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1.
Fam Community Health ; 46(1): 39-50, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36190961

RESUMO

The typical pattern of weight change associated with behavioral obesity treatments has been some loss in weight through approximately 6 months, followed by near complete regain. However, patterns vary widely across individuals. The objectives are to determine whether recent prediction model-based indications of relations among changes in psychosocial correlates of the weight loss behaviors of physical activity and controlled eating vary by patterns of weight change. Women with obesity enrolled in a community-based behavioral obesity treatment who failed to lose at least 5% of their baseline weight (Minimal Effect group, n = 44), lost 5% or greater and then regained most during months 6 to 24 (Loss/Regain group, n = 42), or lost 5% or greater and then maintained/continued loss (Loss/Loss group n = 42) were evaluated. Improvements in physical activity- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy, mood, and emotional eating over 6 months were significant overall and generally most favorable in the Loss/Loss group and least favorable in the Minimal Effect group. Expected model-based relationships between 6-month changes in the aforementioned psychosocial variables were significant and generally not significantly affected by weight change group. However, group substantially affected the prediction of self-regulation of eating at month 24-a key correlate of long-term weight loss. Findings suggested community-based obesity treatment targets and emphases.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Redução de Peso , Humanos , Feminino , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Redução de Peso/fisiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia
2.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 268, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mindful eating (ME), defined as a "non-judgmental awareness of bodily and emotional sensations regarding food consumption", may be a promising strategy to promote healthy eating behaviors. However, little is known about the psychosocial factors and underlying beliefs that explain ME adoption. METHODS: Participants (N = 282; Mage = 43.2) responded to an online questionnaire based on the I-Change Model. Groups with different frequencies of prior engagement in ME, i.e., low (n = 82; LME), medium (n = 96), and high (n = 104), were compared via (M)ANOVAs on factors and individual beliefs regarding predisposing (i.e., habits, experience with mindfulness, emotional eating, facets of ME), pre-motivational (i.e., knowledge, behavioral cognizance, risk perception, cues to action), and motivational factors (i.e., attitudes, self-efficacy, social influence) as well as their intentions and action planning. Bivariate correlations and a forward-stepwise regression with ICM constructs were conducted to examine model fit. RESULTS: LME had a greater habit of mindless eating and significantly lower internal awareness, cognizance, cues, and less favorable attitudes, self-efficacy, engagement and support by their social environment, intention, and action plans about engaging in ME than the other two groups. Less habitual mindless eating, and greater experience, internal awareness, cognizance, susceptibility, support, and intention explained 54% of the variance in ME. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Results indicate that individuals need to be treated differently when promoting ME with respect to their psychosocial characteristics, rather than as a single group with homogenous baseline beliefs, abilities, support, and motivation. Future longitudinal research should examine which determinants are predictors of ME to better tailor program contents.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Adulto , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cognição
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360736

RESUMO

Women experience anxiety, depression, and stress at higher levels than men and have more parenting responsibilities, especially establishing health practices in the home. Given children's vulnerability, this study aimed to increase understanding of how mothers' mental health status relates to maternal weight-related cognitions, home food environments, and child health via a cross-sectional survey design. In a cluster analysis, using maternal anxiety, depression, and stress assessments, we placed the sample of 531 mothers of school-age children into four clusters: Cluster 1 had the best mental health status, Cluster 2 had high stress, Cluster 3 had anxiety and moderate stress, and Cluster 4 had anxiety, depression, and high stress. Our results indicate an overall downward trend in weight-related cognitions as mental health worsened. Similarly, as mental health declined, so did home food environment characteristics, such as the greater use of non-recommended child feeding practices, fewer family meals, and greater sugar-sweetened beverage supplies. As mothers' mental health status became poorer, children's general health and mental health quality of life declined, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake increased. Our findings suggest that maternal stress, anxiety, and depression are moderately to strongly linked with mothers' cognitions, home food environments, and children's health. Our results also suggest that mental health interventions for mothers should assess cognitions and home food environments and consider the extent to which these factors are affecting family health.


