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1.
Am J Health Behav ; 45(4): 756-770, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340742

RESUMO

Objectives: Cross-sectional reports on weight gain during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home have raised concerns for weight increases as the pandemic continues. We examined behaviors that impact energy intake and/or energy expenditure among adults in the United States during shelter-at-home. Methods: Cross-sectional data (N=1779; April 24 - May4, 2020) were collected on demographics, diet, physical activity, sleep, and food purchasing behaviors. Percent of participants reporting increase/ decrease/no change in these behaviors during the COVID-19 shelter-at-home were assessed. Each analysis was followed by comparing whether increases or decreases were more likely for each health behavior, in all participants and across sex (43.38% males). Results: Increased consumption of healthy foods, energy-dense unhealthy foods, and snacks, and increased sedentary activities (p < .001) was reported. Physical activity and alcohol intake declined (p < .001). Females were more likely than males (p < .001) to report ultra-processed foods/high-calorie snack intake, fruit/vegetable intake (p < .001) and increase (p < .01) sleep and sedentary behavior. Conclusion: Acute behavioral changes supporting greater energy intake and less energy expenditure, especially in females, underscore the significance of COVID-19-related increase in unstructured time. Longitudinal assessment of body weight and health behaviors is warranted to understand the impact of pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Distanciamento Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371854

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between maternal insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration and food consumption frequency and the birth parameters of the newborn. A total of 157 mother-newborn pairs participated in the study. The study showed that more frequent consumption of sweet and salty snacks as well as fruit and fruit or vegetable juices may promote greater weight gain in pregnancy and higher newborn birth weight. A significantly higher insulin concentration was found among overweight women according to body mass index (BMI), and a significantly lower concentration of IGF-1 was demonstrated among women ≥35 years of age. There was no significant correlation between the concentration of insulin and IGF-1 in the mother's blood plasma and the birth weight and length of the newborn. A significant relationship was only found between the concentration of IGF-1 in the mother's blood and the Ponderal index of the newborn. A woman's eating habits during pregnancy have a significant impact on the mother's health and on the proper growth and development of the foetus.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Insulina/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Polônia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371858

RESUMO

Frailty is a syndrome of growing importance given the global ageing population. While frailty is a multifactorial process, poor nutritional status is considered a key contributor to its pathophysiology. As nutrition is a modifiable risk factor for frailty, strategies to prevent and treat frailty should consider dietary change. Observational evidence linking nutrition with frailty appears most robust for dietary quality: for example, dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean diet appear to be protective. In addition, research on specific foods, such as a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables and lower consumption of ultra-processed foods are consistent, with healthier profiles linked to lower frailty risk. Few dietary intervention studies have been conducted to date, although a growing number of trials that combine supplementation with exercise training suggest a multi-domain approach may be more effective. This review is based on an interdisciplinary workshop, held in November 2020, and synthesises current understanding of dietary influences on frailty, focusing on opportunities for prevention and treatment. Longer term prospective studies and well-designed trials are needed to determine the causal effects of nutrition on frailty risk and progression and how dietary change can be used to prevent and/or treat frailty in the future.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fragilidade/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Causalidade , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444841

RESUMO

High sodium and low potassium intakes are associated with increased levels of blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Assessment of habitual dietary habits are helpful to evaluate their intake and adherence to healthy dietary recommendations. In this study, we determined sodium and potassium food-specific content and intake in a Northern Italy community, focusing on the role and contribution of adherence to Mediterranean diet patterns. We collected a total of 908 food samples and measured sodium and potassium content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, we assessed habitual dietary intake of 719 adult individuals of the Emilia-Romagna region. We then estimated sodium and potassium daily intake for each food based on their relative contribution to the overall diet, and their link to Mediterranean diet patterns. The estimated mean sodium intake was 2.15 g/day, while potassium mean intake was 3.37 g/day. The foods contributing most to sodium intake were cereals (33.2%), meat products (24.5%, especially processed meat), and dairy products (13.6%), and for potassium they were meat (17.1%, especially red and white meat), fresh fruits (15.7%), and vegetables (15.1%). Adherence to a Mediterranean diet had little influence on sodium intake, whereas potassium intake was greatly increased in subjects with higher scores, resulting in a lower sodium/potassium ratio. Although we may have underestimated dietary sodium intake by not including discretionary salt use and there may be some degree of exposure misclassification as a result of changes in food sodium content and dietary habits over time, our study provides an overview of the contribution of a wide range of foods to the sodium and potassium intake in a Northern Italy community and of the impact of a Mediterranean diet on intake. The mean sodium intake was above the dietary recommendations for adults of 1.5-2 g/day, whilst potassium intake was only slightly lower than the recommended 3.5 g/day. Our findings suggest that higher adherence to Mediterranean diet patterns has limited effect on restricting sodium intake, but may facilitate a higher potassium intake, thereby aiding the achievement of healthy dietary recommendations.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Mediterrânea , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Potássio na Dieta/análise , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Saudável/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Potássio na Dieta/sangue , Sódio na Dieta/sangue
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4173, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234137

