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1.
Stress ; 25(1): 276-290, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920240

RESUMO

The underlying mechanisms of trauma-related disorders are challenging to discover and the disorders are difficult to treat, in part due to the complex and varied expressions of response to traumatic stress. These challenges will be easier to overcome as more is understood about the variability in response to trauma. Incorporating assessment of variability into animal models of traumatic stress may allow better translation to clinical research and treatment development. In this study, we characterized variability in behavioral responses following traumatic stress exposure using a predator exposure (PE) animal model. Elevated plus maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (SR) were used to study avoidance and arousal symptoms in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Behavioral data were compared between control (n = 31) and predator-exposed (n = 30) rats. PE behavior was clustered using k-means principal components analysis. Four clusters and three distinct subgroups were identified and were characterized as avoidant (Cluster 4, 30%), moderately avoidant (Clusters 2 and 3, 49%), and unaffected (Cluster 1, 17%). These results demonstrate that rodent responses to PE are varied, similar to human presentations following traumatic stress, suggesting it may be possible to develop treatment strategies for varied symptom presentations using a preclinical animal model.


Assuntos
Reflexo de Sobressalto , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
2.
Cell Rep ; 40(5): 111161, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926455

RESUMO

Gestational exposure to environmental toxins and socioeconomic stressors is epidemiologically linked to neurodevelopmental disorders with strong male bias, such as autism. We model these prenatal risk factors in mice by co-exposing pregnant dams to an environmental pollutant and limited-resource stress, which robustly activates the maternal immune system. Only male offspring display long-lasting behavioral abnormalities and alterations in the activity of brain networks encoding social interactions. Cellularly, prenatal stressors diminish microglial function within the anterior cingulate cortex, a central node of the social coding network, in males during early postnatal development. Precise inhibition of microglial phagocytosis within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of wild-type (WT) mice during the same critical period mimics the impact of prenatal stressors on a male-specific behavior, indicating that environmental stressors alter neural circuit formation in males via impairing microglia function during development.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Microglia , Gravidez
3.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 260(10): 1140, 2022 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943943
4.
Can Vet J ; 63(8): 835-840, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919461

RESUMO

This case study describes a severe tail-biting event on a multi-site swine operation in Ontario and outlines the management strategies implemented in an attempt to control the problem. An established social order was clearly present before the tail-biting event occurred. Over 40% of tail-docked pigs in 3 of 8 grower-finisher barns were severely affected, leading to higher mortality and increased numbers of pigs re-housed in hospital pens. Environmental factors, management practices, and animal health in the barns experiencing the tail-biting event are described, including detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in corn at > 2 ppm. Changes implemented in response to tail-biting included altering the phase-feeding schedule, adding enrichment devices, and increasing surveillance. The subsequent cohort of pigs was followed through the finisher barns and did not engage in the same severity or prevalence of tail-biting as the previous cohort of pigs which experienced the tail-biting event. Key clinical message: No single factor was identified as the initiating cause for the severe tail-biting event. The subsequent cohort of pigs in 4 barns of the same operation were monitored for tail-biting from entry until market, and the incidence of tail-biting was very low.


Un cas de caudophagie dans une exploitation porcine à sites multiples en Ontario. Cette étude de cas décrit un cas grave de caudophagie dans une exploitation porcine à sites multiples en Ontario et décrit les stratégies de gestion mises en oeuvre pour tenter de limiter le problème. Un ordre social établi était clairement présent avant que l'événement de mordillage de queue ne se produise. Plus de 40 % des porcs à la queue coupée dans trois des huit élevages de type croissance-finition ont été gravement touchés, ce qui a entraîné une mortalité plus élevée et un nombre accru de porcs relogés dans des enclos hospitaliers. Les facteurs environnementaux, les pratiques de gestion et la santé animale dans les porcheries où sévissaient la caudophagie sont décrits, y compris la détection de la mycotoxine désoxynivalénol dans le maïs à > 2 ppm. Les changements mis en oeuvre en réponse à la caudophagie comprenaient la modification du calendrier d'alimentation par phases, l'ajout de dispositifs d'enrichissement et l'augmentation de la surveillance. La cohorte suivante de porcs a été suivie dans les porcheries de finition et n'a pas eu la même gravité ou prévalence de caudophagie que la cohorte précédente de porcs qui ont subi l'événement de caudophagie.Message clinique clé :Aucun facteur unique n'a été identifié comme la cause initiale de l'événement grave de caudophagie. La cohorte suivante de porcs dans quatre porcheries de la même exploitation a été surveillée pour la caudophagie depuis l'entrée jusqu'au marché, et l'incidence de la caudophagie était très faible.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas , Doenças dos Suínos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Humanos , Incidência , Ontário , Suínos , Cauda/cirurgia
5.
Behav Pharmacol ; 33(6): 418-426, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947068