Assuntos
Poder Familiar , Qualidade de Vida , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Mães/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Cognição
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2009, 2022 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As snacking can be considered a cornerstone of an unhealthy diet, investigating psychological drivers of snacking behaviour is urgent, and therefore the purpose of this study. Socio-economic position (SEP) and stress are known to affect many behaviours and outcomes, and were therefore focal points in the study. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey study, we examined whether Socio-economic position (SEP) would amplify associations between heightened stress levels and self-reported negative-affect related reasons for snacking. Next, we investigated whether Socio-economic position (SEP) predicted frequency of snacking behaviour, and how stress and other reasons for snacking could explain this association. Outcome measures were reasons people indicated for snacking, and frequency of snacking behaviour. RESULTS: Analyses revealed that people seem to find more reasons to snack when they are stressed, and that this association was more pronounced for people with a high compared to low socio-economic position. Furthermore, a higher socio-economic position was associated with a higher frequency of snacking, and both snacking to reward oneself and snacking because of the opportunity to do so remained significant mediators. CONCLUSION: Whereas low socio-economic position was associated with higher stress levels, this did not translate into increased snacking. Contrarily, those with higher socio-economic position could be more prone to using 'reasons to snack', which may result in justification of unhealthy snacking behaviour.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Lanches , Humanos , Lanches/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 139, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating behaviors may contribute to differences in body weight and diet over time. Our study aims to examine how eating behaviors of young adults relate to their current weight status and dietary patterns and to explore longitudinal associations with eating behaviors in early childhood. METHODS: Study participants are young adults (n = 698) taking part in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. At age 22, eating behaviors were assessed using the Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Dietary patterns were derived from information collected by food frequency questions. Weight status was based on self-reported data. Information on eating behaviors in childhood had been collected when participants were 2.5 to 6 years old. Pearson's correlations were used to determine associations between adult eating behaviors and body mass index. Simple and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between eating behaviors and dietary patterns at age 22, and longitudinal associations with behaviors in early childhood. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations between overeating and fussy eating in childhood and weight status at age 22. RESULTS: Body mass index was positively correlated with Emotional overeating, Enjoyment of food, and Food responsiveness and negatively correlated with Satiety responsiveness, Emotional undereating, Slowness in eating and Hunger. A Healthy dietary pattern was positively associated with both Enjoyment of food and Hunger, and negatively associated with Food fussiness. Inversely, a Beverage-rich dietary pattern was negatively associated with Enjoyment of food and positively associated with Food fussiness. A Protein-rich pattern was positively associated with Enjoyment of food, while a High energy density pattern was positively associated with Food fussiness. Young adults with higher scores for fussy eating in early childhood were more likely to manifest Food fussiness and Emotional undereating, and less likely to adopt a Healthy dietary pattern. Young adults with higher scores for overeating in early childhood were less likely to show traits such as Slowness in eating and more likely to be overweight. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that eating behaviors in childhood have long-term influence on diet and weight status, thereby reinforcing the importance of early interventions that promote healthy eating.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Estudos Longitudinais , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hiperfagia
6.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364760