RESUMO

The integration of circadian and metabolic signals is essential for maintaining robust circadian rhythms and ensuring efficient metabolism and energy use. Using Drosophila as an animal model, we show that cellular protein O-GlcNAcylation exhibits robust 24-hour rhythm and represents a key post-translational mechanism that regulates circadian physiology. We observe strong correlation between protein O-GlcNAcylation rhythms and clock-controlled feeding-fasting cycles, suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation rhythms are primarily driven by nutrient input. Interestingly, daily O-GlcNAcylation rhythms are severely dampened when we subject flies to time-restricted feeding at unnatural feeding time. This suggests the presence of clock-regulated buffering mechanisms that prevent excessive O-GlcNAcylation at non-optimal times of the day-night cycle. We show that this buffering mechanism is mediated by the expression and activity of GFAT, OGT, and OGA, which are regulated through integration of circadian and metabolic signals. Finally, we generate a mathematical model to describe the key factors that regulate daily O-GlcNAcylation rhythm.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/metabolismo , Hexosaminas/biossíntese , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/fisiologia , Acetilglucosamina/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Relógios Circadianos/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/genética , Masculino , Modelos Animais , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo
6.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(9): 619-630, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of trends in feeding indicators of children younger than 2 years have been limited to low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to assess time trends in the consumption of different types of milk (breastmilk, formula, and animal milk) by children younger than 2 years from 2000 to 2019 at a global level. METHODS: In this time-series analysis, we combined cross-sectional data from 487 nationally representative surveys from low-income and middle-income countries and information from high-income countries to estimate seven infant and young child feeding indicators in up to 113 countries. Multilevel linear models were used in pooled analyses to estimate annual changes in feeding practices from 2000 to 2019 for country income groups and world regions. FINDINGS: For the absolute average annual changes, we found significant gains in any breastfeeding at age 6 months in high-income countries (1·29 percentage points [PPs] per year [95% CI 1·12 to 1·45]; p<0·0001) and at age 1 year in high-income countries (1·14 PPs per year [0·99 to 1·28]; p<0·0001) and upper-middle-income countries (0·53 PPs per year [0·23 to 0·82]; p<0·0001). We also found a small reduction in low-income countries for any breastfeeding at age 6 months (-0·07 PPs per year [-0·11 to -0·03]; p<0·0001) and age 1 year (-0·13 PPs per year [-0·18 to -0·09]; p<0·0001). Data on exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of formula and animal milk were only available for low-income and middle-income countries, where exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life increased by 0·70 PPs per year (0·51-0·88; p<0·0001) to reach 48·6% (41·9-55·2) in 2019. Exclusive breastfeeding increased in all world regions except for the Middle East and north Africa. Formula consumption in the first 6 months of life increased in upper-middle-income countries and in east Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East and north Africa, and eastern Europe and central Asia, whereas the rates remained below 8% in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Animal milk consumption by children younger than 6 months decreased significantly (-0·41 PPs per year [-0·51 to -0·31]; p<0·0001) in low-income and middle-income countries. INTERPRETATION: We found some increases in exclusive and any breastfeeding at age 6 months in various regions and income groups, while formula consumption increased in upper-middle-income countries. To achieve the global target of 70% exclusive breastfeeding by 2030, however, rates of improvement will need to be accelerated. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, through WHO.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Métodos de Alimentação/tendências , Fórmulas Infantis , Leite , Animais , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/normas , Fórmulas Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Leite/fisiologia , Leite/normas , Leite/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite Humano/fisiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Zoology (Jena) ; 147: 125945, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217027