RESUMO

The prescription opioid oxycodone is widely used for the treatment of pain in humans. Oxycodone misuse is more common among people with an anxiety disorder than those without one. Therefore, oxycodone might be misused for its anxiolytic properties. We investigated if oxycodone affects anxiety-like behavior in adult male and female rats. The rats were treated with oxycodone (0.178, 0.32, 0.56, or 1 mg/kg), and anxiety-like behavior was investigated in the elevated plus-maze test. Immediately after the elevated plus-maze test, a small open field test was conducted to determine the effects of oxycodone on locomotor activity. In the elevated plus-maze test, oxycodone increased the percentage of time spent on the open arms, the percentage of open arm entries, time on the open arms, open arm entries, and the distance traveled. The males treated with vehicle had a lower percentage of open arm entries than the females treated with vehicle, and oxycodone treatment led to a greater increase in the percentage of open arm entries in the males than females. Furthermore, the females spent more time on the open arms, made more open arm entries, spent less time in the closed arms, and traveled a greater distance than the males. In the small open field test, treatment with oxycodone did not affect locomotor activity or rearing. Sex differences were observed; the females traveled a greater distance and displayed more rearing than the males. In conclusion, oxycodone decreases anxiety-like behavior in rats, and oxycodone has a greater anxiolytic-like effect in males than females.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Teste de Labirinto em Cruz Elevado , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Humanos , Locomoção , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Oxicodona/farmacologia , Ratos
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 324, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945212

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that exhibits neurobehavioral deficits characterized by abnormalities in social interactions, deficits in communication as well as restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. The basal ganglia is one of the brain regions implicated as dysfunctional in ASD. In particular, the defects in corticostriatal function have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of ASD. Surface deformation of the striatum in the brains of patients with ASD and their correlation with behavioral symptoms was reported in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. We demonstrated that prenatal valproic acid (VPA) exposure induced synaptic and molecular changes and decreased neuronal activity in the striatum. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we analyzed transcriptome alterations in striatal tissues from 10-week-old prenatally VPA-exposed BALB/c male mice. Among the upregulated genes, Nurr1 was significantly upregulated in striatal tissues from prenatally VPA-exposed mice. Viral knockdown of Nurr1 by shRNA significantly rescued the reduction in dendritic spine density and the number of mature dendritic spines in the striatum and markedly improved social deficits in prenatally VPA-exposed mice. In addition, treatment with amodiaquine, which is a known ligand for Nurr1, mimicked the social deficits and synaptic abnormalities in saline-exposed mice as observed in prenatally VPA-exposed mice. Furthermore, PatDp+/- mice, a commonly used ASD genetic mouse model, also showed increased levels of Nurr1 in the striatum. Taken together, these results suggest that the increase in Nurr1 expression in the striatum is a mechanism related to the changes in synaptic deficits and behavioral phenotypes of the VPA-induced ASD mouse model.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Comportamento Social , Transcriptoma , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos
7.
Elife ; 112022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792884

RESUMO

Naturalistic animal behavior exhibits a strikingly complex organization in the temporal domain, with variability arising from at least three sources: hierarchical, contextual, and stochastic. What neural mechanisms and computational principles underlie such intricate temporal features? In this review, we provide a critical assessment of the existing behavioral and neurophysiological evidence for these sources of temporal variability in naturalistic behavior. Recent research converges on an emergent mechanistic theory of temporal variability based on attractor neural networks and metastable dynamics, arising via coordinated interactions between mesoscopic neural circuits. We highlight the crucial role played by structural heterogeneities as well as noise from mesoscopic feedback loops in regulating flexible behavior. We assess the shortcomings and missing links in the current theoretical and experimental literature and propose new directions of investigation to fill these gaps.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Redes Neurais de Computação , Animais , Retroalimentação
8.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 173(3): 326-329, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852685

