparous cows and multiparous cows. These results display how eating time variables in the transition period could be related to the interval between calving and first service, and that there is a relation between mean eating time in week -4, +3, +4 and the interval between calving and first insemination.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Paridade , Parto , Animais , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Indústria de Laticínios , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Países Baixos , Paridade/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tempo
6.
Bioengineered ; 10(1): 292-305, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284815

RESUMO

In the present study, Probit, Cauchy Fractional and three types of Log methods, i.e., Logit, Log-log, and Complementary log-log were employed to model the feeding deterrence of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), when fed latex protein, crude flavonoid fraction, 3-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, isolated from Calotropis procera (Ait.) (Gentianales: Asclepiadaceae). A nutritional study with treated flour discs at sub-lethal concentrations indicated that the tested natural products negatively affected the feeding behavior of the lesser grain borer, causing high feeding deterrent indices. Our results assure that Probit, Logit and Clog-log model the feeding deterrent indices with high goodness of fit. The models aim to support the management of the test insect when fed grains treated with sub-lethal doses of the tested phytochemicals in order to develop a viable, precise and long-term strategy to minimize the excessive reliance on the chemical pesticides currently in use.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Calotropis/química , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/fisiologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Triticum/parasitologia
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 14-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303198

RESUMO

Foraging behavior by parasitized herbivores can be interpreted as a decision-making process where individuals are faced with trading-off the ingestion of nutrients with the ingestion of potentially medicinal -and toxic- plant secondary compounds. We determined how parasitized sheep prioritize selection of crude protein, energy and a medicinal plant secondary compound (quebracho tannins-QT). Foraging preferences were tested in 40 lambs before experiencing a parasitic infection (Phase 1), during an infection (Phase 2; 10,000 L3Haemonchus contortus per lamb) and after chemotherapy (Phase 3). Lambs were assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) such that animals in Group 1 (Control) could choose between foods of high (HEP) or low (LEP) energy to protein ratios. The other groups received the same choice, but QT were added (4%) to HEP (Group 2), to LEP (Group 3) or to both foods (Group 4). All groups under a parasitic infection (Phase 2) increased their preference for HEP (from 0.44 to 0.66 ±â€¯0.042; P < 0.05) and intake of digestible energy (from 0.106 to 0.126 ±â€¯0.007 Mcal/kg BW; P < 0.05) relative to Phase 1, a pattern that remained during Phase 3. Only lambs receiving QT in HEP increased their intake of QT from Phase 1 to Phase 2 (P < 0.05). Fecal egg counts and blood parameters revealed a parasitic infection (P < 0.05) in Phase 2 that subsided in Phase 3, although no differences were detected among groups (P > 0.05). The importance of protein nutrition on parasitized animals has been highlighted before, but these results suggest that lambs prioritized the ingestion of energy-dense over protein-dense foods or medicinal condensed tannins when challenged by gastrointestinal parasitism. Consumption of medicinal tannins represented a side-effect of the preference manifested for energy-dense foods during testing.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taninos/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2769, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235690

RESUMO

Loss of appetite or anorexia associated with inflammation impairs quality of life and increases morbidity in many diseases. However, the exact neural mechanism that mediates inflammation-associated anorexia is still poorly understood. Here we identified a population of neurons, marked by the expression of protein kinase C-delta, in the oval region of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), which are activated by various inflammatory signals. Silencing of these neurons attenuates the anorexia caused by these inflammatory signals. Our results demonstrate that these neurons mediate bidirectional control of general feeding behaviors. These neurons inhibit the lateral hypothalamus-projecting neurons in the ventrolateral part of BNST to regulate feeding, receive inputs from the canonical feeding regions of arcuate nucleus and parabrachial nucleus. Our data therefore define a BNST microcircuit that might coordinate canonical feeding centers to regulate food intake, which could offer therapeutic targets for feeding-related diseases such as anorexia and obesity.


Assuntos
Anorexia/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia , Animais , Anorexia/etiologia , Anorexia/prevenção & controle , Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Parabraquiais/fisiologia , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Núcleos Septais/citologia , Técnicas Estereotáxicas
9.
Value Health ; 22(6): 721-727, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Efforts to evaluate HRQoL and calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for infants less than 12 months of age are hampered by the lack of preference-based HRQoL instruments for this group. To fill this gap, we developed the Infant Quality of life Instrument (IQI), which is administered through a mobile application. This article explains how weights were derived for the 4 levels of each health item. METHODS: The IQI includes 7 health items: sleeping, feeding, breathing, stooling/poo, mood, skin, and interaction. In an online survey, respondents from the general population (n = 1409) and primary caregivers (n = 1229) from China, the United Kingdom, and the United States were presented with 10 discrete choice scenarios. Coefficients for the item levels were obtained with a conditional logit model. RESULTS: The highest coefficients were found for sleeping, feeding, and breathing. All coefficients for these items were negative and logically ordered, meaning that more extreme levels were less preferred. Stooling, mood, skin, and interaction showed some irregularities in the ordering of coefficients. Results for caregivers and the general population were about the same. CONCLUSIONS: The IQI is the first generic instrument to assess overall HRQoL in infants up to 1 year of age. It is short and easy to administer through a mobile application. We demonstrated how to derive values for infant health states with a discrete choice methodology. Our next step will be to normalize these values into utilities ranging from 0 (dead) to 1 (best health state) and to collect IQI values in a clinical population.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Psicometria/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Afeto/fisiologia , China , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele , Sono/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
10.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 45(3): 921-933, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104250

