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1.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199403

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on populations at an economic, health, and on an interpersonal level, it is still unclear how it has affected health-risk behaviors, such as comfort food consumption over time. This study longitudinally examines the effect of the perceived impact of COVID-19 on comfort food consumption and whether this effect is mediated by emotional distress. A convenience sample of 1048 students and university staff (academic and non-academic) from two universities completed monthly online surveys during the COVID-19 pandemic across six waves (W; W1 to W6). Participants reported their perceived impact of COVID-19 (economic, interpersonal, and health), comfort food consumption, and emotional distress (DASS-21). Using structural equation models, we found an indirect longitudinal effect of the perceived impact of COVID-19 (W1) on comfort food consumption (W3 to W6) through increased emotional distress (W2). The perceived negative impact of COVID-19 on comfort food consumption was fully mediated by the emotional distress during the first waves (W3 and W4), ending in a partial mediation in the last waves (W5 and W6). These findings contribute to disentangling the mechanisms by which the perceived impact of COVID-19 affects comfort food consumption over time, and highlight the role of emotional distress. Future interventions should address comfort food consumption by focusing on handling emotional distress during a crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Emoções , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Docentes , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/dietoterapia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205423

RESUMO

(1) Background: The COVID-19 pandemic exerts a negative influence on dietary behaviors, which may lead to health deterioration. Dietary behaviors may be determined by psychological characteristics, such as basic hope and resilience, which facilitate the effective adjustment to new difficult conditions. The professional literature includes no research on the role of basic hope and resilience in the context of undertaken dietary behaviors in the situations of mental load associated with pandemics. The study aimed at the description of the dietary behaviors of individuals with various intensities of the discussed psychological characteristics (basic hope and resilience); (2) The observational cross-sectional online questionnaire study was conducted with the participation of 1082 adult Polish inhabitants. Three psychological scales were used: PSS-10, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) and BHI-12 questionnaire. The assessment of the adherence to dietary recommendations was performed with the present authors' Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGA Index); (3) Results: The value of DGA Index was variable depending on the psychological profile of study participants. The highest adherence to the principles of appropriate nutrition was observed in individuals characterized by the ability to cope with difficult situations and those who quickly adapted to new changing circumstances. The DGA Index values became poorer with the deterioration of the coping ability as regards stress and mental load; (4) Conclusions: Nutritional education during pandemics should encompass the psychological profile of the patients. It requires the implementation of a different psychodietetic approach which will facilitate a more effective introduction of a well-balanced diet.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Esperança , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Política Nutricional , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260657

RESUMO

In the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, personal hygiene behaviours such as proper handwashing have gained significantly more attention and interpersonal contact is performed with great care. Disgust, as a disease-avoidance mechanism, can play an important role in the promotion of hygiene behaviour. We know from previous research that pathogen disgust can be a predictor of an individual's behaviour in the pandemic. Given that the pandemic greatly affects our food and eating behaviour, the current study aims to add to the existing evidence and to complement it by investigating the role of food-specific disgust in the pandemic. For that, we conducted an online survey in Germany in April 2020, while the pandemic was spreading in Europe. A total of 519 participants completed the survey and provided information about their COVID-19-related attitudes and behaviours and about their food disgust sensitivity. The results show that food disgust sensitivity is an important predictor for an individual's feelings, shopping behaviour, and disease-preventive behaviour related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that the success of political measures to fight the pandemic critically depends on the population to support and follow the proposed measures, a better understanding of the factors driving individual behaviour is key. Implications for pandemic management are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Asco , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207910

RESUMO

Social media platforms have become part of many people's lives. Users are spending more and more time on these platforms, creating an active and passive digital footprint through their interaction. This footprint has high research potential in many research areas because understanding people's communication on social media is essential in understanding their values, attitudes, experiences and behaviors. Researchers found that the use of social networking sites impacts adolescents' eating behavior. If we define adolescents as individuals between ages 10 and 24 (WHO's definition), 76% of USA young people at age 18-⁠24 use Instagram, so the Instagram social network analysis is important for understanding young people's expressions in the context of healthy food. This study aims to identify the main topic associated with healthy food on the Instagram social network via hashtag and community analysis based on 2,045,653 messages created by 427,936 individual users. The results show that users most associate Healthy food with healthy lifestyle, fitness, weight loss and diet. In terms of food, these are foods that are Vegan, Homemade, Clean and Plant-based. Given that young people change their behavior in relation to people's behavior on social networks, it is possible to use this data to predict their future association with healthy food characteristics.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Dieta Vegana/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Redes Sociais Online , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Alimentos Especializados , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209773