RESUMO

We studied the effects of bioresonance application on mice with depressive-like behavior induced by stress. A chronic mild stress model was developed in mice to monitor the effects of bioresonance application. After that, behavioral tests were performed. In the forced swimming test, the animals of the long bioresonance therapy demonstrated shorter group immobility time in comparison with mice of the stress group and stress group without therapy (animals of this group were sacrificed at the same time point as therapy groups in order to reveal a possibility of spontaneously recover in animals after stress without therapy). In the tail suspension test, a decrease in immobility time was observed in the long bioresonance therapy group, stress group, and stress without therapy group. These changes in behavioral test results can indicate that the application of bioresonance in mice can be an effective method of treating depressive-like behavior, but these conclusions should be supported by additional experimental studies and the use of different frequencies.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos , Depressão , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Animal , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Elevação dos Membros Posteriores , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico , Natação
9.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 129(8): 1061-1076, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842551

RESUMO

Methylphenidate (MPD) is a psychostimulant that is widely prescribed to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, but it is abused recreationally as well. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is part of the motivation circuit implicated in drug-seeking behaviors. The NAc neuronal activity was recorded alongside the behavioral activity from young and adult rats to determine if there are significant differences in the response to MPD. The same dose of MPD elicits behavioral sensitization in some animals and behavioral tolerance in others. In adult animals, higher doses of MPD resulted in a greater ratio of tolerance/sensitization. Animals who responded to chronic MPD with behavioral sensitization usually exhibited further increases in their NAc neuronal firing rates as well. Different upregulations of transcription factors (ΔFOSB/CREB), variable proportions of D1/D2 dopamine receptors, and modulation from other brain areas may predispose certain animals to express behavioral and neuronal sensitization versus tolerance to MPD.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Metilfenidato , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(3): e20210673, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857964

RESUMO

Chronic alcohol consumption affects various neurotransmitters, especially those implicated in the transitioning to alcohol use disorders (particularly dopaminergic and CRFergic systems). Few studies have investigated moderate alcohol consumption and its harmful consequences. The objective of this work was to analyze behavioral and neurochemical (dopaminergic and CRFergic systems) alterations during chronic moderate alcohol consumption. Twelve male Wistar rats were submitted to an intermittent alcohol ingestion protocol (alcohol group) for four weeks. The control group consisted of six rats. Open Field and Elevated Plus Maze tests were used for analysis of motor and anxiety-like behaviors. Immunohistochemistry analysis was performed in dopaminergic and CRFergic systems. Animals exposed to alcohol consumed moderate doses, chronic and intermittently. Behavioral tests detected fewer fecal boli in the alcohol exposed group, and immunohistochemical analysis indicated fewer dopamine-immunoreactive cells in the ventral tegmental area, and more CRF-immunoreactive cells in the anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral septum in this group. Thus we concluded that Wistar rats that consumed moderate doses of alcohol voluntarily and chronically showed a discreet anxiolytic effect in behavior, and a hypodopaminergic and hyperCRFergic neurochemical condition, which together are strong inducers of alcohol consumption predisposing to the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Comportamento Animal , Etanol/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 151(6): 3703, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778194

RESUMO

The active space is a central bioacoustic concept to understand communication networks and animal behavior. Propagation of biological acoustic signals has often been studied in homogeneous environments using an idealized circular active space representation, but few studies have assessed the variations of the active space due to environment heterogeneities and transmitter position. To study these variations for mountain birds like the rock ptarmigan, we developed a sound propagation model based on the parabolic equation method that accounts for the topography, the ground effects, and the meteorological conditions. The comparison of numerical simulations with measurements performed during an experimental campaign in the French Alps confirms the capacity of the model to accurately predict sound levels. We then use this model to show how mountain conditions affect surface and shape of active spaces, with topography being the most significant factor. Our data reveal that singing during display flights is a good strategy to adopt for a transmitter to expand its active space in such an environment. Overall, our study brings new perspectives to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of communication networks.