RESUMO

Protein, iron, zinc, and choline affect early brain development and are found in beef. The aims of this study were to describe (1) early feeding practices related to introduction of beef in the rural US west (Idaho); (2) parental perceptions of beef as a first food, and (3) associations between early beef consumption and child cognition at 1-5 years. A total of 61 children and their parents were enrolled. Parents completed a survey and a food frequency questionnaire to assess perceptions of beef and early feeding practices along with their child's dietary intake at 6-12 months. Children's cognitive function was assessed using the Bayley-4 Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (12-35 months) and the NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIHTB) (3-5 years). Parents introduced beef at 7.79 ± 2.65 months of age, primarily so that their children could eat what the family was eating. Higher intake of beef (r = 0.41, p = 0.02), zinc (r = 0.45, p = 0.01), and choline (r = 0.39, p = 0.03) at 6-12 months was associated with better attention and inhibitory control at 3-5 years of age. These findings support the role of beef as an early food for cognitive development, although controlled dietary intervention studies are needed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Lactente , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cognição , Colina , Zinco , Poder Familiar
7.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 275, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating behavior represents individual appetitive traits which are related to the individual's regulation of food intake. Eating behavior develops at an early age. There is some evidence that parenting styles might impact on the child's eating behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of different dimensions of positive and negative parenting styles with the child's eating behavior at a critical age period of the child's early development. METHODS: Parents of 511 preschool children (aged 2-6 years) completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire and the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. RESULTS: Analyses revealed that different dimensions of negative parenting styles were associated with eating behavior of the child. In details, inconsistent parenting showed a consistent association with eating behavior of a child (i.e. higher emotional eating, higher food responsiveness, higher food fussiness, higher satiety responsiveness and more enjoyment of food), whereas corporal punishment was associated with more emotional overeating and more food responsiveness but less satiety responsiveness. Further, powerful implementation was related to higher food responsiveness and less enjoyment of food and low monitoring was associated with higher emotional overeating and more slowness in eating. There was no such consistent association of positive parenting and eating behavior. CONCLUSIONS: More negative parenting styles were associated with eating behavior which is more often related to potential weight problems in a long term, whereas positive parenting did not show such a consistent relationship with eating behavior. Negative parenting should be in the focus of prevention and treatment of eating behavior problems in young children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN41045021 (06/05/2014).


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Poder Familiar , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Hiperfagia
8.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 97(5): 317-325, nov. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211323

RESUMO

Objetivos: La prevalencia de niños con dificultades en la alimentación (NDA) o malos comedores es alta en nuestro medio, si consideramos la opinión de los padres. Aunque en la mayoría no observamos enfermedad orgánica o repercusión nutricional, es frecuente que este problema repercuta en la dinámica familiar. Nos proponemos estimar su impacto en el estrés, la calidad de vida y el estado de salud psicológica familiar.Métodos: Estudio de casos (NDA) y controles (controles sanos y controles con trastornos digestivos o controles enfermos). Se evaluó el estrés parental y el riesgo de afectación psicológica en estas familias, mediante escalas validadas (Parent Stress Index Short Form y General Health Questionnaire de Goldberg) y una encuesta de opinión a los padres. Resultados: Se recogieron un total de 238 encuestas: 102 correspondientes a controles sanos, 88 con trastornos digestivos y 48 de NDA. El 45,8% de los padres de NDA se consideraban desatendidos por su pediatra y el 47,9% no estaban de acuerdo con sus recomendaciones. El 54,2% de ellos encuentra limitaciones en su vida social, el 25% problemas de pareja, el 47,9% se sienten juzgados por los demás (12,5% por sus propias parejas) sobre cómo manejan la alimentación de su hijo y un 37,5% habían solicitado o considerado ayuda psicológica. Todos estos problemas fueron significativamente más frecuentes que en los controles. Padres y madres de los NDA presentaron con mayor frecuencia riesgo de ansiedad/depresión según el General Health Questionnaire de Goldberg: un 54,2% según valores de referencia (odds ratios ajustadas frente a controles sanos 4,18; intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 1,96 a 8,87; frente a controles enfermos odds ratio 6,25; IC95% 2,79 a 13,98) y un 33,3% según los valores de nuestros controles sanos. Asimismo, presentaron mayores puntuaciones de estrés (Parent Stress Index Short Form) que los controles sanos (diferencia de medias ajustada 21; IC95% 12,19 a 29,81) y controles enfermos (AU)