RESUMO

Nursery schools can play an important role in children developing healthy eating behaviours, including vegetable consumption. However, the effect of school-level vegetable promotion on vegetable consumption and body mass index (BMI) remains unclear. This study examined the associations of nursery school-level promotion of eating vegetables first at meals with Japanese children's vegetable consumption behaviours and BMI. We used cross-sectional data collected in 2015, 2016, and 2017 on 7402 children in classes of 3-5-year-olds in all 133 licensed nursery schools in Adachi, Tokyo, Japan. Caregivers were surveyed on their children's eating behaviours (frequency of eating vegetables, willingness to eat vegetables and number of kinds of vegetables eaten), height and weight. Nursery school-level promotion of eating vegetables first at meals was assessed using individual responses, with the percentage of caregivers reporting that their children ate vegetables first at meals as a proxy for the school-level penetration of the promotion of vegetable eating. Multilevel analyses were conducted to investigate the associations of school-level vegetable-eating promotion with vegetable consumption behaviours and BMI. Children in schools that were 1 interquartile range higher on vegetable promotion ate vegetable dishes more often (ß = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.004-0.07), and were more often willing to eat vegetables (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07-1.28), as well as to eat more kinds of vegetables (adjusted odds ratio = 1.19 times; 95% CI: 1.06-1.34). School-level vegetable-eating promotion was not associated with BMI. The school-level health strategy of eating vegetables first may be effective in increasing children's vegetable intake but not in preventing being overweight.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Verduras , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cuidadores , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Refeições , Análise Multinível , Razão de Chances , Escolas Maternais , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209989

RESUMO

The purposes of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of English and Spanish instruments that measure the nutrition behavior and practices of children and their parents. Orem's self-care deficit nursing theory was used in this methodological study. A convenience sample of 333 children and 262 mothers participated from two schools in Washington, D.C. and two schools in Santiago, Chile. Principal component analysis indicated three component per instrument corresponding to Orem's Theory of operations demonstrating construct validity of the instrument. The study findings showed evidence for validity and reliability of the English and Spanish versions and indicated that the instruments appropriately represented Orem's operations. The results have implications for the development of health behavior measurement instruments that are valid, reliable, designed for children, culturally appropriate, and efficient. Measuring the nutrition behavior of children and parents is critical for determining the effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs. Furthermore, instruments are needed so that researchers can compare corresponding child and parent behaviors or compare behaviors across cultures.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/normas , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Inquéritos Nutricionais/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Chile , District of Columbia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autocuidado/psicologia , Traduções
8.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070014

RESUMO

Ageing is associated with a reduction in muscle mass and strength, termed sarcopenia. Dietary protein is important for the maintenance of muscle mass through the promotion of muscle protein synthesis. However, protein is also reported to be a highly satiating nutrient. This raises concerns that protein intake for musculoskeletal health reasons in older adults may exacerbate age-related decreased appetite and may result in reduced energy and nutrient intake. This study aimed to investigate the effect of short-term protein supplementation and its timing (morning vs. evening), on energy and nutrient intake and appetite measures in middle-older age adults. Twenty-four 50-75 year olds were recruited to a randomised cross-over trial. In phase 1 (pre-supplementation) participants completed a food diary and reported hunger and appetite on three alternate days. During the second and third phases, participants consumed a 20 g whey protein gel (78 mL/368 kJ), for four days, either in the morning (after breakfast) or the evening (before bed), whilst completing the same assessments as phase 1. No differences in dietary intakes of energy, macronutrients and micronutrients were recorded when comparing the pre-supplementation phase to the protein supplementation phases, irrespective of timing (excluding the contribution of the protein supplement itself). Similarly, no differences were observed in self-reported feelings of hunger and appetite. In conclusion, a 20 g/day whey protein supplement given outside of meal-times did not alter habitual dietary intakes, hunger or appetite in this middle-older age adult population in the short-term. This approach may be a useful strategy to increasing habitual protein intake in the middle-older age population.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Registros de Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fome/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Refeições , Micronutrientes/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/análise , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070053