Assuntos
Aves , Som , Acústica , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Reprodução
12.
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) ; 82(2): 217-225, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35833821

RESUMO

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) sends neural pathways to structures involved on predator­related defensive behaviours, escape and antinociception. The aim of this study was to investigate the role played by µ-opioid receptors located on LH neurons in defensive behaviour and unconditioned fear­induced antinociception elicited by electric stimulation of LH. To achieve the goals, the µ1-opioid receptor selective antagonist naloxonazine was administered at different concentrations in the LH, and the defensive behaviour and fear­induced antinociception elicited by electrical stimulation of LH were evaluated. The electrical stimulation of LH caused escape behaviour followed by defensive antinociception. Microinjections of naloxonazine in a concentration of 5.0 µg/0.2 µL in the LH decreased the aversive stimulus­induced escape behaviour thresholds, but diminished defensive antinociception. These findings suggest that µ-opioid receptors of LH can be critical to panic attack­related symptoms and facilitate the unconditioned fear­induced antinociception produced by LH neurons activation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral , Transtorno de Pânico , Receptores Opioides mu , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bicuculina/farmacologia , Medo/fisiologia , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/efeitos dos fármacos , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/metabolismo , Naloxona/análogos & derivados , Naloxona/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Nociceptividade , Pânico/fisiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/metabolismo , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Opioides mu/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo
13.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 195, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a clinically used antiepileptic drug, but it is associated with a significant risk of a low verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) score, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder in children when it is administered during pregnancy. Prenatal VPA exposure has been reported to affect neurogenesis and neuronal migration and differentiation. In addition, growing evidence has shown that microglia and brain immune cells are activated by VPA treatment. However, the role of VPA-activated microglia remains unclear. METHODS: Pregnant female mice received sodium valproate on E11.5. A microglial activation inhibitor, minocycline or a CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc was dissolved in drinking water and administered to dams from P1 to P21. Measurement of microglial activity, evaluation of neural circuit function and expression analysis were performed on P10. Behavioral tests were performed in the order of open field test, Y-maze test, social affiliation test and marble burying test from the age of 6 weeks. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure of mice to VPA induced microglial activation and neural circuit dysfunction in the CA1 region of the hippocampus during the early postnatal periods and post-developmental defects in working memory and social interaction and repetitive behaviors. Minocycline, a microglial activation inhibitor, clearly suppressed the above effects, suggesting that microglia elicit neural dysfunction and behavioral disorders. Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed that the expression of a chemokine, C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3), was upregulated in the hippocampi of VPA-treated mice. CCL3 expression increased in microglia during the early postnatal periods via an epigenetic mechanism. The CCR5 antagonist maraviroc significantly suppressed neural circuit dysfunction and post-developmental behavioral disorders induced by prenatal VPA exposure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that microglial CCL3 might act during development to contribute to VPA-induced post-developmental behavioral abnormalities. CCR5-targeting compounds such as maraviroc might alleviate behavioral disorders when administered early.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Maraviroc/uso terapêutico , Maraviroc/toxicidade , Camundongos , Minociclina/farmacologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Receptores CCR5/genética , Ácido Valproico/toxicidade
14.
Anim Cogn ; 25(4): 975-990, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35781584

RESUMO

Emotional states of animals influence their cognitive processes as well as their behavior. Assessing emotional states is important for animal welfare science as well as for many fields of neuroscience, behavior science, and biomedicine. This can be done in different ways, e.g. through assessing animals' physiological states or interpreting their behaviors. This paper focuses on the so-called cognitive judgment bias test, which has gained special attention in the last 2 decades and has become a highly important tool for measuring emotional states in non-human animals. However, less attention has been given to the epistemology of the cognitive judgment bias test and to disentangling the relevance of different steps in the underlying cognitive mechanisms. This paper sheds some light on both the epistemology of the methods and the architecture of the underlying cognitive abilities of the tested animals. Based on this reconstruction, we propose a scheme for classifying and assessing different cognitive abilities involved in cognitive judgment bias tests.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Julgamento , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Viés , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia
15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 286, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35851573