RESUMO

The ∼15.000 decapod crustaceans that are mostly omnivorous have evolved a structurally and functionally complex digestive system. They have highly effective cuticular chewing and filtering structures in the stomach, which are regularly renewed by moulting. Decapods produce a broad range of digestive enzymes including chitinases, cellulases, and collagenases with unique properties. These enzymes are synthesized in the F-cells of the hepatopancreas and are encoded in the genome as pre-pro-proteins. In contrast to mammals, they are stored in a mature form in the lumen of the stomach to await the next meal, and therefore, the enzymes are particularly stable. The fat emulsifiers are fatty acyl-dipeptides rather than bile salts. After mechanical and chemical processing of the food in the cardiac stomach, the chyme is filtered by two unique filter systems of different mesh-size. The filtrate is then transferred to the hepatopancreas where the nutrients are absorbed by the R-cells, mostly via carriers, resembling nutrient absorption in the small intestine of mammals. The absorbed nutrients are used to fuel the metabolism of the hepatopancreas, are supplied to other organs, and are stored in the R-cells as glycogen and lipid reserves. Export lipids are secreted from the R-cells into the haemolymph as high density lipoproteins that mainly consist of phospholipids. In contrast to mammals, the midgut tube and hindgut contribute only little to food processing and nutrient absorption. The oesophagus, stomach and hindgut are well innervated but the hepatopancreas lacks nerves. Hormone cells are abundant in the midgut and hepatopancreas epithelia. Microorganisms are often present in the intestine of decapods, but they are apparently not essential for digestion and nutrition.


Assuntos
Decápodes/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298894

RESUMO

(1) The high-fat diet (HFD) of western countries has dramatic effect on the health of several organs, including the digestive tract, leading to the accumulation of fats that can also trigger a chronic inflammatory process, such as that which occurs in non-alcohol steatohepatitis. The effects of a HFD on the small intestine, the organ involved in the absorption of this class of nutrients, are still poorly investigated. (2) To address this aspect, we administered a combined HFD with sucrose (HFD w/Suc, fat: 58% Kcal) regimen (18 months) to mice and investigated the morphological and molecular changes that occurred in the wall of proximal tract of the small intestine compared to the intestine of mice fed with a standard diet (SD) (fat: 18% Kcal). (3) We found an accumulation of lipid droplets in the mucosa of HFD w/Suc-fed mice that led to a disarrangement of mucosa architecture. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of several key players involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, such as perilipin, leptin, leptin receptor, PI3K, p-mTOR, p-Akt, and TNF-α. All these molecules were increased in HFD mice compared to the SD group. We also evaluated anti-inflammatory molecules like adiponectin, adiponectin receptor, and PPAR-γ, and observed their significant reduction in the HFD w/Suc group compared to the control. Our data are in line with the knowledge that improper eating habits present a primary harmful assault on the bowel and the entire body's health. (4) These results represent a promising starting point for future studies, helping to better understand the complex and not fully elucidated spectrum of intestinal alterations induced by the overconsumption of fat.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Receptores para Leptina/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199264

RESUMO

Rutin and its aglycone quercetin occur in the fruits, leaves, seeds, and grains of many plant species and are involved in plant herbivore interactions. We studied the effect of the exogenous application of rutin and quercetin on the probing behavior (= stylet penetration activities in plant tissues) of Acyrthosiphon pisum on Pisum sativum, Myzus persicae on Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, and Rhopalosiphum padi on Avena sativa using the electrical penetration graph technique (EPG = electropenetrography). The reaction of aphids to quercetin and rutin and the potency of the effect depended on aphid species, the flavonol, and flavonol concentration. Quercetin promoted probing activities of A. pisum within non-phloem and phloem tissues, which was demonstrated in the longer duration of probes and a trend toward longer duration of sap ingestion, respectively. M. persicae reached phloem in a shorter time on quercetin-treated B. rapa than on the control. Rutin caused a delay in reaching sieve elements by A. pisum and deterred probing activities of M. persicae within non-phloem tissues. Probing of R. padi was not affected by quercetin or rutin. The potency of behavioral effects increased as the applied concentrations of flavonols increased. The prospects of using quercetin and rutin in plant protection are discussed.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Floema/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Rutina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Afídeos/fisiologia , Herbivoria
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4131, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226544