RESUMO

In this study, a school nutrition program (SNP) that incorporates nutrition education and a healthy school canteen environment was developed to improve nutrition knowledge among intervention respondents and provide a healthier environment for them to practice healthy eating. In the current study, we evaluated the impacts of the SNP on eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index-for-age (BAZ), and cognitive performance at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up points between intervention and comparison groups. This intervention study involved 523 primary school children (7-11 years old) from six selected schools in Batu Pahat District, Malaysia. Each respondent completed anthropometric and cognitive performance assessments and a set of standardized questionnaire at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up points. Multiple linear mixed model analysis was performed to determine the impacts of that SNP after being adjusted for covariates. After the program, the intervention group increased their frequency of breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption and morning tea snacking and showed more frequent physical activity and better cognitive performance as compared to the comparison group overtime (p < 0.05). At 3-month follow-up, the intervention group showed lower BAZ scores than their comparison counterparts (p < 0.05). The SNP showed positive effects on eating behaviors, physical activity, BAZ, and cognitive performance in school children. Hence, the SNP is highly recommended for all primary school children.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Serviços de Alimentação , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070137

RESUMO

As the most likely primary caregivers, mothers are an integral part of children's social influence and are therefore greatly involved in shaping their children's behaviors. The objectives were to determine the prospective associations between maternal and child diet quality and sedentary behaviors. This study, within the framework of a community-based intervention study, included 1130 children aged 8-10 years and their mothers. The study was carried out during two academic years (2012/2014) with a mean follow-up of 15 months. Exposure and outcome variables were measured at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Diet quality was assessed by the KIDMED questionnaire and the short Diet Quality Screener, respectively. Sedentary behaviors were determined by standardized questions of sedentary behaviors. Maternal consumption of fruits, vegetables, fish, legumes, pasta/rice, dairy products, nuts and baked goods were positively associated (p < 0.05) with the corresponding child behavior. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for sex, age, maternal education and intervention group revealed significant cross-sectional (p < 0.005) and prospective (p < 0.01) associations between maternal and child overall diet quality and sedentary behaviors. Maternal diet quality and sedentary behaviors were predictive for these lifestyle behaviors in children.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Criança , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066985

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to assess orthorectic behaviors among young people and to evaluate their attitudes towards caring for their health. The study was conducted in 2019 on a group of 538 respondents aged 16-35. After analysis, 65 questionnaires were eliminated from further research, and the assessment of orthorectic disorders was performed using a method based on the modified ORTO-15 questionnaire on a group of 473 respondents. A large percentage of them exhibited an increased risk of orthorectic behaviors (32.8), which was higher among women than men (34.7% and 28.2%, respectively). People with higher risks of orthorectic disorders significantly more often reduced their consumption of foods high in fats and sugars. Attitudes of people with orthorectic disorders towards health care proved neutral, with a tendency to be positive. Nutritional behaviors observed in the studied group show some irregularities, which indicates the need for preventive and educational measures aimed at increasing awareness of the role of proper nutrition among young people. The obtained results may be the basis for further research on ON symptoms. One of the major areas of future research would be to create a reliable diagnostic tool which would allow for distinguishing between orthorexia and overdiagnosis.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063795