RESUMO

In fish, as in mammals, several studies have demonstrated that the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) plays an important role in feeding. However, thus far, the function of CART in gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) feeding regulation has not been reported. In our study, we first identified three forms of CART peptide precursors from gibel carp brain and named these CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3. The full-length cDNA sequences of CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 were 616 bp, 705 bp, and 760 bp, respectively, encoding peptides of 118, 120, and 104 amino acid residues. We detected mRNA expression of CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 in a wide range of peripheral and central tissues, with the highest expression detected in the brain. After a meal, mRNA expression of CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 was significantly elevated, suggesting that CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 may act as postprandial satiety signals. Moreover, mRNA expression of all three CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 was significantly reduced during fasting and significantly elevated with refeeding. Our findings indicate that CART-1, CART-2, and CART-3 might function as a satiety factor in the gibel carp.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Carpa Dourada/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Filogenia , Isoformas de Proteínas
11.
Behav Processes ; 164: 133-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051219

RESUMO

Starting in late 1980's, Bill Timberlake and associates conducted a series of experiments on anticipatory contrast which showed that rats' feeding decisions were regulated by the nutritive value of currently ingested and anticipated food. The effects of nutrient sensing on feeding regulation have been studied intensively in rodents, and recently, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we developed a new behavioral test to study rapid feeding decisions of tethered flies within 6-8 s of ingestion. Using a two-phase experimental design, we presented individual flies one of four serial combinations of a non-nutritive sugar, arabinose, or a nutritive sugar, sucrose. Feeding decisions of wildtype (Canton-S) flies are altered both by immediate effects of nutrient sensing and 1-hour delayed effects of nutrient-feeding, and the two effects act additively to yield a signature pattern of behavioral contrast based on nutritive contrast. Feeding phenotype of flies that carry a mutation of the dSLC5A11 (cupcake) gene varied with the mutant allele and genetic background. Fasted dSLC5A11 mutants showed an overeating phenotype and a defect in short-term feeding regulation irrespective of the nutritive value of sugar. Flies that carried the dSLC5A111 allele showed differential feeding for arabinose and sucrose. However, dSLC5A112 allele yielded a conspicuous deficit in delayed effects of nutrient ingestion, but only when it was expressed on a Canton-S background. Our results suggest that dSLC5A11 might function to integrate external stimulus properties and internal state for feeding regulation and action selection.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/fisiologia , Alelos , Animais , Arabinose , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Mutação , Valor Nutritivo , Percepção/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Ratos , Sacarose , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2200, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097702

RESUMO

Multiple factors modulate microbial community assembly in the vertebrate gut, though studies disagree as to their relative contribution. One cause may be a reliance on captive animals, which can have very different gut microbiomes compared to their wild counterparts. To resolve this disagreement, we analyze a new, large, and highly diverse animal distal gut 16 S rRNA microbiome dataset, which comprises 80% wild animals and includes members of Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia, and Actinopterygii. We decouple the effects of host evolutionary history and diet on gut microbiome diversity and show that each factor modulates different aspects of diversity. Moreover, we resolve particular microbial taxa associated with host phylogeny or diet and show that Mammalia have a stronger signal of cophylogeny. Finally, we find that environmental filtering and microbe-microbe interactions differ among host clades. These findings provide a robust assessment of the processes driving microbial community assembly in the vertebrate intestine.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Vertebrados/microbiologia , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , Vertebrados/fisiologia
13.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 15(7): 393-405, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073218

RESUMO

Feeding, which is essential for all animals, is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms. In addition, food consumption is temporally coordinated by the brain over the circadian (~24 h) cycle. A network of circadian clocks set daily windows during which food consumption can occur. These daily windows mostly overlap with the active phase. Brain clocks that ensure the circadian control of food intake include a master light-entrainable clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus and secondary clocks in hypothalamic and brainstem regions. Metabolic hormones, circulating nutrients and visceral neural inputs transmit rhythmic cues that permit (via close and reciprocal molecular interactions that link metabolic processes and circadian clockwork) brain and peripheral organs to be synchronized to feeding time. As a consequence of these complex interactions, growing evidence shows that chronodisruption and mistimed eating have deleterious effects on metabolic health. Conversely, eating, even eating an unbalanced diet, during the normal active phase reduces metabolic disturbances. Therefore, in addition to energy intake and dietary composition, appropriately timed meal patterns are critical to prevent circadian desynchronization and limit metabolic risks. This Review provides insight into the dual modulation of food intake by homeostatic and circadian processes, describes the mechanisms regulating feeding time and highlights the beneficial effects of correctly timed eating, as opposed to the negative metabolic consequences of mistimed eating.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2279, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123264