Objectives: The prevalence of feeding disorders (FDs) and picky eating in children is high in our region, based on the parents’ perceptions. Although organic disease or a nutritional impact is rarely observed in these children, the problem frequently has an effect on family dynamics. We aimed to estimate the impact of these disorders on the stress level, quality of life and psychological health of families. Methods: Study of cases (FDs) and controls (healthy controls and controls with digestive disorders or sick controls). We assessed parental stress and the risk of psychological distress in these families using validated scales (Parent Stress Index Short Form and Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire) and a parental opinion survey. Results: We collected a total of 238 surveys, 102 corresponding to healthy controls, 88 to controls with digestive disorders and 48 to children with FDs. We found that 45.8% of parents in the FD group felt neglected by their paediatricians and 47.9% did not agree with the paediatrician's recommendations. In addition, 54.2% reported limitations to their social life, 25% problems in their relationship, 47.9% feeling judged by others (12.5% by their own partner) for how they managed mealtimes, and 37.5% having sought or considered seeking psychological support. All these problems were significantly more frequent compared to controls. Based on the Goldberg's General Health Questionnaire, the risk of anxiety and depression was more frequent in parents in the FD group: 54.2% compared to the reference (adjusted odds ratio compared to controls, 4.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.96-8.87; odds ratio compared to sick controls, 6.25; 95% CI, 2.79-13.98) and 33.3% compared to the healthy control group. They also had higher stress scores (Parent Stress Index Short Form) compared to the healthy control group (adjusted mean difference, 21; 95% CI, 12.19-29.81) and the sick control group (adjusted mean difference, 20; 95% CI, 9.81-30.19).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Obes Rev ; 23(11): e13507, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36196649

RESUMO

Researchers are currently debating whether theories of addiction explain compulsive overeating of highly processed (HP) foods (i.e., industrially created foods high in refined carbohydrates and/or fat), which contributes to obesity and diet-related disease. A subset of individuals consumes HP foods with behavioral phenotypes that mirror substance use disorders. Withdrawal, the emergence of aversive physical and psychological symptoms upon reduction or cessation of substance use, is a core component of addiction that was central to historical debates about other substances' addictive potential (e.g., nicotine and cocaine). However, no one has systematically considered evidence for whether HP foods cause withdrawal, which represents a key knowledge gap regarding the utility of addiction models for understanding compulsive overeating. Thus, we reviewed evidence for whether animals and humans exhibit withdrawal when reducing or eliminating HP food intake. Controlled experimental evidence indicates animals experience HP food withdrawal marked by neural reward changes and behaviors consistent with withdrawal from other addictive substances. In humans, preliminary evidence supports subjective withdrawal-like experiences. However, most current human research is limited to retrospective recall. Further experimental research is needed to evaluate this construct. We outline future research directions to investigate HP food withdrawal in humans and consider potential clinical implications.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Cocaína , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Animais , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Carboidratos , Fast Foods , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicologia , Nicotina , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231817

RESUMO

Distinguishing between flexible and rigid cognitive restraint (CR) may be useful for understanding the role of CR in dietary behavior and weight status. This study aimed to translate and adapt the flexible and rigid CR scales to the French context and test their psychometric properties. Construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were examined in a sample of 620 individuals. Confirmatory factor analysis of the scales found a two-factor structure (flexible CR: 12 items; rigid CR: 15 items) that provided a good fit and supported the initial solution (χ2 = 584.7, df = 322, CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.052 [0.045, 0.059], TLI = 0.95). Higher flexible and rigid CR were associated with higher CR overall, emotional eating (TFEQ-R21) and eating disorders (SCOFF), and lower intuitive eating (IES-2). In addition, higher flexible CR was associated with lower impulsivity (BIS-11) while higher rigid CR was associated with higher uncontrolled eating (TFEQ-R21) and lower self-esteem (RSES), satisfaction with life (SWLS), and optimism (LOT-R). Flexible and rigid CR internal consistency was satisfactory (McDonald ω = 0.77 and 0.74, respectively) and test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.81 and 0.79, respectively). This study validated a flexible and rigid CR tool in a French population and confirmed that these two types of CR represent distinct eating behaviors.