RESUMO

Feeding decisions are fundamental to survival, and decision making is often disrupted in disease. Here, we show that neural activity in a small population of neurons projecting to the fan-shaped body higher-order central brain region of Drosophila represents food choice during sensory conflict. We found that food deprived flies made tradeoffs between appetitive and aversive values of food. We identified an upstream neuropeptidergic and dopaminergic network that relays internal state and other decision-relevant information to a specific subset of fan-shaped body neurons. These neurons were strongly inhibited by the taste of the rejected food choice, suggesting that they encode behavioral food choice. Our findings reveal that fan-shaped body taste responses to food choices are determined not only by taste quality, but also by previous experience (including choice outcome) and hunger state, which are integrated in the fan-shaped body to encode the decision before relay to downstream motor circuits for behavioral implementation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Drosophila/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares , Fome/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Percepção Gustatória
11.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205413

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to reveal the characteristics of gut microbiome altered by acarbose intervention in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its possible association with habitual dietary intake. Eighteen patients with T2D were administered acarbose for four weeks. The abundances of two major phyla, namely Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes, were reciprocally changed accompanied by the acarbose intervention. There were also significant changes in the abundances of ten genera, including the greater abundance of Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium, and Lactobacillus and the lower abundance of Bacteroides in the group after the intervention than that before the intervention. Hierarchical clustering of habitual dietary intake was performed based on the pattern of changes in the gut microbiota and were classified into distinct three clusters. Cluster I consisted of sucrose, cluster II mainly included fat intake, and cluster III mainly included carbohydrate intake. Moreover, the amount of change in Faecalibacterium was positively correlated with the intake of rice, but negatively correlated with the intake of bread. The intake of potato was negatively correlated with the amount of change in Akkermansia and Subdoligranulum. Acarbose altered the composition of gut microbiome in Japanese patients with T2D, which might be linked to the habitual dietary intake.


Assuntos
Acarbose/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/microbiologia , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204683

RESUMO

The average life expectancy of the world population has increased remarkably in the past 150 years and it is still increasing. A long life is a dream of humans since the beginning of time but also a dream is to live it in good physical and mental condition. Nutrition research has focused on recent decades more on food combination patterns than on individual foods/nutrients due to the possible synergistic/antagonistic effects of the components in a dietary model. Various dietary patterns have been associated with health benefits, but the largest body of evidence in the literature is attributable to the traditional dietary habits and lifestyle followed by populations from the Mediterranean region. After the Seven Countries Study, many prospective observational studies and trials in diverse populations reinforced the beneficial effects associated with a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet in reference to the prevention/management of age-associated non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, depression, respiratory diseases, and fragility fractures. In addition, the Mediterranean diet is ecologically sustainable. Therefore, this immaterial world heritage constitutes a healthy way of eating and living respecting the environment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Longevidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/história , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207523

RESUMO

Pregnancy can alter a woman's weight gain trajectory across the life course and contribute to the development of obesity through retention of weight gained during pregnancy. This study aimed to identify modifiable determinants associated with postpartum weight retention (PPWR; calculated by the difference in pre-pregnancy and 6 month postpartum weight) in 667 women with obesity from the UPBEAT study. We examined the relationship between PPWR and reported glycaemic load, energy intake, and smoking status in pregnancy, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), mode of delivery, self-reported postpartum physical activity (low, moderate, and high), and mode of infant feeding (breast, formula, and mixed). At the 6 month visit, 48% (n = 320) of women were at or above pre-pregnancy weight. Overall, PPWR was negative (-0.06 kg (-42.0, 40.4)). Breastfeeding for ≥4 months, moderate or high levels of physical activity, and GWG ≤9 kg were associated with negative PPWR. These three determinants were combined to provide a modifiable factor score (range 0-3); for each added variable, a further reduction in PPWR of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval 3.76, 2.25) occurred compared to women with no modifiable factors. This study identified three additive determinants of PPWR loss. These provide modifiable targets during pregnancy and the postnatal period to enable women with obesity to return to their pre-pregnancy weight.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Aleitamento Materno , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Carga Glicêmica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fumar
14.
Postgrad Med ; 133(6): 707-715, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167438