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the primary barriers to adequately adhering to a structured nutritional intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 106 participants diagnosed with dyslipidemia and without a medical nutrition therapeutic plan were included in this two-year study conducted at the INCMNSZ dyslipidemia clinic in Mexico City. All patients were treated with the same structured strategies, including three face-to-face visits and two telephone follow-up visits. Diet plan adherence was evaluated at each site visit through a 3-day or 24-h food recall. RESULTS: Barriers to adhere to the nutritional intervention were: lack of time to prepare their meals (23%), eating outside the home (19%), unwillingness to change dietary patterns (14%), and lack of information about a correct diet for dyslipidemias (14%). All barriers decreased significantly at the end of the intervention. Female gender, current smoking, and following a plan of more than 1500 kcal (R2 = 0.18 and p-value = 0.004) were associated with good diet adherence. Participants showed good levels of adherence to total caloric intake at visit 2 and 3, reporting 104.7% and 95.4%, respectively. Adherence to macronutrient intake varied from 65.1% to 126%, with difficulties in adhering to recommended carbohydrate and fat consumption being more notable. CONCLUSION: The study findings confirm that a structured nutritional intervention is effective in reducing barriers and improving dietary adherence and metabolic control in patients with dyslipidemias. Health providers must identify barriers to adherence early on to design interventions that reduce these barriers and improve adherence.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Dislipidemias/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Terapia Nutricional/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063799

RESUMO

Few studies have integrated positive parenting and motivational strategies to address dietary outcomes such as frequency of family mealtime. The Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial was a randomized group cohort trial (n = 241 dyads) testing the efficacy of integrating a motivational plus family weight loss (M + FWL) intervention for healthy eating and weight loss in overweight and obese African American adolescents. The current study tested the interaction of parenting styles (responsiveness, demandingness) and parental feeding practices (restriction, concern about child's weight, pressure to eat) and the FIT intervention on frequency of family mealtime over 16 weeks. Multilevel modeling demonstrated significant interactions between the group-based treatment and responsiveness (p = 0.018) and demandingness (p = 0.010) on family mealtime. For the group-based M + FWL intervention, increased responsiveness and reduced demandingness were associated with increased frequency of family mealtime from baseline to 16 weeks. There was also a negative association between parental restriction and frequency of family mealtime, but a positive association between parental concerns about their adolescent's weight and frequency of mealtime. These findings are the first to demonstrate that an authoritative or nurturing parenting style moderated intervention effects for improving the frequency of family mealtime in overweight and obese African American adolescents.


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar/métodos , Refeições/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Análise Multinível , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064220

RESUMO

Young adults are the highest consumers of food prepared outside home (FOH) and gain most weight among Australian adults. One strategy to address the obesogenic food environment is menu labelling legislation whereby outlets with >20 stores in one state and >50 Australia-wide must display energy content in kJ. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of FOH to the energy and macronutrients, saturated fat, total sugars and sodium intakes of young Australians. One thousand and one 18 to 30-year-olds (57% female) residing in Australia's most populous state recorded all foods and beverages consumed and the location of preparation for three consecutive days using a purpose-designed smartphone application. Group means for the daily consumption of energy, percentage energy (%E) for protein, carbohydrate, total sugars, total and saturated fats, and sodium density (mg/1000 kJ) and proportions of nutrients from FOH from menu labelling and independent outlets were compared. Overall, participants consumed 42.4% of their energy intake from FOH with other nutrients ranging from 39.8% (sugars) to 47.3% (sodium). Independent outlets not required to label menus, contributed a greater percentage of energy (23.6%) than menu labelling outlets (18.7%, p < 0.001). Public health policy responses such as public education campaigns, extended menu labelling, more detailed nutrition information and reformulation targets are suggested to facilitate healthier choices.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/métodos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Alimentação/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Masculino , New South Wales , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Restaurantes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065195