RESUMO

Species, and their ecological strategies, are disappearing. Here we use species traits to quantify the current and projected future ecological strategy diversity for 15,484 land mammals and birds. We reveal an ecological strategy surface, structured by life-history (fast-slow) and body mass (small-large) as one major axis, and diet (invertivore-herbivore) and habitat breadth (generalist-specialist) as the other. We also find that of all possible trait combinations, only 9% are currently realized. Based on species' extinction probabilities, we predict this limited set of viable strategies will shrink further over the next 100 years, shifting the mammal and bird species pool towards small, fast-lived, highly fecund, insect-eating, generalists. In fact, our results show that this projected decline in ecological strategy diversity is much greater than if species were simply lost at random. Thus, halting the disproportionate loss of ecological strategies associated with highly threatened animals represents a key challenge for conservation.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Extinção Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Aves/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2088, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113960

RESUMO

There is a multi-billion dollar global industry dedicated to feeding wild birds in residential gardens. This extraordinary boost to food resources is almost certainly reshaping entire bird communities, yet the large-scale, long-term impacts on community ecology remain unknown. Here we reveal a 40-year transformation of the bird communities using garden bird feeders in Britain, and provide evidence to suggest how this may have contributed to national-scale population changes. We find that increases in bird diversity at feeders are associated with increasing community evenness, as species previously rarely observed in gardens have increasingly exploited the growing variety of foods on offer over time. Urban areas of Britain are consequently nurturing growing populations of feeder-using bird species, while the populations of species that do not use feeders remain unchanged. Our findings illustrate the on-going, gross impact people can have on bird community structure across large spatial scales.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Biota/fisiologia , Aves/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Jardins , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Reino Unido
17.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 56(1): 3-9, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional condition, which main symptoms of pain, discomfort and abdominal distension, constipation, diarrhea, altered fecal consistency and sensation of incomplete evacuation can be influenced by the presence of dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs). This study aimed to assess the relationship between the quantity of fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAP) and fiber consumed by individuals diagnosed with IBS, and their classification according to the Rome III criteria. METHODS: A transversal study was carried out in the Intestinal Outpatient Clinic of the Gastroenterology Discipline of UNIFESP. The nutrients of interest for the study were: fiber, general carbohydrates and FODMAPs, with intake quantity measured in grams, analyzed through portions consumed. A nutrition log was used, along with a semi-quantitative questionnaire of consumption frequency. RESULTS: The sample included 63 adult patients; 21 with constipated IBS, 21 with diarrhea IBS, and 21 with mixed IBS. Carbohydrate intake was suboptimal in 55.6% of patients in all groups; excessive consumption was identified in 38.1% of the diarrhea group, 14.3% of the mixed group and 38.1% of the constipated group. Low consumption of carbohydrates was found in 28.6% of diarrhea patients and 47.6% of the mixed group. A mean intake of 23 g of fiber per day was identified, lower than recommended. CONCLUSION: The study identified a number of inadequacies in the consumption of different nutrients, excessive carbohydrate intake, especially FODMAPs, identified by the respondents as responsible for a worsening of their conditions. By contrast, other food groups such as meat, eggs and dairy were consumed by the sample population in insufficient quantities.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180482, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116242

RESUMO

The leishmaniases are caused by Leishmania parasites and transmitted through the bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During parasite development inside the vector's midgut, promastigotes move towards the stomodeal valve, a mechanism that is crucial for transmission. It has been reported that the sugar meal acquired by sand flies during feeding between bloodmeals is essential for the development and migration of parasites. We demonstrated that the distribution of Leishmania mexicana parasites was affected by the sugar meals obtained by the sand flies. Promastigote migration towards the cardia region seems to be only partially based on the stimuli provided by sugar molecules. In the absence of sugars, significant amounts of parasites developed in the hindgut. In addition, sugar meals were important for the survival of sand flies, especially during blood digestion, presumably supporting their energy requirements.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania mexicana/fisiologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmania mexicana/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade , Psychodidae/fisiologia
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2036, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048713

RESUMO

Morphological diversity may arise rapidly as a result of adaptation to novel ecological opportunities, but early bursts of trait evolution are rarely observed. Rather, models of discrete shifts between adaptive zones may better explain macroevolutionary dynamics across radiations. To investigate which of these processes underlie exceptional levels of morphological diversity during ecological diversification, we use modern phylogenetic tools and 3D geometric morphometric datasets to examine adaptive zone shifts in bat skull shape. Here we report that, while disparity was established early, bat skull evolution is best described by multiple adaptive zone shifts. Shifts are partially decoupled between the cranium and mandible, with cranial evolution more strongly driven by echolocation than diet. Phyllostomidae, a trophic adaptive radiation, exhibits more adaptive zone shifts than all other families combined. This pattern was potentially driven by ecological opportunity and facilitated by a shift to intermediate cranial shapes compared to oral-emitters and other nasal emitters.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Ecolocação/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Especiação Genética , Filogenia , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/fisiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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