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A decrease in weight velocity and feeding difficulties in infants may be caused by an inadequate caloric intake and underlying medical conditions. CASE DESCRIPTION: By focusing on four clinical cases, this article illustrates the temporary use of a special infant formula in orally-fed and enterally-fed infants with unsatisfactory weight gain and special medical conditions such as gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. The formula was a nutritionally complete hypercaloric infant formula containing partially hydrolyzed whey protein. It was used after full consideration of all feeding options including breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: Implementing appropriate feeding behaviors, adapted to age and potential comorbidities, is an essential prerequisite for therapeutic management. The use of a nutritionally complete hypercaloric infant formula can be helpful to manage unsatisfactory weight gain and feeding difficulties in infants.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Insuficiência de Crescimento , Gastroenteropatias , Fórmulas Infantis , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Insuficiência de Crescimento/dietoterapia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/etiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Fórmulas Infantis/química , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/etiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071560

RESUMO

Concerns remain about dietary changes during pediatric obesity treatment and eating pathology, which have not been investigated. This secondary data analysis from a randomized clinical trial examined associations between adolescents' changes in energy intake and diet quality during obesity treatment with post-treatment eating pathology. Adolescents (N = 82: 13.7 ± 1.2 y, 34.9 ± 7.0 kg/m2, 63.4% female, 46.3% black) received TEENS+, a 4-month multicomponent intervention. TEENS+ provided individualized dietary goals (1200-1800 kcal/day; number of "Go" foods/day (low-energy, high-nutrient-dense foods)). At 0 and 4 months, 3-day food records assessed energy intake and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015)). Two HEI-2015 subscores were created: components to increase (increase), and components to limit (decrease). The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire measured eating pathology (total score and subscales: restraint; and eating, weight, and shape concern). Corrected p-values are reported as q-values. Energy intake decreased (-292 ± 418 kcal/day; q < 0.001), while diet quality improved during treatment (total HEI-2015 (4.5 ± 15.1; q = 0.034) and increase (3.3 ± 9.4; q = 0.011)). Restraint increased (+0.6 ± 1.4; q < 0.001), whereas shape (-0.5 ± 1.3; q = 0.004) and weight (-0.5 ± 1.4; q = 0.015) concerns decreased. Greater decreases in energy intake were associated with greater restraint post-treatment (F = 17.69; q < 0.001). No other significant associations were observed. Changes in adolescents' dietary intake during obesity treatment were unrelated to increased shape, weight, or eating concerns post-treatment.


Assuntos
Dieta , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta/métodos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros de Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/dietoterapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(8): 1132-1141, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168339

RESUMO

Despite notable genetic influences, obesity mainly results from the overconsumption of food, which arises from the interplay of physiological, cognitive and environmental factors. In patients with obesity, eating is determined more by external cues than by internal physiological needs. However, how environmental context drives non-homeostatic feeding is elusive. Here, we identify a population of somatostatin (TNSST) neurons in the mouse hypothalamic tuberal nucleus that are preferentially activated by palatable food. Activation of TNSST neurons enabled a context to drive non-homeostatic feeding in sated mice and required inputs from the subiculum. Pairing a context with palatable food greatly potentiated synaptic transmission between the subiculum and TNSST neurons and drove non-homeostatic feeding that could be selectively suppressed by inhibiting TNSST neurons or the subiculum but not other major orexigenic neurons. These results reveal how palatable food, through a specific hypothalamic circuit, empowers environmental context to drive non-homeostatic feeding.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Masculino , Camundongos , Somatostatina/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063835