RESUMO

The study aim was to test hypotheses informed by self-determination theory (SDT) regarding associations of adolescent motivators for weight loss and family feeding practices on understanding adolescent weight management and dietary behaviors. Adolescents (n = 71) with obesity were recruited from a large medical center in the Midwest USA and completed questionnaire assessments via an online survey. Results supported hypotheses that endorsement of health motivators for weight loss, conceptualized as autonomous (intrinsic) motivation, and positive family support would be associated with healthier weight management practices and dietary behaviors. Nuanced findings related to social- and self-esteem-related motivators for weight loss indicated a need for further understanding of these weight-loss motivators in the context of SDT. The current study findings highlight the importance of addressing motivational factors and family influences in research and practice related to promoting healthy dietary habits and weight management strategies among adolescents with obesity.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Motivação , Manejo da Obesidade , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Perda de Peso
16.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes not only severe illness but also detrimental effects associated with the lockdown measures. The present study aimed to evaluate reported lifestyle changes in a cohort of adults in Italy, including physical exercise, food choices, and psychological wellbeing, after two months of lockdown. METHODS: A web survey on social media (Facebook and LinkedIn) of 32 multiple-choice questions aiming to evaluate the impact of the national COVID-19 lockdown in a sample of Italian adults. RESULTS: We received 1378 complete responses (women 68.3%, mean age 39.5 ± 12.5 years). The percentage of participants reporting regular exercise decreased during lockdown (52 vs. 56.5%). The vast majority of people continued to consume the three traditional meals per day, but the consumption of meat, fish, and eggs significantly decreased. Women reported more frequent anxiety, sadness, fear, and feelings of insecurity than men. The factors predicting the worst outcome during the lockdown were being a woman, low education and income, gastrointestinal diseases. CONCLUSION: The lockdown has had a limited impact on food choices and physical exercise in Italian adults of our series, since most of them made an effort to improve their lifestyle. However, women with gastrointestinal diseases reported more frequent negative feelings and poor adaptation to the lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Gastroenteropatias/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 329-334, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given reports of changes in dietary habits during covid-19 lockdown, our aim was to assess weight changes, over a 3-month Covid-19 national lockdown in a cohort of NAFLD-HIV patients on a dietary intervention trial. METHODS: After NAFLD screening in an outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic, NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to general dietary recommendations (SC group) or to a structured dietary intervention based on the Mediterranean diet (intervention group). During lockdown, follow-up consultations in the intervention group were done by video and/or phone. After 3 months of lockdown, all patients (intervention and SC group) consented to a telephone interview which aimed to characterize eating habits and lifestyle changes and evaluate stress and depression. Biochemical data when available, was compared between the peri-period of confinement. RESULTS: One hundred and twelve patients were screened. From the 55 NAFDL identified, 27 were allocated to dietary intervention and 28 to SC and were followed before lockdown for a mean period of 5.0 ± 1.5 months in which SC group gained a median of 0.65 kg vs. a median loss of 1.5 kg in the intervention group (p < 0.001). During lockdown, 93.3% of patients in the SC group referred that "diet got worse" vs. 6.7% in the intervention group p < 0.01), and 35.3% vs. 15.7% (p = 0.014) reported increase in appetite, respectively. Both groups gained weight, SC group vs. 0.7 ± 1.7 kg in the intervention group, p < 0.001). Higher weight gain was associated with changes in the dietary pattern (3.8 ± 2.1 kg vs. 2.0 ± 1.3 kg in "no change in dietary pattern"; p = 0.002). Glucose blood levels increased after lockdown in the SC group, with a mean increase of 15 mg/dl (p = 0.023). The remaining metabolic parameters remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: The maintenance of dietary intervention, using telemedicine, can mitigate the adverse change in dietary habits and physical activity pattern, preventing a substantial increase in body weight.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal , COVID-19 , Dieta Mediterrânea , Infecções por HIV/dietoterapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/dietoterapia , Distanciamento Físico , Telemedicina , Adulto , Apetite , Glicemia/metabolismo , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
18.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252395, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043739