Assuntos
Cognição , Comportamento Alimentar , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36295536

RESUMO

Introduction: Home confinement due to COVID-19 lockdown led to changes in daily routines, including social interactions, as well as restrictions on the possibility of playing sports and eating habits. These changes could have a greater impact on patients suffering from chronic diseases, such as endocrine patients, especially in emotional and behavioral dimensions. Materials and Methods: This study aimed to assess the effects of COVID-19-induced quarantine on daily habits in a group of patients with endocrine disorders, focusing on food consumption, eating habits and sleep during the confinement. Eighty-five endocrine patients were enrolled. A structured interview was administered to investigate socio-demographic information, general medical conditions, and habits adopted during quarantine. All patients underwent the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1) to assess state anxiety. Result: Results showed that subjects mainly had a sedentary lifestyle. We found a significant increase in the number of cigarettes in smokers and in meals consumed during confinement, as well as a high rate of sleep disturbance, especially insomnia. Notably, physical well-being resulted to be a predictive factor (OR = 0.38; 95%CI = [0.95,0.66]), whereas anxiety was a risk factor for sleep disorder (OR = 1.22; 95%CI = [1.10,1.40]), as was working in public and private offices and being a student. Conclusions: Changes in daily habits were likely due to the alterations in routine, resulting in greater boredom and inactivity during the day. In addition, future research should focus on the importance of patient adherence to therapy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , SARS-CoV-2 , Estilo de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia
12.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 301-306, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Anxiety can be related to reduced diet quality during pandemics such as COVID-19. However, it is not clear whether these relationships would be similar in inactive and physically active participants. The aim of this study was to analyze associations between anxiety and eating habits in physically active and inactive individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1826 adults (58.5% women) who were invited through social media to answer an online questionnaire. The instrument included questions related to physical activity, eating habits, health behavior, mental health (anxiety, depression, self-esteem, sadness and stress) and overall health. Anxiety, food habits (high food habits consumption ≥5 times per week) and physical activity (≥150 min per week) were assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between anxiety and eating habits according to levels of physical activity (inactive vs. active) was assessed using binary logistic regression adjusted for sex, age, education level, social isolation, and body mass index. RESULTS: Among the inactive participants, anxiety was related with high consumption of sweets (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.11-1.83) and fast foods (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.05-4.74) while quarantining during the COVID-19 pandemic. No relationship was observed between anxiety and food consumption among physically active participants in the final model. CONCLUSION: Anxiety was associated with less desirable eating habits among physically inactive adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quarentena , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 51: 470-477, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36184244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: One of the most pressing issues in the field of cardiometabolic disease is the growing co-occurrence of poor mental health. A whole foods-based, hypothesis-driven dietary inflammation score (DIS) was created to better understand the association between dietary patterns, inflammation, and physiological health. However, this diet quality scoring method has not been observed in young adults, nor has its association with mental health been observed. This study 1) examined differences in cardiometabolic health measures by dietary inflammation score (DIS) tertiles and 2) examined the association between DIS and psychosocial stress variables, perceived stress, and depression. METHODS: Psychosocial and food frequency questionnaires, demographics, anthropometrics, and clinical measures were collected from sixty-two metabolically healthy African American and European American females, ages 18-45, from 2014 to 2016 in Birmingham, AL. Analysis of Variance was used to observe differences in all cardiometabolic variables by DIS tertile. Linear regression was used to observe the relationship between independent, continuous variable DIS and dependent variables, depression, and perceived stress. RESULTS: There were significant differences between DIS tertiles for cardiometabolic and psychosocial stress measures. DIS was significantly positively associated with depression after controlling for body fat percentage (P = 0.003) and education, income, and race (P = 0.01). DIS was significantly associated with perceived stress after controlling for body fat percentage (P = 0.0004), and education, income, and race (P = 0.0005). CONCLUSION: This study is significant for its contribution in understanding how cardiometabolic health differs by DIS tertile, and how dietary inflammation scores are associated with depression and perceived stress among young adult women.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232274

RESUMO

Breakfast consumption is essential for children to generate energy for the day. Parents play an important role in children's breakfast habits and spending time with parents during breakfast greatly influences children's emotional development. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between the frequency of children's breakfast consumption, time spent in conversation with parents, and children's somatic symptoms. Data were obtained from the Korea Children and Youth Panel Survey 2018 and were initially collected from fourth-grade elementary school students and followed up for three years. SPSS 21.0 and AMOS 21.0 software were used for data analysis. Multivariate latent growth modeling was applied to analyze the effect of the breakfast consumption frequency on children's somatic symptoms and the mediating effect of parent-child conversation time on this relationship. Consequently, as children's frequency of breakfast consumption increased, their somatic symptoms decreased. Furthermore, parent-child conversation time mediated the relationship between these two variables. Therefore, students, parents, and teachers should be educated about the importance of having breakfast and communicating with parents for students' emotional health.