RESUMO

A healthy lifestyle and a balanced diet play a paramount role in promoting and maintaining homeostatic functions and preventing an array of chronic and debilitating diseases. Based upon observational and epidemiological investigations, it is clear that nutritional factors and dietary habits play a significant role in gynecological disease development, including uterine leiomyoma, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, and gynecological malignancies. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, Mediterranean diets, green tea, vitamin D, and plant-derived natural compounds may have a long-term positive impact on gynecological diseases, while fats, red meat, alcohol, and coffee may contribute to their development. Data regarding the association between dietary habits and gynecological disorders are, at times, conflicting, with potential confounding factors, including food pollutants, reduced physical activity, ethnic background, and environmental factors limiting overall conclusions. This review provides a synopsis of the current clinical data and biological basis of the association between available dietary and nutritional data, along with their impact on the biology and pathophysiology of different gynecological disorders, as well as an outlook on future directions that will guide further investigational research.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/etiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos
18.
Zoology (Jena) ; 147: 125932, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130224

RESUMO

The present study provides a noninvasive method to estimate the body volume of sharks (Elasmobranchii, Selachii) using a computational geometric model. This method allows the volume of sharks to be estimated from lateral and ventral photographs assuming an elliptical body cross-sectional geometry. A comparison of the estimated and actual body volumes of several shark species showed that the estimation error was < 0.5%. The accuracy of the model decreased if photographs that were inclined to the orthogonal plane were used, although this error was on average < 2.3% if the inclination angle was 10° or less. Applying this model to captive whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) that were 8.0 and 8.8 m in total length revealed that their body volumes were 3.5 and 4.5 m3, respectively. These estimates allowed for the quantitative evaluation of our hypothesis, that the whale shark uses suctioned air for buoyancy control during vertical feeding-a behavior unique to this species among elasmobranchs. The volume estimates of the captive whale sharks, together with the density estimates from their liver proportions, revealed that the air occupying a part of oro-pharyngeal and branchial cavities can help the whale sharks to keep their body floating. This hypothesis may explain how the whale shark sometimes stays at the water surface without fin motion during vertical feeding, even though their body density is greater than that of seawater.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Tubarões/fisiologia , Animais
19.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063439

RESUMO

Excess body weight is a major global health concern, particularly due to its associated increased health risks. Several strategies have been proposed to prevent overweight and obesity onset. In the past decade, it has been suggested that eating speed/rate and eating frequency might be related to obesity. The main aim of this narrative review was to summarize existing evidence regarding the impact of eating speed/rate and eating frequency on adiposity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), or diet quality (DQ). For this purpose, a literature search of observational and interventional trials was conducted between June and September 2020 in PubMed and Web of Sciences databases, without any data filters and no limitations for publication date. Results suggest that children and adults with a faster eating speed/rate may be associated with a higher risk of developing adiposity, MetS or its components. Furthermore, a higher eating frequency could be associated with diet quality improvement, lower adiposity, and lower risk of developing MetS or its components. Further interventional trials are warranted to clarify the mechanism by which these eating behaviors might have a potential impact on health.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações
20.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063058

RESUMO

It has been suggested that sugar intake may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, studies on this matter are lacking. Intima media thickness (IMT) is a well-established measurement of subclinical atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between sugar intake (i.e., added, free and total sugar and sugar-rich foods and beverages) and IMT. Our study comprised 5269 individuals (45-73 years, 40% men) of the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a population-based cohort conducted in Sweden with data collected from 1991 to 1994. Measurements of IMT were performed with B-mode ultrasound at the right common carotid artery (IMTcca) and the bifurcation of the carotids (IMTbif). Dietary intake was estimated using a combination of a 7-day food record, diet questionnaire and interview. After adjusting for methodological, lifestyle and dietary confounders, no statistically significant associations were observed for any of the sugar intake variables and IMT. For example, added sugar intake presented no significant linear association with IMTcca or IMTbif (Ptrends: IMTcca 0.81 for men and 0.98 for women and IMTbif 0.20 for men and 0.40 for women). In conclusion, we found no clear association between sugar intake and IMT measurements in this study.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/etiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/análise , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Registros de Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia
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