RESUMO

Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) have been major targets in medication development for the treatment of substance use disorders. However, clinical trials with rimonabant, a CB1R antagonist/inverse agonist, failed due to severe side effects. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of PIMSR, a neutral CB1R antagonist lacking an inverse agonist profile, against cocaine's behavioral effects in experimental animals. We found that systemic administration of PIMSR dose-dependently inhibited cocaine self-administration under fixed-ratio (FR5), but not FR1, reinforcement, shifted the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve downward, decreased incentive motivation to seek cocaine under progressive-ratio reinforcement, and reduced cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. PIMSR also inhibited oral sucrose self-administration. Importantly, PIMSR alone is neither rewarding nor aversive as assessed by place conditioning. We then used intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) to explore the possible involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system in PIMSR's action. We found that PIMSR dose-dependently attenuated cocaine-enhanced ICSS maintained by electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle in rats. PIMSR itself failed to alter electrical ICSS, but dose-dependently inhibited ICSS maintained by optical stimulation of midbrain dopamine neurons in transgenic DAT-Cre mice, suggesting the involvement of dopamine-dependent mechanisms. Lastly, we examined the CB1R mechanisms underlying PIMSR's action. We found that PIMSR pretreatment attenuated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)- or ACEA (a selective CB1R agonist)-induced reduction in optical ICSS. Together, our findings suggest that the neutral CB1R antagonist PIMSR deserves further research as a promising pharmacotherapeutic for cocaine use disorder.


Assuntos
Cocaína , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cocaína/farmacologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Dopamina , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide , Autoadministração
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 288, 2022 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859084

RESUMO

Maternal immune activation (MIA) is strongly associated with an increased risk of developing mental illness in adulthood, which often co-occurs with alcohol misuse. The current study aimed to begin to determine whether MIA, combined with adolescent alcohol exposure (AE), could be used as a model with which we could study the neurobiological mechanisms behind such co-occurring disorders. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with polyI:C or saline on gestational day 15. Half of the offspring were given continuous access to alcohol during adolescence, leading to four experimental groups: controls, MIA, AE, and Dual (MIA + AE). We then evaluated whether MIA and/or AE alter: (1) alcohol consumption; (2) locomotor behavior; and (3) cortical-striatal-hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) in adult offspring. Dual rats, particularly females, drank significantly more alcohol in adulthood compared to all other groups. MIA led to reduced locomotor behavior in males only. Using machine learning to build predictive models from LFPs, we were able to differentiate Dual rats from control rats and AE rats in both sexes, and Dual rats from MIA rats in females. These data suggest that Dual "hits" (MIA + AE) increases substance use behavior and disrupts activity in reward-related circuits, and that this may be a valuable heuristic model we can use to study the neurobiological underpinnings of co-occurring disorders. Our future work aims to extend these findings to other addictive substances to enhance the translational relevance of this model, as well as determine whether amelioration of these circuit disruptions can reduce substance use behavior.


Assuntos
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipocampo , Humanos , Masculino , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12796, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896574

RESUMO

Honey bees are vital pollinators and can be used to monitor the landscape. Consequently, interest in mounting technologies onto bees to track foraging behaviors is increasing. The barrier to entry is steep, in part because the methodology for fastening tags to bees, and the success rates, are often missing from publications. We tested six factors suspected to influence the presence and tag retention rates of nurse honey bees after their introduction to hives, and followed bees until foraging age. We also compared reintroducing foragers to their maternal colony using the best method for nurse bees to releasing them in front of their maternal hive and allowing them to fly back unaided. Nurses were most likely to be present in the hive with their tag still attached when introduced using an introduction cage at night. Glue type was important, but may further be influenced by tag material. Foragers were most likely to be present with a tag attached if released in front of their colony. Preparation and introduction techniques influence the likelihood of tagged honey bee survival and of the tags remaining attached, which should be considered when executing honey bee tagging and tracking experiments.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Abelhas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Humanos
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12128, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840600