Assuntos
Desjejum , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1895, 2022 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36221108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents and young adults around the world experience high rates of weight gain. The underlying eating behaviours that may lead to overconsumption of energy are complex and can depend on a number of factors. The aim of this study was to explore if eating behaviour among adolescents and young adults referred to specialized obesity treatment differed depending on sex, body composition, and parental country of birth. METHODS: Adolescents and young adults aged 16-25 years, referred for obesity treatment in 2018-2021 were included in the study. Eating behaviour was assessed using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, comprising domains of uncontrolled-, emotional- and cognitive restraint eating. Student's t-test was used to compare differences in eating behaviour scores between males and females, and between those having at least one parent born in a Nordic country and those with both parents born outside the Nordic countries. Associations between BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage, and eating behaviour as the dependent variable, were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 463 participants, mean age 21 years and mean BMI 41.3 kg/m2, were included in the analysis. Females scored statistically significantly higher than males on emotional eating (45.8 vs. 35.4, p = 0.002) and cognitive restraint eating (45.4 vs. 39.2, p = 0.009). Participants with at least one parent born in a Nordic country reported a statistically significantly lower score of uncontrolled eating (45.7 vs. 51.3, p = 0.02) compared to participants with both parents born outside the Nordic countries. Further, there were statistically significant inverse associations between cognitive restraint eating scores and BMI (ß=-0.64, 95%CI: -0.97 to -0.31), waist circumference (ß=-0.44, 95%CI: -0.61 to -0.27) and body fat percentage (ß=-0.57, 95%CI: -1.01 to -0.14) in models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and civil status. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that sex and parental country of birth may influence eating behaviours among adolescents and young adults referred for specialist obesity treatment. We also found that cognitive restraint eating decreased with increasing BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. This indicates that there may be an inverse association between the ability to restrain oneself from eating and gaining weight, however, the direction of the association must be investigated further. Increased knowledge about eating behaviours may be valuable in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Aumento de Peso , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235554

RESUMO

Food-related content varies widely and is increasingly popular. Using various media, teenagers can easily access food content, which could affect they eating habits. This study was conducted to confirm the effects of watching motivation on the relationship between food content watching time and eating habits among adolescents in Seoul, Korea. Exactly 806 participants were surveyed about their food content watching status, including watching time and watching motivation. The Nutrition Quotient for adolescents (NQ-A) questionnaire was used to confirm eating habits. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to classify watching motivation's subfactors. A parallel multimedia model was used to analyze the effect of watching motivation on the relationship between food content watching time and eating habits. As a result of this study, following the factor analysis, watching motivation was classified into information acquisition, emotional satisfaction, and enjoyment. The influence of food content watching time on NQ-A scores through information acquisition motivation was positively significant, whereas that through emotional satisfaction motivation was negatively significant. Enjoyment motivation did not indirectly affect the relationship between food content watching time and NQ-A scores. Hence, attention should be paid to these mediating factors when analyzing the relationship between watching food-related content and eating habits. Developing and distributing content that meets viewing motivations should help improve adolescents' eating habits.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Motivação , Adolescente , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , República da Coreia , Seul
17.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235596