RESUMO

The confinement and lockdown imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic have produced restrictions in the lifestyle of Italian citizens with variations in their psychological well-being. The aim of the study was to identify changes and relationship with socio-demographic parameters. An online survey was administered to 1383 subjects (1007 females and 307 males) working in the University of Florence, Italy. Three validated questionnaires were used for the survey: the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Med Diet Score and the Psychological General Well-Being Index-A. All the subjects were asked to complete the questionnaires twice, in order to attain a picture of the habits before and a later time point during confinement. Our results show that work-related physical activity was decreased, along with an increase in sedentary behaviour (from 07:22±03:20 to 08:49±03:41 h:min; p<0.001, ES = 0.38), whereas recreational physical activity was increased (vigorous exercise varied from 568.5 ± 838.6 to 833.7 ± 1263.0 METs; p<0.002, ES = 0.25). Eating habits changed according to the place where meals were eaten, with an increased habit for breakfast and snacks and a slight increase in alcohol consumption. Psychological well-being decreased (Index from 21.4±3.9 to 18.0±5.3; p<0.001, ES = 0.723), especially in terms of vitality and positive thinking. The socio-demographic variables affecting these variations were mostly represented by age, gender and working conditions: young age and self-employment conditions can be considered factors for the changes in daily habits induced by confinement that may affect psychological well-being.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias , Quarentena/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Sedentário
19.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 58, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression, stress, and poor-quality sleep are common during pregnancy and postpartum, but the relationship of these factors with reward-related eating is not well understood. This observational cohort study examines associations of depression, stress, and sleep quality with self-reported reward-related eating in pregnancy and postpartum. METHODS: Participants were enrolled at < 12 weeks gestation and followed through 1 year postpartum. Self-reported measures obtained at baseline and 23-31 weeks postpartum included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; reward-related eating measures included the Power of Food Scale (assessing hedonic hunger), modified Yale Food Addiction Scale (assessing addictive-like eating), and frequency and intensity of cravings. Linear and logistic regression models estimated associations of depressive symptoms, stress, and sleep quality with reward-related eating during pregnancy and postpartum, as well as change in each predictor with change in outcome. RESULTS: During pregnancy, greater depressive symptoms (ß ± SE = 0.03 ± 0.01, p < .01), higher stress (0.03 ± 0.01, p < .01), and worse sleep quality (0.03 ± 0.01, p = 0.03) were associated with greater hedonic hunger. Similarly, greater depressive symptoms (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.14, p = .01), higher stress (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14, p = <.01), and worse sleep quality (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.18, p = .04) were associated with greater odds of addictive-like eating. These associations were also significant in postpartum except that sleep quality was not associated with hedonic hunger. Greater depressive symptoms (ß ± SE = 0.06 ± 0.02, p < .01; 0.08 ± 0.02, p = <.01), higher stress (0.04 ± 0.01, p < .01; 0.06 ± 0.02, p < .01), and worse sleep quality (0.11 ± 0.03, p < .01; 0.13 ± 0.03, p < .01) during pregnancy were associated with stronger and more frequent cravings, respectively. Increased depressive symptoms from pregnancy to postpartum was associated with increased hedonic hunger (ß ± SE = 1.17 ± 0.57, p = 0.01) and addictive-like eating (0.88 ± 0.33, p = 0.01), and increased stress was associated with increased hedonic hunger (1.71 ± 0.76, p = 0.02). Change in stress was not associated with change in addictive-like eating and change in sleep quality was not associated with change in either hedonic hunger or addictive-like eating. CONCLUSIONS: Greater depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and poorer sleep quality are associated with greater self-reported reward-related eating during pregnancy and postpartum, suggesting that efforts to improve diet during and after pregnancy may benefit from addressing mental health and sleep. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Registration ID - NCT02217462 . Date of registration - August 13, 2014.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Recompensa , Sono/fisiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
20.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 29(4): 657-662, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A history of an eating disorder (ED) might constitute a risk for symptom deterioration and relapse during COVID-19 pandemic. This longitudinal study investigates ED symptom trajectories until the first COVID-19 lockdown in Spring 2020 in patients with a history of binge eating disorder (BED). METHOD: Participants of the randomised-controlled BED treatment trial IMPULS participated in a re-assessment directly after the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany. We used expert-rated clinical interviews and self-report to investigate binge eating (BE) frequency, ED and general psychopathology, distress, emotion regulation and sense of coherence. Symptom trajectories were analysed for baseline when entering the trial, end of trial participation and the time point directly after lockdown. BE frequency was assessed on a recall basis for 4 weeks directly before lockdown and 4 weeks during lockdown. RESULTS: BE frequency, general ED pathology and depressive symptoms markedly increased after as compared to before the COVID-19 outbreak. Individuals scoring high on reappraisal as emotion regulation strategy and sense of coherence scored lower on general ED pathology. CONCLUSION: Individuals with a history of an ED are at risk for symptom deterioration and relapse during the pandemic. Intervention and service dissemination strategies are needed to support vulnerable groups throughout the pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/terapia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quarentena/psicologia , Recidiva , Medição de Risco
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