RESUMO

Humans' individual differences including their demographics, personality, attitudes and experiences are often associated with important outcomes for the animals they interact with. This is pertinent to companion animals such as cats and dogs, given their social and emotional importance to humans and degree of integration into human society. However, the mechanistic underpinnings and causal relationships that characterise links between human individual differences and companion animal behaviour and wellbeing are not well understood. In this exploratory investigation, we firstly quantified the underlying structure of, and variation in, human's styles of behaviour during typical human-cat interactions (HCI), focusing on aspects of handling and interaction known to be preferred by cats (i.e. 'best practice'), and their variation. We then explored the potential significance of various human individual differences as predictors of these HCI styles. Seven separate HCI styles were identified via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) from averaged observations for 119 participants, interacting with sociable domestic cats within a rehoming context. Using General Linear Models (GLMs) and an Information Theoretic (IT) approach, we found these HCI PC components were weakly to strongly predicted by factors including cat-ownership history, participant personality (measured via the Big Five Inventory, or BFI), age, work experience with animals and participants' subjective ratings of their cat behaviour knowledge. Paradoxically, greater cat ownership experiences and self-assessed cat knowledge were not positively associated with 'best practice' styles of HCI, but were instead generally predictive of HCI styles known to be less preferred by cats, as was greater participant age and Neuroticism. These findings have important implications regarding the quality of human-companion animal relationships and dyadic compatibility, in addition to the role of educational interventions and their targeting for optimal efficacy. In the context of animal adoption, these results strengthen the (limited) evidence base for decision making associated with cat-adopter screening and matching. In particular, our results suggest that greater cat ownership experiences and self-reports of cat knowledge might not necessarily convey advantages for cats in the context of HCI.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Propriedade , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Gatos , Cães , Emoções , Humanos , Personalidade
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806264

RESUMO

Stress susceptibility could play a role in developing premenstrual anxiety due to abnormalities in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impairments in the GABAA receptors' benzodiazepine (BDZ) site. Hence, we studied the stress-vulnerable Wistar Kyoto rat strain (WKY) to evaluate progesterone withdrawal (PW) effects on anxiety, HPA axis response, and to explore indicators of GABAA functionality in the BDZ site. For five days, ovariectomized WKY rats were administered 2.0 mg/kg of progesterone. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, rats were tested in the anxiety-like burying behavior test (BBT) or elevated plus maze test (EPM), and corticosterone was determined. [3H]Flunitrazepam binding autoradiography served as the BDZ binding site index of the GABAA receptor in amygdala nuclei and hippocampus's dentate gyrus (DG). Finally, different doses of diazepam in PW-WKY rats were tested in the BBT. PW induced anxiety-like behaviors in both BBT and EPM compared with No-PW rats. PW increased corticosterone, but was blunted when combined with PW and BBT. PW increased [3H]Flunitrazepam binding in the DG and central amygdala compared with No-PW rats. Diazepam at a low dose induced an anxiogenic-like response in PW rats, suggesting a paradoxical response to benzodiazepines. Overall, PW induced anxiety-like behavior, a blunted HPA axis response, and higher GABAAR/BZD binding site sensitivity in a stress-vulnerable rat strain. These findings demonstrate the role of stress-susceptibility in GABAAR functionality in a preclinical approximation of PMDD.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Comportamento Animal , Progesterona , Receptores de GABA-A , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Sítios de Ligação , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Diazepam/farmacologia , Feminino , Flunitrazepam/farmacologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/metabolismo
20.
Behav Brain Res ; 433: 113996, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anesthesia and psychotropic drugs in pregnant women may cause long-term effects on the brain development of unborn babies. The authors set out to investigate the neurotoxicity of S-ketamine, which possesses anesthetic and antidepressant effects and may cause attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)- and depression-like behaviors in offspring mice. METHODS: Pregnant mice were administered with low-, medium-, and high-dose S-ketamine (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection for 5 days from gestational day 14-18. At 21 days after birth, an elevated plus-maze test, fear conditioning, open field test, and forced swimming test were used to assess ADHD- and depression-like behaviors. Neuronal amount, glial activation, synaptic function indicated by ki67, and inhibitory presynaptic proteins revealed by GAD2 in the hippocampus, amygdala, habenula nucleus, and lateral hypothalamus (LHA) were determined by immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: All the pregnant mice exposed to high-dose S-ketamine administration had miscarriage after the first injection. Both low-dose and medium-dose S-ketamine administration significantly increased the open-arm time and attenuated frozen time in the fear conditioning, which indicates impulsivity and memory dysfunction-like behaviors. Medium-dose S-ketamine administration reduced locomotor activity in the open field and increased immobility time in the forced swimming test, indicating depression-like behaviors. Changes in astrocytic activation, synaptic dysfunction, and decreased inhibitory presynaptic proteins were found in the hippocampus, amygdala, and habenula nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that S-ketamine may lead to detrimental effects, including ADHD-and depression-like behaviors in offspring mice. More studies should be promoted to determine the neurotoxicity of S-ketamine in the developing brain.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Ketamina , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Ketamina/toxicidade , Camundongos , Gravidez , Natação
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