RESUMO

Fondazione Bruno Kessler is developing a mobile app prototype for empowering citizens to improve their health conditions through different lifestyle interventions that will be incorporated into a mobile application for lifestyle promotion of the Province of Trento in the context of the Trentino Salute 4.0 Competence Center. The envisioned interventions are based on promoting behaviour change in various domains such as physical activity, mental health and nutrition. In particular, the nutrition component is a self-monitoring module that collects dietary habits to analyse them and recommend healthier eating behaviours. Dietary assessment is completed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire on the Mediterranean diet that is presented to the user as a grid of images. The questionnaire returns feedback on 11 aspects of nutrition. Although the questionnaire used in the application only consists of 24 questions, it still could be a bit overwhelming and a bit crowded when shown on the screen. In this paper, we tried to find a machine-learning-based solution to reduce the number of questions in the questionnaire. We proposed a method that uses the user's previous answers as additional information to find the goals that need more attention. We compared this method with a case where the subset of questions is randomly selected and with a case where the subset is chosen using feature selection. We also explored how large the subset should be to obtain good predictions. All the experiments are conducted as a multi-target regression problem, which means several goals are predicted simultaneously. The proposed method adjusts well to the user in question and has the slightest error when predicting the goals.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235642

RESUMO

Obesity is one of the most dangerous epidemics of the 21st century. In 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic began and caused many deaths among patients with obesity with and without complications. Simultaneously, the lockdown related to the COVID-19 pandemic caused a host of emotional problems including anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Many people began to cope with their emotions by increasing food (emotional eating) and alcohol consumption and in combination with decreased physical activity, promoted the development of overweight and obesity. Emotional eating, also known as stress eating, is defined as the propensity to eat in response to positive and negative emotions and not physical need. It should be noted that emotional eating may be the first step in the development of binge eating disorder and its extreme subtypes such as food addiction. Interestingly in some post-bariatric surgery patients, an increased frequency of addictive disorders has been observed, for example food addiction replaced by alcohol addiction called: "cross addiction" or "addiction transfer". This data indicates that obesity should be treated as a psychosomatic disease, in the development of which external factors causing the formation of negative emotions may play a significant role. Currently, one of these factors is the COVID-19 pandemic. This manuscript discusses the relationships between the COVID-19 pandemic and development of emotional eating as well as potential implications of the viral pandemic on the obesity pandemic, and the need to change the approach to the treatment of obesity in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Obesidade/etiologia , Pandemias
19.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) are an ever-growing problem, seen most commonly among young women. People with EDs are particularly predisposed to restrictive eating patterns. Diet therapy for many diseases involves the elimination of certain food groups, and the use of restrictive diets in people with EDs may indirectly influence the recurrence of the disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of the possible presence of EDs and orthorexia symptoms among young women following a traditional, alternative (vegetarian), or therapeutic (low FODMAP) diet. METHODS: The analysis was based on 420 responses from female respondents aged 19 to 30 years. The research tool consisted of questionnaires to assess the possible presence of EDs (SCOFF), cognitive-behavioral aspects of eating (TFEQ-13), and the presence of orthorexia symptoms (ORTO-15). RESULTS: Uncontrolled and emotional eating was least common in women on a vegetarian diet (5.6 ± 3.7; 3.5 ± 2.7; p < 0.05). Women on a low FODMAP diet were most prevalent with symptoms of orthorexia (n = 37, 47.4%; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: It seems important to perform screening tests for eating disorders before recommending diet therapy in order to individually adjust the dietary regimen and refer patients to appropriate specialists.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vegetarianos
20.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emotional eating (EE) is prevalent in people seeking obesity treatment and is a contributor to poor weight loss outcomes. We aimed to delineate the emotions most associated with this type of eating, and whether they differ by sex in people undergoing obesity treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study recruiting 387 adults from a hospital obesity management service. Emotional eating was measured using the Emotional Eating Scale (EES). Separate analyses included all participants, and those undergoing lifestyle interventions alone or in combination with obesity medication and/or bariatric surgery. RESULTS: A total of 387 people (71% women) participated in the study (n = 187 receiving lifestyle modification alone; n = 200 in combination with additional treatments). Feeling 'bored' was most commonly and most strongly associated with the urge to eat, regardless of sex or treatment. Women had higher scores for total EES, for subscales of depression and anger, and individual feelings of 'blue', 'sad' and 'upset' compared to men. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding why certain emotions differentially trigger an urge to eat in men and women, and finding strategies to break the link between boredom and eating may enable better personalisation of lifestyle interventions for people with obesity.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Obesidade/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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